Bibliography research is significant for scientific progress since they are mirroring the previous accumulation of the studies in one piece. Although rhetoric (balaqat) and literary criticism (naqd) are important elements of Arab literature, no bibliography research has been conducted about balaqat and naqd in the Turkish language. This study aims to investigate rhetorical and literary criticism studies in the Arab world by looking at a large number of scientific works. There are uncountable studies including balaqat and naqd; therefore, this study analyzes only some part of the existing literature involving the formation of these two terms. Following steps illustrate the methodological process: first, electronic libraries were searched; second, the bibliography studies on rhetoric and literacy criticism terms were examined comparatively based on their formation; and third, a total of 213 studies related to balaqat and naqd terms including 10 books, 10 Ph.D. theses, 33 master's thesis, 17 symposium papers and 143 articles were included. The selected studies were examined in five categories as doctoral theses, master's theses, symposium papers and articles that can be also separated into two categories regarding the subject of the manuscripts as periodical/historical studies and the studies including the rhetoricians' perspectives on this topic. This study also provides background information about the theses and articles such as author, supervisor, country, and journal names. The results show that the majority of the studies are conducted in North Africa countries (Maghreb) and Jordan. It is also be found that the studies on the formation of rhetoric and literary criticism date back to the early 1970s.
The bibliography is the study that specifies the names, publication years, page numbers and publication places for books, articles, or other scientific studies previously written in a specific field. In other words, it is the compilation of works that gathers together the imprint information of the studies carried out in certain fields of discipline. Such works generally aim to systematically transfer existing scientific knowledge to the next generations. Rhetoric (Balaqat) is a discipline that includes literary principles and literary arts such as maānī, bayān and bādi. As for literary criticism or naqd; it is the discipline that deals with the examination and analysis of a work of art or a work of literature according to specified criteria.
This study focuses on the studies written about the formation of rhetoric and literary criticism terms because it is possible to explain the historical development of discipline only by revealing its literature and terminology development. This study also presents the stages through which terms of rhetoric gained their current forms, and from which social environment and philosophy the concepts benefited during their formation. This study sheds light on issues such as the abundance of rhetoric terms, the problem of meaning and indication and the problem of naming. Although certain qualitative studies on rhetoric and literary criticism have been done in Arab countries, the studies in our country are quite limited. Moreover, there aren’t any studies done on bibliography in the Arab countries, which presents the literature in this field. The materials about the formation of rhetoric and literary criticism terms are discussed in five categories; namely, books, doctoral and master's theses, symposium papers and articles. In this study; 213 studies are given a place in total, including 10 books, 10 doctoral theses, 33 master’s theses, 17 symposium papers and 143 articles related to the terms of rhetoric and literary criticism. Also, information is given about who the advisor of an academic thesis is. The volume and issue numbers and information about the year of the journals in which the articles were published are also presented. The study has been prepared alphabetically to provide easy access to researchers.
In our study, we first
discussed the separate books written in this field. The separate books were written
on the formation of terms of rhetoric and literary criticism covering topics
such as the structures of rhetoric terms until the Hijri third century, the theory
and the practice dimension, and the scholars’ rhetoric understanding. It is
seen that these separate works, which are mostly voluminous, discuss the
subjects in detail. Some separate works were formed by means of compiling or
expanding articles or theses. In this study, secondly, doctoral theses are
given place. Doctoral studies address the rhetoric terms mostly in age or
person. In this context, it is possible to mention scholars such as Ibn Sinân al-Hafâcî and Abd
el-Kâhir al-Curcani. In the third category, we examined the master's
theses. We can say that master's studies we have reached, which are more than
thirty, are more diverse than doctoral theses in terms of subject. The
rhetoricians and their understanding of terms are separately discussed. In
these studies, a scholar’s term method is discussed in detail rather than how a
term has been formed historically. As for periodical studies, they tried to
make a general evaluation about which characteristic features the terms have
had, and in which periods. In this direction, some classifications have been
made. In almost all works, it was emphasized that rhetoric did not have a
homogeneous structure in its early periods. Likewise, how other sciences apart
from rhetoric contributed to the development of rhetoric terms is another
subject discussed in the studies. In the fourth group, we discussed the
symposium papers. It is seen that these papers are generally presented in
symposiums with specific themes related to rhetoric, literary criticism and
literature. In the fifth and the last category, we have discussed articles
written within the field. This section is the one that provides a lot more
literature than others on the formation of terms for rhetoric and literary
criticism. A great deal of variety is observed in terms of the issues addressed
in these articles. In the articles, the emergence of some rhetoric terms is
separately discussed. Furthermore, issues such as the reasons for the abundance
of rhetoric terms, the indication problem of the terms, the factors and
processes that affect the formation of the term, and the variation experienced
in the understandings of terms were also touched upon.
