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REKLAMLARDA ÜNLÜ KİŞİ KULLANIMININ ETKİNLİĞİNİN VAMPİR ETKİSİ KAPSAMINDA GÖZ TAKİP TEKNİĞİYLE DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ

Year 2021, Volume 39, Issue 1, 149 - 172, 29.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.17065/huniibf.723099

Abstract

Bir reklamın etkinlik sağlamak için ilk basamağı, dikkat çekmektir. Dikkat çekmek için reklamcılar genellikle beşeri mesaj kaynağı olarak ünlü kişi veya çekici modelleri kullanmayı tercih etmektedirler. Oysaki bu durum, söz konusu beşeri mesaj kaynaklarının tüm dikkati üzerlerinde toplaması ve böylece diğer reklam unsurlarını gölgede bırakıp vampir etkisi oluşturması sebebiyle riskli olabilmektedir. Bu araştırmada vampir etkisi, göz takibi ve anket teknikleri bir arada kullanılarak incelenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar, reklamdaki ünlü kişiye ve ünlü kişiyle benzer çekicilik skoruna sahip tanınmamış modele odaklanma süresi arttıkça, marka tanıma oranının 47.8 % oranında azaldığını göstermiştir. Böylece, araştırma sonuçları vampir etkisi varsayımını desteklemiştir.

References

  • Baker, M. J., G. A. Churchill Jr. (1977), ‘The Impact of Physical Attractive Models on Advertising Evaluations’, Journal of Marketing Research, 14(4), 538-555.
  • Cacioppo, J. T., R. E. Petty (1981), ‘Social Psychological Procedures for Cognitive Response Assessment: The Thought-listing Technique’ In Cognitive Responses in Persuasion, R.E. Petty, T. Ostrom and T.C. Brock, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrance Erlbaum Associates.
  • Dean, D. H., A. Biswas (2001), ‘Third-Party Organization Endorsement of Products:An Advertising Cue Affecting Consumer Prepurchase Evaluation of Goods and Services’, Journal of Advertising, 30(4), 41-57.
  • Djamasbi, S., M. Sieger, T. Tullis (2010), ‘Generation Y, Web Design, and Eye Tracking’, International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 68(5), 307-323. Erfgen, C., S. Zenker, H. Sattler (2015), ‘The Vampire Effect: When Do Celebrity Endorsers Harm Brand Recall?’, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 32(2), 155-163.
  • Friedman, H. H., L. Friedman (1979), ‘Endorser Effectiveness by Product Type’, Journal of Advertising Research, 19(5), 63-71.
  • Hallahan, K (1999), ‘Content Class as a Contextual Cue in the Cognitive Processing of Publicity Versus Advertising’, Journal of Public Relations Research, 11(4), 293-320.
  • Hayat, K., M. Ghayyur, A.Z. Siddique (2013), ‘The Impact of Consumer Perception Based Advertisement and Celebrity Advertisement on Brand Acceptance: A Case Study of the Peshawar Market’, Journal of Managerial Sciences, 7(1), 146-157.
  • Higgins, E., M. Leinenger, K. Rayner (2014), ‘Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements’, Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-15.
  • Kamins, M. A. (1989), ‘Celebrity and Non-Celebrity Advertising in a Two-Sided Context’, Journal of Advertising Research, 29(3), 34-42.
  • Keller, K. L., T. Aperia, M. Georgson (2008), Strategic Brand Management: A European Perspective, Prentice Hall Financial Times, Person Education.
  • Kent, R. J., C. T. Allen (1994), ‘Competitive Interference Effects in Consumer Memory for Advertising: The Role of Brand Familiarity’, Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 97-105.
  • Kuvita, T., M. Karlicek (2014), ‘The Risk of Vampire Effect in Advertisements Using Celebrity Endorsement’, Central European Business Review, 3(3), 16-22.
  • MacKenzie, S. B., R. J. Lutz (1989), ‘An Empirical Examination of the Structural Antecedents of Attitude-Toward-the-Ad in An Advertising Pretesting Context’, Journal of Marketing, 53(2), 48-65.
  • McCracken, G. (1989), ‘Who is the Celebrity Endorser? Cultural Foundation of the Endorsement Process?’, Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 310-321.
