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Normal Gelişim Gösteren ve Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu Olan Çocuklarda Duygu Düzenleme

Year 2015, Volume , Issue , 24.06.2015

Abstract

Duygu düzenleme, bireylerin hedeflerine ulaşabilmeleri ve sosyal hayata uyum sağlayabilmeleri için duygusal uyarılmanın başlaması, sürdürülmesi ve yönetilmesidir. Bir başka deyişle duygu düzenleme, kişinin amaçlarını gerçekleştirmek için duygusal tepkilerini kontrol etmesi, izlemesi, değerlendirmesi ve değiştirmesidir. Kişi tüm bunları yaparken, duygu düzenleme stratejilerini kullanır. Duyguları düzenlemeye yönelik davranış kalıpları ise yaşa ve gelişim özelliklerine göre değişkenlik gösterir. Bebeklik döneminde birincil bakım veren kişi, bebeğin duygu düzenleme sisteminde birincil rol oynar. Bebekler en basit anlamıyla, sıkıntılı hissettikleri anlarda ağlayarak, hoşnut hissettikleri anlarda ise bu durumu devam ettirmek için memnuniyet ifadeleri göstererek (gülümseme, sesler çıkarma, anneyle etkileşime girme) duygu düzenleme sistemlerinde ona en yakın kişiden destek alırlar. Ardından dil gelişimiyle beraber çocuklar duygularını ifade etmeye başlarlar. Okulöncesi dönemde ise çocuk, duygu düzenleme sistemine gittikçe daha çok dahil olmakta ve duyguları yönetme becerileri artmaktadır. Otizm spektrum bozukluğu olan çocuklarda ise dil ve sosyal alanlardaki yetersizlikler, çocukların duygularını sözel olarak ifade etmelerini ve duygusal tepkilerini sosyal bağlama uygun hale getirmelerini zorlaştırmaktadır. Ayrıca etkili duygu düzenleme stratejilerini kullanmakta yetersiz kalmakta, bunun yerine öfke krizi geçirme, kendine zarar verme, kolay öfkelenme gibi davranış kalıpları geliştirerek kendilerine özgü stratejiler geliştirmektedirler. Bu makalede, normal gelişim gösteren ve otizm spektrum bozukluğu olan çocukların duygu düzenleme davranışları betimlenmiştir.

Anahtar kelimeler: duygu düzenleme, duygu düzenleme stratejileri, otizm spektrum bozukluğu

