Research Article
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

Virtual Reality for City Planning

Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 3, 150 - 160, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.46578/humder.941015

Abstract

City planning as all kind of planning is about something unreal requiring much imagination capabilities by those involved in this process. Therefore, the traditional means to show the results of planning consisting mainly of lengthy reports and 2D maps are insufficient. Although research in the field of GIS based planning has dealt with a big number of visualization tools including glyph maps, heat map and traditional 2D graphics, research on the opportunities of Virtual Reality (VR) for simulating potential future states of our cities is missing. Such simulations would include exhibit the results of “what-if” scenarios to stakeholders like decision-makers and the general public.The purpose of this research was to develop a largely automated workflow from a 2D map of a city block to a 3D model and finally to a VR environment that can be used without expert knowledge. This will bring urban planning to a new level by visualization of big development projects on the spot. The development of this workflow has been explained in detail. Deficiencies in the current approach are discussed and directions for future research are given.

References

  • [1] Harris, B. & Batty, M. Locational Models, Geographic Information and Planning Support Systems. Journal of Planning, Education and Research, 12, (1993) 184-198. doi - 10.1177/0739456X9301200302.
  • [2] Klostermann, R.E. Planning Support Systems: A New Perspective on Computer-aided Planning. Journal of Planning, Education and Research, 17 (1), (1997) 45-54.
  • [3] Yeh, A.G.O. Urban Planning and GIS. In Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M., Maguire, D. Rhind, D. (Eds.) Geographical Information Systems: Principles, Techniques, Applications, and Management, (2nd ed., (1999) 877-888). John Wiley.
  • [4] Yeh, A.G.O. GIS as a Planning Support System for the Planning of Harmonious Cities. UN-HABITAT Lecture Award Series, No. 3. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT). Nairobi, Kenya, (2008).
  • [5] National Geographic Education Foundation and Roper ASW (National Geographic) (2002). National Geographic – Roper 2002 Global Geographic Literacy Survey [Online]. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/11/geography-survey-illiteracy/ Retrieved 30.4.2019
  • [6] Kacar, S.M. The Role of Urban Governance and Planning in Knowledge City Development: Case Study of Istanbul, Turkey, (2015). https://www.academia.edu/17241974/The_Role_of_Urban_Governance_and_Planning_in_Knowledge_City_Development_Case_Study_of_Istanbul_Turkey Retrieved 2.5.2019
  • [7] Nedjeljko F. Public Participation Geographic Information Systems. Kartografija i Geoinformacije, 10(15), (2011) 17.
  • [8] Fisher, F. Building bridges between citizens and local governments to work more effectively together through participatory planning. Part I Concept and strategies, (2001). UN-HABITAT. http://capacitybuildingunhabitat.org/wp-content/uploads/Trainings%20and%20publications/local%20government%20ngo-cbo%20collaboration/Participatory%20Planning/ParticipatoryPlanningPart1.pdf Retrieved 8.4.2020
  • [9] Ballal, H. Collaborative planning with digital design synthesis. Doctoral dissertation, University College London, United Kingdom, (2015).
  • [10] Campagn, M., Steinitz, C., Di Cesare, E.A., Cocco, C., Ballal, H., Canfield, T. Collaboration in planning: The Geodesign approach. Rozwój Regionalny i Polityka Regionalna, 35, (2016) 55–72.
  • [11] Moura, A.C., Marino, T., Ballal, H., Ribeiro, S. & Motta, S. Interoperability and visualization as a support for mental maps to face differences in scale in Brazilian Geodesign processes. Rozwój Regionalny i Polityka Regionalna, 35, (2016) 89–102.