  • Mehta, A. (1994), ‘How Advertising Response Modeling (ARM) Can Increase Effectiveness’, Journal of Advertising Research, 34(3), 62-74.
  • Mowen, J. C., S. W. Brown (1981), ‘On Explaining and Predicting the Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsers’, In Advances in Consumer Research, K. B. Monroe eds. Michigan: Association for Consumer Research.
  • Ohanian, R. (1990), ‘Construction and Validation of A Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorser’s Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness and Attractiveness’, Journal of Advertising, 19(3), 39-52.
  • Pieters, R., M. Wedel, J. Zhang (2007), ‘Optimal Feature Advertising Design Under Competitive Clutter’, Management Science, 53(11), 1815-1828.
  • Pieters, R., L. Warlop, M. Wedel (2002), ‘Breaking Through the Clutter: Benefits of Advertisement Originality and Familiarity for Brand Attention and Memory’, Management Science, 48(6), 765-781.
  • Pileliene, L., V. Grigaliunaite (2017), ‘The Effect of Female Celebrity Spokesperson in FMCG Advertising: Neuromarketing Approach’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 34(3), 202-213.
  • Puskarevic, I., U. Nedeljkovic, V. Dimovski, K. Mozina (2016), ‘An Eye Tracking Study of Attention to Print Advertisements: Effects of Typeface Figuration’, Journal of Eye Movement Research, 9(5), 1-18.
  • Radach, R., S. Lemmer, C. Vorstius, D. Heller, K. Radach (2003), ‘Eye Movements in the Processing of Print Advertisements’, In The mind’s eye: Cognitive and Applied Aspects of Eye Movement Research, H. J., Radach, R. Heller eds. Amsterdam: North Holland.
  • Rayner, K., B. Miller, C. M. Rotello (2008), ‘Eye Movements When Looking at Print Advertisements: The Goal of the Viewer Matters’, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(5), 697-707.
  • Rayner, K., C. M. Rotello, A. J. Stewart, J. Keir, S. A. Duffy (2001), ‘Integrating Text and Pictorial Information: Eye Movements When Looking at Print Advertisements’, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 7(3), 219-226.
  • Riel, W. K. (1984), ‘Effects of Emotional Pictorial Elements in Ads Analyzed By Means of Eye Movement Monitoring’, In Advances in Consumer Research, T.C. Kinnear eds. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.
  • Severn, J., G. E. Belch, M. A. Belch (1990), ‘The Effects of Sexual and Non-Sexual Advertising Appeals and Information Level on Cognitive Processing and Communication Effectiveness’, Journal of Advertising, 19(1), 14-22.
  • Silvera, D. H., B. Austad (2004), ‘Factors Predicting the Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement Advertisements’, European Journal of Marketing, 38(11/12), 1509-1526.
  • Spears, N., S. N. Singh (2004), ‘Measuring Attitude Toward the Brand and Purchase Intentions’, Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 26(2), 53-66.
  • Till, B. D., M. Busler (1998), ‘Matching Products with Endorsers: Attractiveness Versus Expertise’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15(6), 576-586.
  • Tripp, C., T. D. Jensen, L. Carlson (1994), ‘The Effect of Multiple Product Endorsements by Celebrities on Consumer Attitudes and Intentions’, Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4), 535-547.
  • Wang, A. (2006), ‘Advertising Engagement: A Driver of Message Involvement on Message Effects’, Journal of Advertising Research, 46(4), 355-368.
  • Wedel, M., R. Pieters (2008), ‘Eye Tracking for Visual Marketing’, Foundations and Trends in Marketing, 1(4), 231-320.
  • Wedel, M., R. Pieters (2000), ‘Eye Fixations on Advertisements and Memory for Brands: A Model and Findings’, Marketing Science, 19(4), 297-312.
  • Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1994), ‘The Personal Involvement Inventory: Reduction, Revision, and Application to Advertising’, Journal of Advertising, 23(4), 60-70.