It is seen that the vast majority of the studies were written in Maghreb countries and Jordan. Each category has been evaluated within itself and their remarkable characteristics have been conveyed. Studies related to rhetoric arts, which are not directly related to the formation of terms, are not included in this study. However, if the historical process of that branch of art is mentioned when dealing with art, it is included in the bibliography study. Arabic, English and Turkish literature have been reviewed, studies in Arab countries being in the first place. Firstly, the works were electronically scanned, the content compatibility of the works reached was checked, and then the bibliographies of the works were comparatively examined. In this research, it has been tried to put forward that some studies in the same field are not aware of the previous studies or ignore them. It is possible to take back the studies on the terms of rhetoric and literary criticism until the early 1970s. Our research aims to provide systematic literature information to researchers who will study rhetoric terms. The research has been completed with the findings-evaluation chapter, where a general evaluation on the study was made, and the bibliography.
Bibliyografya çalışmaları, bilimsel alanlardaki daha önce var olan birikimi yansıtması bakımından oldukça önemlidir. Ülkemizde belâgat ve nakd terimleri alanında yapılmış çalışmalara toplu olarak erişebileceğimiz bibliyografi araştırması bulunmamaktadır. Biz bu çalışmamızda özellikle Arap dünyasında yapılmış olan belâgat terminoloji çalışmalarının doğru bir şekilde aktarılmasını hedeflemekteyiz. Çok fazla yekün oluşturduğu için belâgat çalışmalarının tamamına yer verilmemiş, sadece belâgat ve edebî tenkit terimlerinin teşekkülüne dair eserlere yer verilmiştir. Yöntem olarak; öncelikle elektronik kütüphaneler taranmış, ardından belağat terimleri ile ilgili yapılan temel çalışmaların kaynakçaları mukayeseli olarak incelenmiştir. Bibliyografya çalışmamızda Belâgat terimleri ile ilgili 10 kitap, 10 adet doktora tezi, 33 adet yüksek lisans tezi, 17 adet sempozyum tebliği ve 143 adet makale olmak üzere toplam 213 çalışmaya yer verilmiştir. Ulaşılan çalışmalar; doktora tezleri, yüksek lisans tezleri, sempozyum tebliğleri ve makaleler olmak üzere beş kategoride incelenmiştir. Çalışmaları; konu bakımından genel olarak, dönemsel / tarihî çalışmalar ve belâgatçıların terim anlayışlarını ele alan çalışmalar şeklinde tasnif etmemiz mümkündür. Tez çalışmalarının; kim tarafından, nerede, hangi hocanın danışmanlığında, kaç sayfa yapıldığı bilgisine bibliyografyada yer verilmiştir. Ayrıca makalelerin de hangi dergide, nerede, kaç yılında, hangi sayfa aralığında yayınladığına dair bilgilere yer verilmiştir. Ulaşılan çalışmalarının büyük çoğunluğunun Mağrib ülkeleri ve Ürdün’de hazırlandığı görülmektedir. Belâgat ve edebî tenkit terimlerinin teşekkülüne dair yapılan çalışmaların 1970’lerin başlarına kadar uzandığını söyleyebiliriz.
Publication Date : June 30, 2020
|ISNAD||Güceyüz, İsa . "Belâgat ve Edebî Tenkit Terimlerinin Teşekkülü Üzerine Bir Bibliyografya Denemesi I". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 19 / 1 (June 2020): 477-508 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.685217|