  • [12] Kim, M. Teaching Coastal Resilience Using Geodesign: A Study of Virginia Beach. Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture, 2, (2017) 279-286.
  • [13] Ernst, F.B., Erdoğan, S., Yılmaz, M., Ulukavak, M., Şenol, H.İ., Memduhoğlu, A. & Çullu, M.A. Geodesign for Urban Planning: A Case Study from Harran University’s Campus Master Plan. International Journal of Environmental Trends (IJENT), 3(1), (2019) 17-30. ISSN: 2602-4160.
  • [14] Buzsáki, G. & Moser, E. Memory, navigation and the ta rhythm in the hippocampal-entorhinal system”. Nature Neuroscience, 16, (2013) 130-138.
  • [15] ESRI Esri CityEngine, Advanced 3D city design software, (2020). https://www.esri.com/en-us/arcgis/products/esri-cityengine/overview Retrieved 8 4.2020.
  • [16] Sutherland, I. E. The Ultimate Display. IFIP Congress 2, New York, USA, (1965, May 24-29) 506-509.
  • [17] Schweber, E. & Schweber, L. Virtually Here. PC Magazine, March 14, (1995) 168-198.
  • [18] Witmer, BG. & Singer, M.J. Measuring pressure in virtual environments: A presence questionaire. Presence, 7(3), (1998) 225-240.
  • [19] Engel, J. & Döllner, J. Immersive Visualization of Virtual 3D City Models and its Applications in E-Planning.” International Journal of E-Planning Research (IJEPR), 1(4), (2012) 17-34. DOI: 10.4018/ijepr.2012100102.
  • [20] Hermund, A. & Klint, L.S. Virtual and Physical Architectural Atmosphere. NZAAR International Event Series on Natural and Built Environment, Cities, Sustainability and Advanced Engineering. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, (2016, October 5-6) 1-2.
  • [21] Hermund, A., Bundgaard, T.S. & Klint, L.S. Speculations on the Representation of Architecture in Virtual Reality: How can we (continue to) simulate the unseen? Back to the Future: The Next 50 Years, 51st International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), Wellington, New Zealand, (2071, November, 29-December, 2).
  • [22] Hermund, A., Klint, L.S. & Bundgaard, T.S. BIM with VR for architectural simulations. 6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering. ACE, Singapore, (2018, May 14-15).
  • [23] Mullins, M. Interpretation of Simulations in Interactive VR Environments: Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 23 (4), (2006) 328-340.
  • [24] Jamei, A., Mortimer, M., Seyedmahmoudian, M., Horam, B. & Stojcevs, A. Investigating the Role of Virtual Reality in Planning for Sustainable Smart Cities. Sustainability, 9, (2017) 1-16. doi:10.3390/su9112006.
  • [25] Kersten, T.P., Tschirschwitz, F., Deggim, S. & Lindstaedt, M. Virtual Reality – Von der 3D-Erfassung bis zum immersiven Erlebnis. 19. Geokinematischer Tag des Institutes für Markscheidewesen und Geodäsie in Freiberg, Freiberg, Germany, (2018, May 17-18) 13-27.
  • [26] Şenol, H.İ., Ernst, F.B. & Akdağ, S. Kentsel Dönüşüm Alanlarının Geotasarım Yöntemi ile Planlanması: Eyyübiye Örneği. Harran Üniversitesi Mühendislik Dergisi, 3(3), (2018) 63-69.
  • [27] Rivero, R., Smith, A., Ballal, H. & Steinitz, C. Promoting Collaborative Geodesign in a Multidisciplinary and Multiscale Environment. Coastal Georgia 2050, USA. In Buhmann, Ervin & Pietsch (Eds.) Peer reviewed proceedings of Digital Landscape Architecture 2015 at Anhalt University of Applied Sciences. (2015) (42–58). Wichmann.
  • [28] Telles, M.A. Python power!: the comprehensive guide. Thomson Course Technology P, Boston, (2006).
  • [29] Open Geospatial Consortium.OGC City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) En-coding Standard. http://www.opengis.net/spec/citygml/2.0, (2012). Retrieved 30.4.2019

Şehir Planlaması İçin Sanal Gerçeklik

Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 3, 150 - 160, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.46578/humder.941015

