Year 2019, Volume , Issue , Pages 0 - 0 2019-03-15

Are General Intelligence and Implicit Memory Related?: The Effect of Age
Zekâ, Örtük Bellek Performansıyla İlişkili midir?: Yaşın Etkisi

Hande Kaynak [1]


This study investigated the relationship between general intelligence, age, implicit and explicit memory performance. Data have been collected from 95 volunteers (49 young-46 older adults). General intelligence was measured by the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) test. Participants’ memory performance was measured by the word stem completion (WSC) task, in which the participants were presented with first three letters of a word and asked to complete this stem with the first word that comes to their mind. Although the same WSC task was used to measure implicit and explicit memory performance separately, the different instructions were used to deduce the different memory types. According to the results of factorial ANOVA, the main effect of age on general intelligence score was found to be statistically significant. After running further analyses by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, results indicated that RSPM test total correct scores had a tendency to decrease with increasing age and RSPM test completion time had a tendency to increase with aging. Results also showed that implicit WSC task scores and RSPM test total correct scores were positively correlated. Similarly, explicit WSC task scores and RSPM test total correct scores were positively correlated, too. However, RSPM test completion time did not differ depending on implicit and explicit memory performances which were measured by WSC task. The present study indicated the relation between implicit WSC task and general intelligence. Within this context, this study is important to draw attention to the contribution of implicit memory measurement which is in the shadow of traditional explicit memory measurements to general intelligence, especially in older population. 

Bu araştırmada, genel zekâ, yaş ve örtük ve açık bellek performansı arasındaki ilişki incelenmektir. Araştırmanın verileri 49 genç, 46 yaşlı olmak üzere toplam 95 gönüllü yetişkinden toplanmıştır. Genel zekâ puanı, Raven Standart Progresif Matrisler (RSPM) testi kullanılarak ölçülmüştür. Katılımcıların bellek performansını ölçmek için, kelime kökü tamamlama (KKT) görevi kullanılmıştır. Bu görevde, katılımcılardan kendilerine ilk üç harfi sunulan kelime köklerini akıllarına gelen ilk kelimeye tamamlamaları istenmiştir. Örtük ve açık bellek performansını ayrı ayrı ölçmek için aynı KKT görevi kullanılmış, ancak bu görev farklı yönergeler altında uygulanmıştır. Faktöriyel varyans analizi (ANOVA) bulgularına göre, yaşın genel zekâ puanları üzerindeki temel etkisi istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bulunmuştur. Pearson momentler çarpımı korelasyon hesaplamaları sonucunda, ilerleyen yaşla birlikte RSPM testinden alınan toplam doğru puanın azaldığı, testi tamamlama süresininse arttığı görülmüştür. Örtük KKT puanları ile RSPM testi toplam doğru puanları arasındaki ilişki ve açık KKT puanları ile RSPM testi toplam doğru puanları arasındaki ilişki de istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bulunmuş, aralarındaki işilkilerin pozitif olduğu kaydedilmiştir. Buna karşın, örtük KKT puanı ile RSPM testi tamamlama süresi ve açık KKT puanı ile RSPM testi tamamlama süresi arasındaki ilişki istatistiksel olarak anlamlı değildir. Mevcut çalışma bulguları, örtük KKT ölçümünün genel zekâyla olan güçlü ilişkisini göstermektedir. Çalışma, bu kapsamda, özellikle yaşlı nüfusta, geleneksel açık bellek ölçümlerinin gölgesinde kalan örtük bellek ölçümünün genel zekâya olan katkısına dikkat çekmesi açısından önemlidir.