EVALUATION OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF VAMPIRE EFFECT BY USING EYE TRACKING TECHNIQUE

Year 2021, Volume 39, Issue 1, 149 - 172, 29.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.17065/huniibf.723099

Abstract

The first step for an advertisement to be effective is to attract attention. To attract attention, advertisers generally prefer to use celebrities or attractive models as human message sources. However, this situation may be risky as these human message sources attract all the attention on them and thus overshadow other advertising elements and create vampire effect. In this research, vampire effect was examined by using eye tracking and questionnaire techniques together. Results show that as the fixation duration to celebrity and unknown model with similar attractiveness score to the celebrity in the advertisements increased, brand recognition rate decreased by 47.8 %. Thus, the research result promoted vampire effect assumption.

References

  • Baker, M. J., G. A. Churchill Jr. (1977), ‘The Impact of Physical Attractive Models on Advertising Evaluations’, Journal of Marketing Research, 14(4), 538-555.
  • Cacioppo, J. T., R. E. Petty (1981), ‘Social Psychological Procedures for Cognitive Response Assessment: The Thought-listing Technique’ In Cognitive Responses in Persuasion, R.E. Petty, T. Ostrom and T.C. Brock, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrance Erlbaum Associates.
  • Dean, D. H., A. Biswas (2001), ‘Third-Party Organization Endorsement of Products:An Advertising Cue Affecting Consumer Prepurchase Evaluation of Goods and Services’, Journal of Advertising, 30(4), 41-57.
  • Djamasbi, S., M. Sieger, T. Tullis (2010), ‘Generation Y, Web Design, and Eye Tracking’, International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 68(5), 307-323. Erfgen, C., S. Zenker, H. Sattler (2015), ‘The Vampire Effect: When Do Celebrity Endorsers Harm Brand Recall?’, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 32(2), 155-163.
  • Friedman, H. H., L. Friedman (1979), ‘Endorser Effectiveness by Product Type’, Journal of Advertising Research, 19(5), 63-71.
  • Hallahan, K (1999), ‘Content Class as a Contextual Cue in the Cognitive Processing of Publicity Versus Advertising’, Journal of Public Relations Research, 11(4), 293-320.
  • Hayat, K., M. Ghayyur, A.Z. Siddique (2013), ‘The Impact of Consumer Perception Based Advertisement and Celebrity Advertisement on Brand Acceptance: A Case Study of the Peshawar Market’, Journal of Managerial Sciences, 7(1), 146-157.
  • Higgins, E., M. Leinenger, K. Rayner (2014), ‘Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements’, Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-15.
  • Kamins, M. A. (1989), ‘Celebrity and Non-Celebrity Advertising in a Two-Sided Context’, Journal of Advertising Research, 29(3), 34-42.
  • Keller, K. L., T. Aperia, M. Georgson (2008), Strategic Brand Management: A European Perspective, Prentice Hall Financial Times, Person Education.
  • Kent, R. J., C. T. Allen (1994), ‘Competitive Interference Effects in Consumer Memory for Advertising: The Role of Brand Familiarity’, Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 97-105.
  • Kuvita, T., M. Karlicek (2014), ‘The Risk of Vampire Effect in Advertisements Using Celebrity Endorsement’, Central European Business Review, 3(3), 16-22.
  • MacKenzie, S. B., R. J. Lutz (1989), ‘An Empirical Examination of the Structural Antecedents of Attitude-Toward-the-Ad in An Advertising Pretesting Context’, Journal of Marketing, 53(2), 48-65.
  • McCracken, G. (1989), ‘Who is the Celebrity Endorser? Cultural Foundation of the Endorsement Process?’, Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 310-321.
  • Mehta, A. (1994), ‘How Advertising Response Modeling (ARM) Can Increase Effectiveness’, Journal of Advertising Research, 34(3), 62-74.
  • Mowen, J. C., S. W. Brown (1981), ‘On Explaining and Predicting the Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsers’, In Advances in Consumer Research, K. B. Monroe eds. Michigan: Association for Consumer Research.
  • Ohanian, R. (1990), ‘Construction and Validation of A Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorser’s Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness and Attractiveness’, Journal of Advertising, 19(3), 39-52.
  • Pieters, R., M. Wedel, J. Zhang (2007), ‘Optimal Feature Advertising Design Under Competitive Clutter’, Management Science, 53(11), 1815-1828.
  • Pieters, R., L. Warlop, M. Wedel (2002), ‘Breaking Through the Clutter: Benefits of Advertisement Originality and Familiarity for Brand Attention and Memory’, Management Science, 48(6), 765-781.
  • Pileliene, L., V. Grigaliunaite (2017), ‘The Effect of Female Celebrity Spokesperson in FMCG Advertising: Neuromarketing Approach’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 34(3), 202-213.
  • Puskarevic, I., U. Nedeljkovic, V. Dimovski, K. Mozina (2016), ‘An Eye Tracking Study of Attention to Print Advertisements: Effects of Typeface Figuration’, Journal of Eye Movement Research, 9(5), 1-18.
  • Radach, R., S. Lemmer, C. Vorstius, D. Heller, K. Radach (2003), ‘Eye Movements in the Processing of Print Advertisements’, In The mind’s eye: Cognitive and Applied Aspects of Eye Movement Research, H. J., Radach, R. Heller eds. Amsterdam: North Holland.
  • Rayner, K., B. Miller, C. M. Rotello (2008), ‘Eye Movements When Looking at Print Advertisements: The Goal of the Viewer Matters’, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(5), 697-707.
  • Rayner, K., C. M. Rotello, A. J. Stewart, J. Keir, S. A. Duffy (2001), ‘Integrating Text and Pictorial Information: Eye Movements When Looking at Print Advertisements’, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 7(3), 219-226.