Abstract

Şehir planlama, her türlü planlama gibi, bu sürece dahil olanlar tarafından çok fazla hayal gücü gerektiren gerçek dışı bir şeyle ilgilidir. Bu nedenle, çoğunlukla uzun raporlar ve 2 boyutlu haritalardan oluşan planlama sonuçlarını göstermek için geleneksel araçlar yetersizdir. CBS tabanlı planlama alanındaki araştırmalar genellikle kabartma haritalar, ısı haritaları ve geleneksel 2B grafikler de dahil olmak üzere çok sayıda görselleştirme aracıyla uğraşmış olsa da, şehirlerimizin gelecekteki potansiyel durumlarını görselleştirmek için Sanal Gerçekliğin (VR) fırsatları üzerine olan araştırmalar eksik kalmıştır. Bu tür simülasyonlar, karar vericiler ve kamuoyu gibi paydaşlara “eğer” senaryolarının sonuçlarının gösterilmesini sağlayabilirler. Bu araştırmanın amacı, bir şehir bölgesinin 2B haritasından 3B modele ve son olarak uzman bilgisi olmadan kullanılabilecek bir VR ortamına büyük ölçüde otomatikleştirilmiş bir iş akışı geliştirmekti. Bu yöntem, büyük geliştirme projelerinin yerinde görselleştirilmesiyle kentsel planlamayı yeni bir seviyeye getirecektir. Bu iş akışının gelişimi ayrıntılı olarak açıklanmıştır. Mevcut yaklaşımdaki eksiklikler tartışılmakta ve gelecekteki araştırmalara yönelik talimatlar verilmektedir.

