Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

Art Education and Expertise An Eye Tracking Study

Year 2021, Volume 38, Issue 1, 259 - 271, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.32600/huefd.780593

Abstract

The impact of education and expertise in art on the process of examining a work of art has been studied in the present study via eye tracking method. The main purpose of the study was to compare a group of experts and non-experts in art with regard to eye tracking measurements, artwork analyses and recall performance. In this research, expert and non-expert groups were compared in terms of eye tracking measurements, heat maps, artwork analysis and the recall performances. Heat maps were demonstrated that experts viewed Early Renaissance and Fauvism movements, artworks more while non-experts viewed Fauvist artworks more in comparison with AOIs. However, it was indicated that there is no statistically significant difference between the expert and non-expert groups for each artwork about eye metrics and recall performance during art-work analysis. On the other hand, artwork analysis grades of the experts were deter-mined to be higher at a statistically significant level in comparison with the non-experts.

References

  • Arnheim, R. (2007). Visual thinking. (2nd ed). 35th Anniversary Printing: University of California Press.
  • Brinkmann, H., Commare, L., Leder, H., & Rosenberg, R. (2014). Abstract art as a universal language?. Leonardo, 47(3), 256-257. doi: 10.1162/LEON_a_00767
  • Birch, J. & McKeever, L. M. (1991). Survey of the accuracay of new pseudoisochromatic plates. Ophtalmic and Physiological Optics, 13, 35-40. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-1313.1993.tb00423.x
  • Borji, A., & Itti, L. (2014). Defending Yarbus: Eye movements reveal observers' task. Journal of Vision, 14(3), 29-29. doi: 10.1167/14.3.29
  • Cartwright-Finch, U. & Lavie, N. (2007). The role of perceptual load in inattentional blindness. Cognition, 102, 321-340. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2006.01.002.
  • Cohen, J. (1998). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Einhäuser, W., Spain, M., & Perona, P. (2008). Objects predict fixations better than early saliency. Journal of Vision, 8(14), 18-18. doi: 10.1167/8.14.18
  • Ericsson, K. A. (2014). Expertise. Current 0Biology, 24(11), 508-510. doi: 10.1016 /j.cub.2014.04.013
  • Francuz, P., Zaniewski, I., Augustynowicz, P., Kopiś, N., & Jankowski, T. (2018). Eye movement correlates of expertise in visual arts. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, Article 87. doi: 10.3389/ fnhum. 2018.00087
  • George, D., & Mallery, M. (2010). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference, 17.0 update (10th ed.) Boston: Pearson.
  • Gombrich, E. H.. (1992). Art and illusion (11st ed.). New York: Princeton University Press.
  • Johnson, M. G., Muday, J. A., & Schirillo, J. A. (2010). When viewing variations in paintings by Mondrian, aesthetic preferences correlate with pupil size. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 4(3), 161-167. doi: 10.1037/a0018155
  • Kesner, L., Grygarová, D., Fajnerová, I., Lukavský, J., Nekovářová, T., Tintěra, J., ... & Horáček, J. (2018). Perception of direct vs. averted gaze in portrait paintings: An fMRI and eye-tracking study. Brain and Cognition, 125, 88-99. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.06.004
  • Kuchinke, L., Trapp, S., Jacobs, A. M., & Leder, H. (2009). Pupillary responses in art appreciation: Effects of aesthetic emotions. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 3(3), 156-163. doi: 10.1037/a0014464
  • Lavie, N. (2005). Distracted and confused? Selective attention under load. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9 (2), 75-82. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.004
  • Leppert, R. (1996). Art and the committed eye: The cultural functions of imagery. Boulder: Westview/ HarperCollins.
  • Locher, P. J. (2014). Contemporary experimental aesthetics: Procedures and findings. In Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture (Vol. 2, pp. 49-80). Amsterdam: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53776-8.00003-9
  • Locher, P., Gray, S., & Nodine, C. (1996). The structural framework of pictorial balance. Perception, 25(12), 1419-1436. doi: 10.1068/p251419
  • Locher, P., Krupinski, E., & Schaefer, A. (2015). Art and authenticity: Behavioral and eye-movement analyses. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9(4), 356. doi: 10.1037/aca0000026
  • Locher, P. J., Tinio, P. P. L., & Krupinski, E. A. (2020). The impact of surface cleaning restoration of paintings on observers’ eye fixation patterns and artworks’ pictorial qualities. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 14(2), 162-171. doi: 10.1037/aca0000264
  • Massaro, D., Savazzi, F., Di Dio, C., Freedberg, D., Gallese, V., Gilli, G., & Marchetti, A. (2012). When art moves the eyes: A behavioural and eye-tracking study, PLoS ONE, 7, 5. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037285

Sanat Eğitimi ve Uzmanlık: Bir Göz İzleme Çalışması

Year 2021, Volume 38, Issue 1, 259 - 271, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.32600/huefd.780593

Abstract

Bu araştırmada sanat eğitimi ve sanatta uzmanlaşmanın sanat eseri inceleme süreci üzerindeki rolü göz izleme tekniği kullanılarak incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın temel amacı, sanat eseri inceleme esnasında sanatta uzman grup ile uzman olmayan grubu göz izleme ölçümleri, eser inceleme ve hatırlama performansı açısından karşılaştırmaktır. Araştırmada profesyonel resim sanatçılarından oluşan uzman grup ile sanat eğitimi almamış iki grup, üç farklı sanat dönemini (Erken Rönesans, Modern, Çağdaş) yansıtan resimleri incelerken göz izleme ölçümleri; ısı haritaları, jüri tarafından belirlenen eser inceleme puanları ve hatırladıkları detay miktarı açısından karşılaştırılmıştır. Isı haritaları, Erken Rönesans ve çağdaş döneme ait eserlerde uzmanların, modern döneme ait eserde ise uzman olmayanların AOI’lere daha fazla baktığını göstermiştir. Buna karşın, her üç eser için de uzman olan ve olmayan grup arasında resim inceleme esnasındaki göz izleme metrikleri ve hatırlama performansı açısından anlamlı fark olmadığını gösterilmiştir. Öte yandan, uzman grubun eser inceleme puanları uzman olmayanlardan istatistiksel olarak anlamlı düzeyde yüksek bulunmuştur.