  • Riel, W. K. (1984), ‘Effects of Emotional Pictorial Elements in Ads Analyzed By Means of Eye Movement Monitoring’, In Advances in Consumer Research, T.C. Kinnear eds. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.
  • Severn, J., G. E. Belch, M. A. Belch (1990), ‘The Effects of Sexual and Non-Sexual Advertising Appeals and Information Level on Cognitive Processing and Communication Effectiveness’, Journal of Advertising, 19(1), 14-22.
  • Silvera, D. H., B. Austad (2004), ‘Factors Predicting the Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement Advertisements’, European Journal of Marketing, 38(11/12), 1509-1526.
  • Spears, N., S. N. Singh (2004), ‘Measuring Attitude Toward the Brand and Purchase Intentions’, Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 26(2), 53-66.
  • Till, B. D., M. Busler (1998), ‘Matching Products with Endorsers: Attractiveness Versus Expertise’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15(6), 576-586.
  • Tripp, C., T. D. Jensen, L. Carlson (1994), ‘The Effect of Multiple Product Endorsements by Celebrities on Consumer Attitudes and Intentions’, Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4), 535-547.
  • Wang, A. (2006), ‘Advertising Engagement: A Driver of Message Involvement on Message Effects’, Journal of Advertising Research, 46(4), 355-368.
  • Wedel, M., R. Pieters (2008), ‘Eye Tracking for Visual Marketing’, Foundations and Trends in Marketing, 1(4), 231-320.
  • Wedel, M., R. Pieters (2000), ‘Eye Fixations on Advertisements and Memory for Brands: A Model and Findings’, Marketing Science, 19(4), 297-312.
  • Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1994), ‘The Personal Involvement Inventory: Reduction, Revision, and Application to Advertising’, Journal of Advertising, 23(4), 60-70.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Gizem TOKMAK (Primary Author)
ZONGULDAK BÜLENT ECEVİT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Ramazan AKSOY
ZONGULDAK BÜLENT ECEVİT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit Üniversitesi Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Projeleri Komisyonu Başkanlığı
Project Number BAP/2019-14018487-01
Publication Date March 29, 2021
Application Date April 19, 2020
Acceptance Date December 14, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 39, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { huniibf723099, journal = {Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1301-8752}, eissn = {1309-6338}, address = {}, publisher = {Hacettepe University}, year = {2021}, volume = {39}, number = {1}, pages = {149 - 172}, doi = {10.17065/huniibf.723099}, title = {EVALUATION OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF VAMPIRE EFFECT BY USING EYE TRACKING TECHNIQUE}, key = {cite}, author = {Tokmak, Gizem and Aksoy, Ramazan} }
APA Tokmak, G. & Aksoy, R. (2021). EVALUATION OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF VAMPIRE EFFECT BY USING EYE TRACKING TECHNIQUE . Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi , 39 (1) , 149-172 . DOI: 10.17065/huniibf.723099
MLA Tokmak, G. , Aksoy, R. "EVALUATION OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF VAMPIRE EFFECT BY USING EYE TRACKING TECHNIQUE" . Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 39 (2021 ): 149-172 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/huniibf/issue/60940/723099>
Chicago Tokmak, G. , Aksoy, R. "EVALUATION OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF VAMPIRE EFFECT BY USING EYE TRACKING TECHNIQUE". Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 39 (2021 ): 149-172
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - EVALUATION OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF VAMPIRE EFFECT BY USING EYE TRACKING TECHNIQUE AU - Gizem Tokmak , Ramazan Aksoy Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.17065/huniibf.723099 DO - 10.17065/huniibf.723099 T2 - Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 149 EP - 172 VL - 39 IS - 1 SN - 1301-8752-1309-6338 M3 - doi: 10.17065/huniibf.723099 UR - https://doi.org/10.17065/huniibf.723099 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Hacettepe University Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences EVALUATION OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF VAMPIRE EFFECT BY USING EYE TRACKING TECHNIQUE %A Gizem Tokmak , Ramazan Aksoy %T EVALUATION OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF VAMPIRE EFFECT BY USING EYE TRACKING TECHNIQUE %D 2021 %J Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1301-8752-1309-6338 %V 39 %N 1 %R doi: 10.17065/huniibf.723099 %U 10.17065/huniibf.723099
ISNAD Tokmak, Gizem , Aksoy, Ramazan . "EVALUATION OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF VAMPIRE EFFECT BY USING EYE TRACKING TECHNIQUE". Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 39 / 1 (March 2021): 149-172 . https://doi.org/10.17065/huniibf.723099
AMA Tokmak G. , Aksoy R. EVALUATION OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF VAMPIRE EFFECT BY USING EYE TRACKING TECHNIQUE. Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi. 2021; 39(1): 149-172.
Vancouver Tokmak G. , Aksoy R. EVALUATION OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF VAMPIRE EFFECT BY USING EYE TRACKING TECHNIQUE. Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi. 2021; 39(1): 149-172.
IEEE G. Tokmak and R. Aksoy , "EVALUATION OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF VAMPIRE EFFECT BY USING EYE TRACKING TECHNIQUE", Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 149-172, Mar. 2021, doi:10.17065/huniibf.723099

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