  • Ackerman, P. L., Beier, M. E., and Boyle, M. O. (2005). Working memory and intelligence: The same or different constructs? Psychological Bulletin, 131(4), 567 – 589.
  • Anooshian, L. J. (1999). Understanding age differences in memory: Disentangling conscious and unconscious processes. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23 (1); 1–18.
  • Baltes, P. B. (1993). The aging mind: Potentials and limits. The Gerontologist, 33 (5); 580-594.
  • Baltes, P. B. and Baltes, M. M. (1983). Plasticity and variability in psychological aging: Methodological and theoretical issues. In: Gurski G (Ed) Determining the Effects of Aging on the Central Nervous System. Berlin: Schering, pp. 41-60.
  • Beck, A. T. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archieves of General Psychology, 4; 561-571.
  • Chiarello, C. and Hoyer, W. J. (1988). Adults age differences in implicit and explicit memory: Time course and encoding effects. Psychology and Aging, 3; 358-366.
  • Christensen, H. and Birrell, P. (1991). Explicit memory and implicit memory in dementia and normal ageing. Psychological Research, 53; 149–161.
  • Colom, R., Abad, F., Rebollo, I., and Chun Shih, P. (2005). Memory span and general intelligence: A latent-variable approach. Intelligence, 33, 623 – 642.
  • Craik, F. I. M. (1987). Age differences in recall and recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 13; 474 -479.
  • Duncan, J., Schramm, M., Thompson, R. and Dumontheil, I. (2012). Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19 (5), 864-870.
  • Engle, R. W., Tuholski, S. W., Laughlin, J. E., and Conway, A. R. A. (1999). Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: A latent-variable approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 309–331.
  • Ertan, T. and Eker, E. (2000). Reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Geriatric Depression Scale in Turkish elderly: Are there different factor structures for different cultures. International Psychogeriatrics, 12 (2); 163–172.
  • Folstein, M., Folstein, S. and McHugh, P. (1975). Mini-mental state: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients from clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12; 189–198.
  • Fukuda, K., Vogel, E., Mayr, U. and Awh, E. (2010). Quantity, not quality: The relationship between fluid intelligence and working memory capacity. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 673–679.
  • Gımzal, A. and Yazgan, Ç. (2004). Hafif bilişsel bozulma. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 15 (4); 309-316.
  • Gilhooly, K. (2005). The ‘use it or lose it’ hyphotesis: Activity patterns and cognitive functioning. I. Uluslararası Gerontoloji Sempozyumu Bildiri Kitabı. Antalya: Gero-Yay.
  • Graf, P. and Schacter, D. L. (1985). Implicit and explicit memory for new associations in normal and amnesic subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11; 501–18.
  • Güngen, C., Ertan T., Eker E., Yaşar R. and Engin F. (2002). Standardize mini mental testin Türk toplumunda hafif demans tanısında geçerlik ve güvenilirliği. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13(4); 273–281.
  • Hayslip, B. and Panek, P. E. (2002). Adult Development and Aging (3rd ed.). Melbourne, Fl: Krieger.
  • Hisli, N. (1988). Beck Depresyon Envanteri’nin geçerliği üzerine bir çalışma. Psikoloji Dergisi, 6 (22); 118 -122.
  • Horn, J. L. and Cattell, R. B. (1967). Age differences in fluid and crystallized intelligence. Acta Psychologia Scandinavica, 26; 107-129.
  • Hoyer, W. J. and Roodin, P. A. (2003). Adult development and aging. (5th ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill.
  • Hultsch, D. F. (1969). Adult age differences in the organization of free recall. Developmental Psychology, 1; 673-678.
  • Jelicic, M., Craik, F. I. M. and Moscovitch, M. (1996). Effects of aging on different explicit and implicit memory tasks. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 8(3); 225-234.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1987). Psychometric g as a focus of concerted research effort. Intelligence, 2; 193-198.
  • Karakaş, S., Eski, R., Öktem-Tanör, Ö., Bekçi, B., Irak, M. and Kafadar, H. (2004). Raven Standart Progresif Matrisler Testi. Bilnot Bataryası El Kitabı: Nöropsikolojik Testler için Araştırma ve Geliştirme Çalışmaları. Ankara: Dizayn Ofset.
  • Kaynak, H. and Cangöz, B. (2010). Anlık ve gecikmeli örtük bellek performansı yaşlanmadan etkilenir mi? Türk Geriatri Dergisi, 13 (1); 26–35.
  • Komatsu, S., Naito, M. and Fuke, T. (1996). Age related and intelligence related differences in implicit memory: Effects of generation on word fragment completion test. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 62 (2); 151-172.
  • La Rue, A. (1995). Normal aging: Psychological aspects. In I. Kaplan, B. Sadock (Eds.). Comprehensive Text Book of Psychiatry. (6th ed.) Vol.2, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins.
  • Lezak, M. D. (1995). Neuropsychological Assessment (3rd ed.) New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Light, L. L. (1991). Memory and aging: Four hypothesis in search of data. Annual Review Psychology, 42; 333-376.
  • Light, L. L., Prull, M. W., La Voie, D. J. and Healy, M. R. (2000). Dual-process theories of memory in old age. In T. J. Perfect & E. A. Maylor (Eds.). Models of cognitive aging: Debates in Psychology. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Light, L. L. and Singh, A. (1987). Implicit and explicit memory in young and older adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13 (4); 531-541.
  • Maki, P. M., Zonderman, A. B. and Weingartner, H. (1999). Age differences in implicit memory: Fragmented object identification and category exemplar generation. Psychological Aging, 14 (2); 284–294.
  • Meyer, B. J. F. and Rice, G. E. (1983). Learning and memory from text across the adult life span. In J. Fine & R. O. Freedle (Eds.), Developmental Studies in Discourse (pp. 291-306). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
  • O’Hanlon, L.,Wilcox, K. A. and Kemper, S. (2001). Age differences in implicit and explicit associative memory: Exploring elaborative processing effects. Experimental Aging Research, 27; 341-359.
  • Papalia, D. E. , Sterns, H. L., Feldman, R. D. and Camp, C. J. (2002). Adult development and aging. (2nd ed). Boston: McGraw Hill.
  • Pfeffer, R.I., Kurosaki, T.T., Harrah, C.H., Chance, J.M. and Filos, S. (1982). Measurement of activities of older adults in community. Journal of Gerontology, 37(3); 323–329.
  • Raven, J. C. , Court, J. H. and Raven J. (1992). Manual for Raven’s Standart Progressive Matrices. Oxford: Oxford Psychologists Press.
  • Russo, R. and Parkin, A. J. (1993). Age differences in implicit memory: More apparent than real. Memory and Cognition, 21 (1); 73-80.
  • Salthouse, T. A. (1982). Adult cognition: An experimental psychology of human ageing. New York: Springer.
  • Schacter, D. L. (1987). Implicit memory: History and current status. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory, and Cognition, 13 (3); 501-518.Schacter, D. L. (1992). Understanding implicit memory. American Psychologist, 47 (4); 559–569.
  • Scheikh, J. I. and Yesavage, J. A. (1986). Geriatric depression scale (GDS): Recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clinical Gerontology, 5; 165–173.
  • Schott, B. H., Henson, R. N., Richardson-Klavehn, A., Becker, C., Thoma, V., Hans-Jochen, H. and Düzel, E. (2005). Redefining implicit and explicit memory: The functional neuroanatomy of priming, remembering, and control of retrieval. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102; 1257-1262.
  • Selekler, K., Cangöz, B. and Karakoç, E. (2004). İşlevsel Faaliyetler Anketi’nin 50 yaş ve üzeri grupta Türk kültürü için uyarlama ve norm belirleme çalışması. Türk Nöroloji Dergisi, 10 (2); 102–107.
  • Şahin, N. H. and Şahin, N. (1992). Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49 (6); 751-763.
  • T.C. Başbakanlık Devlet İstatistik Enstitüsü (2003). 2000 Genel nüfus sayımı: Nüfusun sosyal ve ekonomik nitelikleri. Ankara: Devlet İstatistik Enstitüsü.
  • Tekcan, A. İ. and Göz, İ. (2005). Türkçe Kelime Normları: 600 Türkçe kelimenin imgelem, somutluk, sıklık değerleri ve çağrışım setleri. İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Matbaası.
  • Türk Dil Kurumu. (1983). Türkçe Sözlük. Cilt 1–2. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basım Evi.
  • Wachs, T. D. (1969). Free-recall learning in children as a function of chronological age, intelligence, and motivational orientation. Child Development, 40; 577-589.
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Hande Kaynak (Primary Author)
Institution: ÇANKAYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN-EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : March 15, 2019