References

  • Arnheim, R. (2007). Visual thinking. (2nd ed). 35th Anniversary Printing: University of California Press.
  • Brinkmann, H., Commare, L., Leder, H., & Rosenberg, R. (2014). Abstract art as a universal language?. Leonardo, 47(3), 256-257. doi: 10.1162/LEON_a_00767
  • Birch, J. & McKeever, L. M. (1991). Survey of the accuracay of new pseudoisochromatic plates. Ophtalmic and Physiological Optics, 13, 35-40. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-1313.1993.tb00423.x
  • Borji, A., & Itti, L. (2014). Defending Yarbus: Eye movements reveal observers' task. Journal of Vision, 14(3), 29-29. doi: 10.1167/14.3.29
  • Cartwright-Finch, U. & Lavie, N. (2007). The role of perceptual load in inattentional blindness. Cognition, 102, 321-340. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2006.01.002.
  • Cohen, J. (1998). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Einhäuser, W., Spain, M., & Perona, P. (2008). Objects predict fixations better than early saliency. Journal of Vision, 8(14), 18-18. doi: 10.1167/8.14.18
  • Ericsson, K. A. (2014). Expertise. Current 0Biology, 24(11), 508-510. doi: 10.1016 /j.cub.2014.04.013
  • Francuz, P., Zaniewski, I., Augustynowicz, P., Kopiś, N., & Jankowski, T. (2018). Eye movement correlates of expertise in visual arts. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, Article 87. doi: 10.3389/ fnhum. 2018.00087
  • George, D., & Mallery, M. (2010). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference, 17.0 update (10th ed.) Boston: Pearson.
  • Gombrich, E. H.. (1992). Art and illusion (11st ed.). New York: Princeton University Press.
  • Johnson, M. G., Muday, J. A., & Schirillo, J. A. (2010). When viewing variations in paintings by Mondrian, aesthetic preferences correlate with pupil size. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 4(3), 161-167. doi: 10.1037/a0018155
  • Kesner, L., Grygarová, D., Fajnerová, I., Lukavský, J., Nekovářová, T., Tintěra, J., ... & Horáček, J. (2018). Perception of direct vs. averted gaze in portrait paintings: An fMRI and eye-tracking study. Brain and Cognition, 125, 88-99. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.06.004
  • Kuchinke, L., Trapp, S., Jacobs, A. M., & Leder, H. (2009). Pupillary responses in art appreciation: Effects of aesthetic emotions. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 3(3), 156-163. doi: 10.1037/a0014464
  • Lavie, N. (2005). Distracted and confused? Selective attention under load. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9 (2), 75-82. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.004
  • Leppert, R. (1996). Art and the committed eye: The cultural functions of imagery. Boulder: Westview/ HarperCollins.
  • Locher, P. J. (2014). Contemporary experimental aesthetics: Procedures and findings. In Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture (Vol. 2, pp. 49-80). Amsterdam: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53776-8.00003-9
  • Locher, P., Gray, S., & Nodine, C. (1996). The structural framework of pictorial balance. Perception, 25(12), 1419-1436. doi: 10.1068/p251419
  • Locher, P., Krupinski, E., & Schaefer, A. (2015). Art and authenticity: Behavioral and eye-movement analyses. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9(4), 356. doi: 10.1037/aca0000026
  • Locher, P. J., Tinio, P. P. L., & Krupinski, E. A. (2020). The impact of surface cleaning restoration of paintings on observers’ eye fixation patterns and artworks’ pictorial qualities. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 14(2), 162-171. doi: 10.1037/aca0000264
  • Massaro, D., Savazzi, F., Di Dio, C., Freedberg, D., Gallese, V., Gilli, G., & Marchetti, A. (2012). When art moves the eyes: A behavioural and eye-tracking study, PLoS ONE, 7, 5. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037285

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Psychology
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Banu CANGÖZ>
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ, PSİKOLOJİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-2213-3261
Türkiye


Bahadir OKTAY> (Primary Author)
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN-EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-2010-4870
Türkiye


Necla RÜZGAR KAYIRAN>
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ, RESİM BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-2560-5332
Türkiye


Serap EMMUNGİL KARAMANOĞLU>
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, GÜZEL SANATLAR FAKÜLTESİ, RESİM BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-7093-3012
Türkiye

Publication Date June 30, 2021
Submission Date August 14, 2020
Acceptance Date February 20, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 38, Issue 1

Cite

APA Cangöz, B. , Oktay, B. , Rüzgar Kayıran, N. & Emmungil Karamanoğlu, S. (2021). Art Education and Expertise An Eye Tracking Study . Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi , 38 (1) , 259-271 . DOI: 10.32600/huefd.780593


Creative Commons License
Bu eser Creative Commons Atıf 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.