İslam düşüncesinin tarihi serüveninde çok sayıda fikir akımı boy göstermiş, bunların birçoğu zamanla ortadan kaybolmuştur. Bir zihniyet ve düşünüş biçimi olarak Selefîlik, tarihi süreçte İslam düşüncesini en çok etkileyen ve etkisi halen devam eden önemli bir ekoldür. Tarihin belirli bir döneminin ve o dönemde üretilen her türlü bilginin kutsallaştırılarak dinî düşüncede her türlü yeniliğin ve kişisel görüşün bid‘at, hurafe gibi isimler altında sapkın görüldüğü bir zihniyet olarak Selefî düşünce, belirli bir mezhep ya da ekole has değil, her mezhep ve fikir akımında görülebilecek dinî-siyasî ideolojik bir olgudur. Her ne kadar yalnızca Sünnî mezheplere has bir olgu olarak görülüyor olsa da her mezhebin Selefî düşünceyi benimseyen mensuplarının olduğundan bahsedilebilir. Bu zihniyetin Ehl-i Sünnet çevrelerindeki oluşumu, tarihi süreci ve günümüzdeki tezahürleri hakkında hâlihazırda çok sayıda çalışma yapılmıştır. Şemsiye bir kavram olarak Selefî zihniyet, yalnız Ehl-i Sünnet’i değil, Şiî düşünceyi de derinden etkilemiştir. Şiî düşüncede ilk asırlardan itibaren ulemânın dinî alanda otorite kurduğu bilinmektedir. Modern dönemlerle birlikte İslam dünyasının genelinde ihya ve ıslah hareketlerinin ortaya çıkması, şüphesiz Şiîlik üzerinde de tesir bırakmıştır. İhya hareketleriyle birlikte de anılan Selefîliğin Şiî düşünce üzerindeki etkisi henüz çalışmalara konu olmamıştır. Çalışmamız, şahıslar üzerinde derinleşme prensibiyle, Selefîliğin modern dönemde Şiîlikteki tezahürlerine değinerek bu ekolün İran’da tesir bıraktığı ilk temsilcisi sayılabilecek olan Şerîat Senglecî’nin fikirlerine yoğunlaşmaktadır.
In the historical adventure of Islamic thought, a large number of ideas flowed, many of them disappeared in the process of time. Salafism, as a mentality and way of thinking, is an important school that influences the thought of Islam the most in the historical process and still continues to be influenced. Salafi thought, as a mentality in which a certain period of history and any information produced in that period is sanctified and all kinds of innovations and personal opinions in religious thought are perverted under names such as bid'at, superstition, not in any particular sect or school, but in every current and intellectual movement. It is a religious-political ideological phenomenon that can be seen. Although it can only be seen as a phenomenon specific to Sunni sects, it can be said that each sect has members who adopt Salafi thought. Many studies have been done about the formation, historical process and present manifestations of this mentality in Ahl al-Sunnah circles. As an umbrella concept, the Salafist mentality has deeply influenced not only Ahl al-Sunnah but also Shiite thought. It is known that the ulama has established authority in the religious field since the first centuries in Shiite thought. The emergence of benevolence and improvement movements throughout this Islamic world with modern times undoubtedly had an impact on Shiism. The effect of Salafism, which is mentioned with the revivalist movements on Shia thought, has not been subject to sufficient study yet. In accordance with the principle of deepening on individuals, our study focuses on the ideas of Shariat Sanglajî, who can be considered as the first representative of this school in Iran, by mentioning the manifestations of Salafism in Shiite in the modern period.