References

  • Ben-Naim, S., Hirschberger, G., Ein-Dor, T., Mikulincer, M. (2013). An experimental study of emotion regulation during relationship conflict interactions: The moderating role of attachment orientations. American Psychological Association, 13(3), 506-519.
  • Bridges, L.J., Denham, S., Ganiban, J.M. (2004). Definitional issues in emotion regulation research. Child
  • Development, 75(2), 340-345.
  • Capps, L., Kasari, C., Yirmiya, N., Sigman, M. (1993). Parental perception of emotional expressiveness in children with autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(3), 475.
  • Cole, P.M., Michel, M.K., Teti, L.O. (1994). The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation: A
  • clinical perspective. Monographs of the Society for Research In Child Development, 59(2-3), 73-100.
  • Cole, P.M., Martin, S.E., Dennis, T.A. (2004). Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: Methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Child Development, 75, 317-333.
  • Dan-Glauser, E., Gross, J.J. (2013). Emotion regulation and emotion coherence: Evidence for strategy-specific effects. American Psychological Association, 13(5), 832-842.
  • Dawson, G., Osterling, J., Meltzoff, A. N., Kuhl, P. (2000). Case study of the development of an infant with autism from birth to two years of age. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21(3), 299-313.
  • Denollet, J., Nyklicek, I., Vingerhoets, J.J.M. (2008). Introduction: Emotions, emotion regulation and health. İçinde A. Vingerhoets, I. Nyklicek, J. Denollet (Ed.), Emotion regulation conceptual and clinical issues. (s.
  • -12). New York: Springer Science Business Media.
  • Diener, M.L., Mangelsdorf, S.C. (1999). Behavioral strategies for emotion regulation for toddlers: Association with maternal involvement and emotional expression. Infant Behavior and Development, 22(4), 569-583.
  • Duy, B., Yıldız, M.A. (2014). Ergenler için duygu düzenleme ölçeği’nin Türkçe’ye uyarlanması. Turkish
  • Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 5(41), 23-35.
  • Einsberg, N., Fabes, R.A., Guthrie, I.K., Reiser, M. (2000). Dispositional emotionality and regulation: Their role in predicting quality of social functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 136-157.
  • Fujiki, M., Brinton, B., Clarke, D. (2002). Emotion regulation in children with specific language impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 33(2), 102-111.
  • Geller, L. (2005). Emotional regulation in autism spectrum disorders. Autism Spectrum Quarterly, 14 –17. Glaser, S. E., Shaw, S. R. (2011). Emotion regulation and development in children with autism and 22q13
  • Deletion Syndrome: Evidence for group differences. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(2), 926-934.
  • Gomez, C. R., Baird, S. (2005). Identifying early indicators for autism in self-regulation difficulties. Focus on
  • Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(2), 106-116.
  • Gross, J.J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General
  • Psychology, 2, 271-299.
  • Gross, J.J (1999). Emotion regulation: Past, present, future. Cognition Emotion, 13(5), 551-573.
  • Gross, J.J. (2001). Emotion regulation in adulthood: Timing is everything. Current Directions In Psychological
  • Science, 10(6), 214-219.
  • Gross, J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39,
  • -291.
  • Gross, J.J., John, O.P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes:
  • Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348-
  • -
  • Gross, J.J., Levenson, R.W. (1993). Emotional suppression: Physiology, self-report, and expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(9), 970-986.
  • Gross, J.J., Thompson, R.A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. İçinde J.J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (s. 3-27). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Gulsrud, A. C., Jahromi, L. B., Kasari, C. (2010). The co-regulation of emotions between mothers and their children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(2), 227-237.
  • Konstantareas, M. M., Stewart, K. (2006). Affect regulation and temperament in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(2), 143-154.
  • Koole, S.L. (2009). The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Cognition and Emotion,
  • (1), 4-41.
  • Kopp, C.B. (1989). Regulation of distress and negative emotions: A developmental view. Developmental
  • Psychology, 25(3), 343-354.
  • Mazefsky, C. A., Herrington, J., Siegel, M., Scarpa, A., Maddox, B. B., Scahill, L., White, S. W. (2013). The role of emotion regulation in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(7), 679-688.
  • Morales, M., Mundy, P., Crowson, M. M., Neal, A. R., Delgado, C. E. (2005). Individual differences in infant attention skills, joint attention, and emotion regulation behaviour. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29(3), 259-263.
  • Onat, O., Otrar, M. (2010). Bilişsel duygu düzenleme ölçeğinin Türkçe’ye uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmaları. Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 31, 123-143.
  • Raver, C. C. (1996). Relations between social contingency in mother-child interaction and 2-year-olds’ social competence. Developmental Psychology, 32(5), 850-859.
  • Rieffe, C., Oosterveld, P., Terwogt, M. M., Mootz, S., Van Leeuwen, E., Stockmann, L. (2011). Emotion regulation and internalizing symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 15(6), 655-670.
  • Roque, L., Verissimo, M. (2011). Emotional context, maternal behavior and emotion regulation. Infant Behavior and Development, 34, 617-626.
  • Roque, L., Verissimo, M., Fernandes, M., Rabelo, A. (2013). Emotion regulation and attachment: Relationship with children’s secure base, during different situational and social contexts ın naturalistic settings. Infant Behavior&Development, 36, 298-306.
  • Sameroff, A. (2010). A unified theory of development: A dialectic integration of nature and nurture. Child
  • Development, 81(1), 6-22.
  • Samson, A. C., Phillips, J. M., Parker, K. J., Shah, S., Gross, J. J., Hardan, A. Y. (2014). Emotion dysregulation and the core features of autism spectrum disorder. Journal Of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(7),
  • -1772.
  • Schwarz, B., Sturz, M., Ledermann, T. (2012). Perceived interparental conflict and early adolescents friendships: The role of attachment security and emotion regulation. Youth Adolescence, 41,1240-1252.
  • Southam-Genow, M.A., Kendall, P.C. (2002). Emotion regulation and understanding: Implications for child psychopathology and therapy. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 189-222.
  • Spangler, G., Zimmermann, P. (2014). Emotional and adrenocortical regulation in early adolescence: Prediction by attachment security and disorganization in infancy. International Journal of Behavioral Development,
  • (2), 142-154.
  • Stansbury, K., Zimmermann, L. K. (1999). Relations among child language skills, maternal socialization of emotion regulation, and child behavior problems. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 30(2), 121-142.
  • Thompson, R.A. (1994). Emotion Regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for
  • Research In Child Development, 59(2/3), 25-52.