References

  • [1] Harris, B. & Batty, M. Locational Models, Geographic Information and Planning Support Systems. Journal of Planning, Education and Research, 12, (1993) 184-198. doi - 10.1177/0739456X9301200302.
  • [2] Klostermann, R.E. Planning Support Systems: A New Perspective on Computer-aided Planning. Journal of Planning, Education and Research, 17 (1), (1997) 45-54.
  • [3] Yeh, A.G.O. Urban Planning and GIS. In Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M., Maguire, D. Rhind, D. (Eds.) Geographical Information Systems: Principles, Techniques, Applications, and Management, (2nd ed., (1999) 877-888). John Wiley.
  • [4] Yeh, A.G.O. GIS as a Planning Support System for the Planning of Harmonious Cities. UN-HABITAT Lecture Award Series, No. 3. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT). Nairobi, Kenya, (2008).
  • [5] National Geographic Education Foundation and Roper ASW (National Geographic) (2002). National Geographic – Roper 2002 Global Geographic Literacy Survey [Online]. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/11/geography-survey-illiteracy/ Retrieved 30.4.2019
  • [6] Kacar, S.M. The Role of Urban Governance and Planning in Knowledge City Development: Case Study of Istanbul, Turkey, (2015). https://www.academia.edu/17241974/The_Role_of_Urban_Governance_and_Planning_in_Knowledge_City_Development_Case_Study_of_Istanbul_Turkey Retrieved 2.5.2019
  • [7] Nedjeljko F. Public Participation Geographic Information Systems. Kartografija i Geoinformacije, 10(15), (2011) 17.
  • [8] Fisher, F. Building bridges between citizens and local governments to work more effectively together through participatory planning. Part I Concept and strategies, (2001). UN-HABITAT. http://capacitybuildingunhabitat.org/wp-content/uploads/Trainings%20and%20publications/local%20government%20ngo-cbo%20collaboration/Participatory%20Planning/ParticipatoryPlanningPart1.pdf Retrieved 8.4.2020
  • [9] Ballal, H. Collaborative planning with digital design synthesis. Doctoral dissertation, University College London, United Kingdom, (2015).
  • [10] Campagn, M., Steinitz, C., Di Cesare, E.A., Cocco, C., Ballal, H., Canfield, T. Collaboration in planning: The Geodesign approach. Rozwój Regionalny i Polityka Regionalna, 35, (2016) 55–72.
  • [11] Moura, A.C., Marino, T., Ballal, H., Ribeiro, S. & Motta, S. Interoperability and visualization as a support for mental maps to face differences in scale in Brazilian Geodesign processes. Rozwój Regionalny i Polityka Regionalna, 35, (2016) 89–102.
  • [12] Kim, M. Teaching Coastal Resilience Using Geodesign: A Study of Virginia Beach. Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture, 2, (2017) 279-286.
  • [13] Ernst, F.B., Erdoğan, S., Yılmaz, M., Ulukavak, M., Şenol, H.İ., Memduhoğlu, A. & Çullu, M.A. Geodesign for Urban Planning: A Case Study from Harran University’s Campus Master Plan. International Journal of Environmental Trends (IJENT), 3(1), (2019) 17-30. ISSN: 2602-4160.
  • [14] Buzsáki, G. & Moser, E. Memory, navigation and the ta rhythm in the hippocampal-entorhinal system”. Nature Neuroscience, 16, (2013) 130-138.
  • [15] ESRI Esri CityEngine, Advanced 3D city design software, (2020). https://www.esri.com/en-us/arcgis/products/esri-cityengine/overview Retrieved 8 4.2020.
  • [16] Sutherland, I. E. The Ultimate Display. IFIP Congress 2, New York, USA, (1965, May 24-29) 506-509.
  • [17] Schweber, E. & Schweber, L. Virtually Here. PC Magazine, March 14, (1995) 168-198.
  • [18] Witmer, BG. & Singer, M.J. Measuring pressure in virtual environments: A presence questionaire. Presence, 7(3), (1998) 225-240.
  • [19] Engel, J. & Döllner, J. Immersive Visualization of Virtual 3D City Models and its Applications in E-Planning.” International Journal of E-Planning Research (IJEPR), 1(4), (2012) 17-34. DOI: 10.4018/ijepr.2012100102.
  • [20] Hermund, A. & Klint, L.S. Virtual and Physical Architectural Atmosphere. NZAAR International Event Series on Natural and Built Environment, Cities, Sustainability and Advanced Engineering. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, (2016, October 5-6) 1-2.
  • [21] Hermund, A., Bundgaard, T.S. & Klint, L.S. Speculations on the Representation of Architecture in Virtual Reality: How can we (continue to) simulate the unseen? Back to the Future: The Next 50 Years, 51st International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), Wellington, New Zealand, (2071, November, 29-December, 2).
  • [22] Hermund, A., Klint, L.S. & Bundgaard, T.S. BIM with VR for architectural simulations. 6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering. ACE, Singapore, (2018, May 14-15).
  • [23] Mullins, M. Interpretation of Simulations in Interactive VR Environments: Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 23 (4), (2006) 328-340.
  • [24] Jamei, A., Mortimer, M., Seyedmahmoudian, M., Horam, B. & Stojcevs, A. Investigating the Role of Virtual Reality in Planning for Sustainable Smart Cities. Sustainability, 9, (2017) 1-16. doi:10.3390/su9112006.
  • [25] Kersten, T.P., Tschirschwitz, F., Deggim, S. & Lindstaedt, M. Virtual Reality – Von der 3D-Erfassung bis zum immersiven Erlebnis. 19. Geokinematischer Tag des Institutes für Markscheidewesen und Geodäsie in Freiberg, Freiberg, Germany, (2018, May 17-18) 13-27.
  • [26] Şenol, H.İ., Ernst, F.B. & Akdağ, S. Kentsel Dönüşüm Alanlarının Geotasarım Yöntemi ile Planlanması: Eyyübiye Örneği. Harran Üniversitesi Mühendislik Dergisi, 3(3), (2018) 63-69.
  • [27] Rivero, R., Smith, A., Ballal, H. & Steinitz, C. Promoting Collaborative Geodesign in a Multidisciplinary and Multiscale Environment. Coastal Georgia 2050, USA. In Buhmann, Ervin & Pietsch (Eds.) Peer reviewed proceedings of Digital Landscape Architecture 2015 at Anhalt University of Applied Sciences. (2015) (42–58). Wichmann.
  • [28] Telles, M.A. Python power!: the comprehensive guide. Thomson Course Technology P, Boston, (2006).
  • [29] Open Geospatial Consortium.OGC City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) En-coding Standard. http://www.opengis.net/spec/citygml/2.0, (2012). Retrieved 30.4.2019