Bibtex @research article { huefd432278, journal = {Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1301-5737}, eissn = {2630-5976}, address = {Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dekanlığı 06800 Beytepe / Ankara}, publisher = {Hacettepe University}, year = {2019}, volume = {}, pages = {0 - 0}, doi = {10.32600/huefd.432278}, title = {Are General Intelligence and Implicit Memory Related?: The Effect of Age}, key = {cite}, author = {Kaynak, Hande} }
APA Kaynak, H . (2019). Are General Intelligence and Implicit Memory Related?: The Effect of Age. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi , () , 0-0 . DOI: 10.32600/huefd.432278
MLA Kaynak, H . "Are General Intelligence and Implicit Memory Related?: The Effect of Age". Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi (2019 ): 0-0 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/huefd/issue/39315/432278>
Chicago Kaynak, H . "Are General Intelligence and Implicit Memory Related?: The Effect of Age". Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi (2019 ): 0-0
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Are General Intelligence and Implicit Memory Related?: The Effect of Age AU - Hande Kaynak Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.32600/huefd.432278 DO - 10.32600/huefd.432278 T2 - Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 0 EP - 0 VL - IS - SN - 1301-5737-2630-5976 M3 - doi: 10.32600/huefd.432278 UR - https://doi.org/10.32600/huefd.432278 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi Are General Intelligence and Implicit Memory Related?: The Effect of Age %A Hande Kaynak %T Are General Intelligence and Implicit Memory Related?: The Effect of Age %D 2019 %J Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1301-5737-2630-5976 %V %N %R doi: 10.32600/huefd.432278 %U 10.32600/huefd.432278
ISNAD Kaynak, Hande . "Are General Intelligence and Implicit Memory Related?: The Effect of Age". Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi / (March 2019): 0-0 . https://doi.org/10.32600/huefd.432278
AMA Kaynak H . Are General Intelligence and Implicit Memory Related?: The Effect of Age. HU EFD. 2019; 0-0.
Vancouver Kaynak H . Are General Intelligence and Implicit Memory Related?: The Effect of Age. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi. 2019; 0-0.