-

Year 2015, Volume , Issue , 24.06.2015

Abstract

Duygu düzenleme, bireylerin hedeflerine ulaşabilmeleri ve sosyal hayata uyum sağlayabilmeleri için duygusal uyarılmanın başlaması, sürdürülmesi ve yönetilmesidir. Bir başka deyişle duygu düzenleme, kişinin amaçlarını gerçekleştirmek için duygusal tepkilerini kontrol etmesi, izlemesi, değerlendirmesi ve değiştirmesidir. Kişi tüm bunları yaparken, duygu düzenleme stratejilerini kullanır. Duyguları düzenlemeye yönelik davranış kalıpları ise yaşa ve gelişim özelliklerine göre değişkenlik gösterir. Bebeklik döneminde birincil bakım veren kişi, bebeğin duygu düzenleme sisteminde birincil rol oynar. Bebekler en basit anlamıyla, sıkıntılı hissettikleri anlarda ağlayarak, hoşnut hissettikleri anlarda ise bu durumu devam ettirmek için memnuniyet ifadeleri göstererek (gülümseme, sesler çıkarma, anneyle etkileşime girme) duygu düzenleme sistemlerinde ona en yakın kişiden destek alırlar. Ardından dil gelişimiyle beraber çocuklar duygularını ifade etmeye başlarlar. Okulöncesi dönemde ise çocuk, duygu düzenleme sistemine gittikçe daha çok dahil olmakta ve duyguları yönetme becerileri artmaktadır. Otizm spektrum bozukluğu olan çocuklarda ise dil ve sosyal alanlardaki yetersizlikler, çocukların duygularını sözel olarak ifade etmelerini ve duygusal tepkilerini sosyal bağlama uygun hale getirmelerini zorlaştırmaktadır. Ayrıca etkili duygu düzenleme stratejilerini kullanmakta yetersiz kalmakta, bunun yerine öfke krizi geçirme, kendine zarar verme, kolay öfkelenme gibi davranış kalıpları geliştirerek kendilerine özgü stratejiler geliştirmektedirler. Bu makalede, normal gelişim gösteren ve otizm spektrum bozukluğu olan çocukların duygu düzenleme davranışları betimlenmiştir