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Computer Science, Information System
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Fred ERNST (Primary Author)
Harran Üniversitesi
0000-0002-7568-2582
Türkiye


Halil İbrahim ŞENOL
HARRAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-0235-5764
Türkiye


Songül AKDAĞ
HARRAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-2278-4232
Türkiye


Öskan BARUTCUOGLU
HARRAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6770-4238
Türkiye

Early Pub Date December 30, 2021
Publication Date December 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { humder941015, journal = {Harran Üniversitesi Mühendislik Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2528-8733}, address = {}, publisher = {Harran University}, year = {2021}, volume = {6}, pages = {150 - 160}, doi = {10.46578/humder.941015}, title = {Virtual Reality for City Planning}, key = {cite}, author = {Ernst, Fred and Şenol, Halil İbrahim and Akdağ, Songül and Barutcuoglu, Öskan} }
APA Ernst, F. , Şenol, H. İ. , Akdağ, S. & Barutcuoglu, Ö. (2021). Virtual Reality for City Planning . Harran Üniversitesi Mühendislik Dergisi , 6 (3) , 150-160 . DOI: 10.46578/humder.941015
MLA Ernst, F. , Şenol, H. İ. , Akdağ, S. , Barutcuoglu, Ö. "Virtual Reality for City Planning" . Harran Üniversitesi Mühendislik Dergisi 6 (2021 ): 150-160 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/humder/issue/67454/941015>
Chicago Ernst, F. , Şenol, H. İ. , Akdağ, S. , Barutcuoglu, Ö. "Virtual Reality for City Planning". Harran Üniversitesi Mühendislik Dergisi 6 (2021 ): 150-160
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Virtual Reality for City Planning AU - Fred Ernst , Halil İbrahim Şenol , Songül Akdağ , Öskan Barutcuoglu Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.46578/humder.941015 DO - 10.46578/humder.941015 T2 - Harran Üniversitesi Mühendislik Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 150 EP - 160 VL - 6 IS - 3 SN - -2528-8733 M3 - doi: 10.46578/humder.941015 UR - https://doi.org/10.46578/humder.941015 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Harran University Journal of Engineering Virtual Reality for City Planning %A Fred Ernst , Halil İbrahim Şenol , Songül Akdağ , Öskan Barutcuoglu %T Virtual Reality for City Planning %D 2021 %J Harran Üniversitesi Mühendislik Dergisi %P -2528-8733 %V 6 %N 3 %R doi: 10.46578/humder.941015 %U 10.46578/humder.941015
ISNAD Ernst, Fred , Şenol, Halil İbrahim , Akdağ, Songül , Barutcuoglu, Öskan . "Virtual Reality for City Planning". Harran Üniversitesi Mühendislik Dergisi 6 / 3 (December 2021): 150-160 . https://doi.org/10.46578/humder.941015
AMA Ernst F. , Şenol H. İ. , Akdağ S. , Barutcuoglu Ö. Virtual Reality for City Planning. Harran Üniversitesi Mühendislik Dergisi. 2021; 6(3): 150-160.
Vancouver Ernst F. , Şenol H. İ. , Akdağ S. , Barutcuoglu Ö. Virtual Reality for City Planning. Harran Üniversitesi Mühendislik Dergisi. 2021; 6(3): 150-160.
IEEE F. Ernst , H. İ. Şenol , S. Akdağ and Ö. Barutcuoglu , "Virtual Reality for City Planning", Harran Üniversitesi Mühendislik Dergisi, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 150-160, Dec. 2021, doi:10.46578/humder.941015