A large number of ideas emerged in the historical process of Islamic thought. One of these schools is Salafism, which has a traditional religious discourse. The basic views of this school, which is formed around a large number of ideas, are based on the acceptance of all views on religion and all areas of life, especially the attributes of Allah, as in parallel with the narrations coming from the Qur'an and Rasulullah. In this context, religion has been imprisoned in the consciousness of a static environment in a certain period by denying all human actions such as interpretation, modification, rectification, judgment, and evaluation produced by man. The Salafist way of thinking has manifested in many ways in history until today. Numerous classification attempts have been made regarding Salafism, which differed structurally in the modern period. However, in our opinion, efforts to see the Salafism as identical to a certain school in a certain period of history, especially with the people of Ahl al-Hadith, and by emphasizing its various aspects, are not a proper approach. These classification efforts make it difficult for us to see the Salafism by isolating the original mind from its background, thus focusing on the ground that gave rise to this mentality.
As a fact, Salafism is a modern religious-political ideology that tries to shape the world with a political, social, religious, economic and tribal spirit, and adopts an apparent mindset. Although it was shaped in the Arab geography and tried to be transformed into a nationalist structure in the Sunni circles under the roof of Hanbalism and Wahabism, Salafism is a structure that transcends sects and geographies. Therefore, it is possible to be represented by different sections in every country and in all denominations.
The Shiite thought was also influenced by the Salafist mentality, which is represented in many tones in different tones. The Salafist mentality within the Shiite body should be seen as a manifestation of a modern ideology under the concepts of improvement and revival. In this context, it is possible to see the deep traces of the Salafist mentality in any kind of breeding thoughts that emerged in Shiite in parallel with the search for innovation in religion in the last century. In a sense, the call to return to the first generation brought by the Salafist mentality serves as a pivot in the criticisms of the ulama segment that has long monopolized religious thought. In this context, the emphasis on the first generation in the reform efforts that emerged in the Shiite body in the modern period also represents an anti-ulama movement.
It is known that the revivalist movements have been brought to the agenda in the context of modernizing Shiite thought for more than a hundred years in Iran. In the late 19th century, the search for innovation in the religious field that started with Shaikh Hâdî Najmâbâdî (d. 1902), who was first influenced by the Jamal al-Din al-Afghani school, continued with Shariat Sanglaji and Ahmad Kasravî (d. 1946) continued. However, despite the many criticisms directed to him, Sanglaji never broke from the Shiite tradition he was a member of and he made efforts for the benevolence of Shiite and Islam until the end of his life. This feature made him in a different position among the needs of his era and beyond. Our study aims to make evaluations based on his own works and his thoughts about his life and thoughts after a general perspective about the period in which Shariat Sanglaji lived.
The most important thing he focuses on is the understanding of Tawhid and the Qur'an. Sanglaji, in his work Tawhîd-i Ibâdat, which contains the obvious effects of the Wahhabi branch of Salafî thought, is considered as sacred by the Shiites and has an important place in the eyes of the people, excesses in the graves, wearing rings, etc. He discussed various issues and claimed that these thoughts had nothing to do with the practices of the Qur'an and Sunnah and then the imams. In his work titled Kilîd-i Fehm-i Kur'an, he adopted a method that prioritized the Salafist in terms of understanding the Qur'an and adopted that there would not be any place in religion in the next centuries.
When Sanglaji's thoughts are considered as a whole, it can be seen that contrary to his claim, he cannot be regarded as a reformer like Muhammad Abduh. It is seen that the Sanglaji's perception of work-centered religion that closes the doors to all kinds of new ideas with the Salafist discourse that Abduh accepted as an example in order to say a word to the perception of the modern world. It is seen that the criticisms he expressed focused on rejecting some practices represented by tradition rather than the problems of his century waiting for a solution. In this respect, it is understood that his main target was the ulama, which increased his authority in the historical process and became the dominant power in the religious field. For this reason, he wanted to give the place of charisma loaded to people in the religious field with both his works and his talks. With this discourse, it is possible to state that he acted in accordance with the main goals of Salafist thought.
Publication Date : June 30, 2020
|ISNAD||Demi̇r, Habip . "Çağdaş Şiî Islah Düşüncesinde Selefî Etkiler: Şerîat Senglecî Örneği". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 19 / 1 (June 2020): 245-278 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.689029|