References

  • Ben-Naim, S., Hirschberger, G., Ein-Dor, T., Mikulincer, M. (2013). An experimental study of emotion regulation during relationship conflict interactions: The moderating role of attachment orientations. American Psychological Association, 13(3), 506-519.
  • Bridges, L.J., Denham, S., Ganiban, J.M. (2004). Definitional issues in emotion regulation research. Child
  • Development, 75(2), 340-345.
  • Capps, L., Kasari, C., Yirmiya, N., Sigman, M. (1993). Parental perception of emotional expressiveness in children with autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(3), 475.
  • Cole, P.M., Michel, M.K., Teti, L.O. (1994). The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation: A
  • clinical perspective. Monographs of the Society for Research In Child Development, 59(2-3), 73-100.
  • Cole, P.M., Martin, S.E., Dennis, T.A. (2004). Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: Methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Child Development, 75, 317-333.
  • Dan-Glauser, E., Gross, J.J. (2013). Emotion regulation and emotion coherence: Evidence for strategy-specific effects. American Psychological Association, 13(5), 832-842.
  • Dawson, G., Osterling, J., Meltzoff, A. N., Kuhl, P. (2000). Case study of the development of an infant with autism from birth to two years of age. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21(3), 299-313.
  • Denollet, J., Nyklicek, I., Vingerhoets, J.J.M. (2008). Introduction: Emotions, emotion regulation and health. İçinde A. Vingerhoets, I. Nyklicek, J. Denollet (Ed.), Emotion regulation conceptual and clinical issues. (s.
  • -12). New York: Springer Science Business Media.
  • Diener, M.L., Mangelsdorf, S.C. (1999). Behavioral strategies for emotion regulation for toddlers: Association with maternal involvement and emotional expression. Infant Behavior and Development, 22(4), 569-583.
  • Duy, B., Yıldız, M.A. (2014). Ergenler için duygu düzenleme ölçeği’nin Türkçe’ye uyarlanması. Turkish
  • Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 5(41), 23-35.
  • Einsberg, N., Fabes, R.A., Guthrie, I.K., Reiser, M. (2000). Dispositional emotionality and regulation: Their role in predicting quality of social functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 136-157.
  • Fujiki, M., Brinton, B., Clarke, D. (2002). Emotion regulation in children with specific language impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 33(2), 102-111.
  • Geller, L. (2005). Emotional regulation in autism spectrum disorders. Autism Spectrum Quarterly, 14 –17. Glaser, S. E., Shaw, S. R. (2011). Emotion regulation and development in children with autism and 22q13
  • Deletion Syndrome: Evidence for group differences. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(2), 926-934.
  • Gomez, C. R., Baird, S. (2005). Identifying early indicators for autism in self-regulation difficulties. Focus on
  • Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(2), 106-116.
  • Gross, J.J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General
  • Psychology, 2, 271-299.
  • Gross, J.J (1999). Emotion regulation: Past, present, future. Cognition Emotion, 13(5), 551-573.
  • Gross, J.J. (2001). Emotion regulation in adulthood: Timing is everything. Current Directions In Psychological
  • Science, 10(6), 214-219.
  • Gross, J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39,
  • -291.
  • Gross, J.J., John, O.P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes:
  • Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348-
  • -
  • Gross, J.J., Levenson, R.W. (1993). Emotional suppression: Physiology, self-report, and expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(9), 970-986.
  • Gross, J.J., Thompson, R.A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. İçinde J.J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (s. 3-27). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Gulsrud, A. C., Jahromi, L. B., Kasari, C. (2010). The co-regulation of emotions between mothers and their children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(2), 227-237.
  • Konstantareas, M. M., Stewart, K. (2006). Affect regulation and temperament in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(2), 143-154.
  • Koole, S.L. (2009). The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Cognition and Emotion,
  • (1), 4-41.
  • Kopp, C.B. (1989). Regulation of distress and negative emotions: A developmental view. Developmental
  • Psychology, 25(3), 343-354.
  • Mazefsky, C. A., Herrington, J., Siegel, M., Scarpa, A., Maddox, B. B., Scahill, L., White, S. W. (2013). The role of emotion regulation in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(7), 679-688.
  • Morales, M., Mundy, P., Crowson, M. M., Neal, A. R., Delgado, C. E. (2005). Individual differences in infant attention skills, joint attention, and emotion regulation behaviour. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29(3), 259-263.
  • Onat, O., Otrar, M. (2010). Bilişsel duygu düzenleme ölçeğinin Türkçe’ye uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmaları. Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 31, 123-143.
  • Raver, C. C. (1996). Relations between social contingency in mother-child interaction and 2-year-olds’ social competence. Developmental Psychology, 32(5), 850-859.
  • Rieffe, C., Oosterveld, P., Terwogt, M. M., Mootz, S., Van Leeuwen, E., Stockmann, L. (2011). Emotion regulation and internalizing symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 15(6), 655-670.
  • Roque, L., Verissimo, M. (2011). Emotional context, maternal behavior and emotion regulation. Infant Behavior and Development, 34, 617-626.
  • Roque, L., Verissimo, M., Fernandes, M., Rabelo, A. (2013). Emotion regulation and attachment: Relationship with children’s secure base, during different situational and social contexts ın naturalistic settings. Infant Behavior&Development, 36, 298-306.
  • Sameroff, A. (2010). A unified theory of development: A dialectic integration of nature and nurture. Child
  • Development, 81(1), 6-22.
  • Samson, A. C., Phillips, J. M., Parker, K. J., Shah, S., Gross, J. J., Hardan, A. Y. (2014). Emotion dysregulation and the core features of autism spectrum disorder. Journal Of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(7),
  • -1772.
  • Schwarz, B., Sturz, M., Ledermann, T. (2012). Perceived interparental conflict and early adolescents friendships: The role of attachment security and emotion regulation. Youth Adolescence, 41,1240-1252.
  • Southam-Genow, M.A., Kendall, P.C. (2002). Emotion regulation and understanding: Implications for child psychopathology and therapy. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 189-222.
  • Spangler, G., Zimmermann, P. (2014). Emotional and adrenocortical regulation in early adolescence: Prediction by attachment security and disorganization in infancy. International Journal of Behavioral Development,
  • (2), 142-154.
  • Stansbury, K., Zimmermann, L. K. (1999). Relations among child language skills, maternal socialization of emotion regulation, and child behavior problems. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 30(2), 121-142.
  • Thompson, R.A. (1994). Emotion Regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for
  • Research In Child Development, 59(2/3), 25-52.

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Poster Presentation
Authors

Ayşe IŞIK


Figen TURAN

Publication Date June 24, 2015
Application Date June 24, 2015
Acceptance Date September 18, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2015, Volume , Issue

Cite

APA Işık, A. & Turan, F. (2015). Normal Gelişim Gösteren ve Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu Olan Çocuklarda Duygu Düzenleme . Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal , 3rd National Congress of Child Development and Education (International Participations) (Congress Book) , . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/husbfd/issue/7893/103935