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A Child Psychiatry Clinical Sample of Adolescents’ Covid-19 Perception and Compliance with Measures

Year 2021, Volume 18, Issue 2, 297 - 305, 27.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.35440/hutfd.888635

Abstract

Background: Our study aimed to assess the Covid-19 perception of adolescents who admitted to child psychiatry outpatients and their compliance with preventive measures. In addition, we evaluated whether there was an increase in the psychological distress of the participants during the pandemic. Materials and Methods: A study invitation and a questionnaire link were sent to the parents of 12-18 years old adolescents who applied to child and adolescent psychiatry outpatients for any reason in the 3-month period before the Covid-19 pandemic onset. Between April-May 2020, 32 girls and 21 boys filled the online survey. The survey included the Childhood Depression Inventory and The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders and questions for obtaining sociodemographic data, questions about adolescents' perception of Covid-19 infection and questions asking about whether there was an increase in their psychological distress. Results: 66% of the adolescents perceived Covid-19 as a health threat, 60.4% reported that they were obeying Covid-19 preventive measures. 30.4% were using a mask, 90.6% were covering their mouth and nose while sneezing, and 94.3% were paying attention to social distance. While the use of immune system support products was found to be statistically significantly higher in female adolescents (x2=6.359; p=0.017), there was no difference in terms of other health behaviors. 32.1% of the adolescents reported an increase in complaints that caused them to refer to child psychiatry outpatients. The diagnostic status or the anxiety or depression level of the adolescents were not found to influence their compliance. Conclusion: The study results showed the adolescents, who had child psychiatry outpatient referral history in the pre-pandemic period and had higher levels of psychiatric complaints than the general community, complied Covid-19 precautions at a moderate-good level. Also, about a third of them experienced an increase in their application complaints.

References

  • 1. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(8):727-33.
  • 2. Cucinotta D, Vanelli M. WHO declares COVID-19 a pandemic. Acta Biomed. 2020;91(1):157-60.
  • 3. Şeker M, Özer A, Tosun Z, Korkut C, Doğrul M. COVID-19 küresel salgın değerlendirme raporu. Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Yayınları, TÜBA Raporları. 2020;34. Available from http://www.tuba.gov.tr/files/images/2020/kovidraporu/Covid-19%20Raporu-Final%2B.pdf. (access Jan 19, 2021)
  • 4. World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports. (access Jan 16, 2021)
  • 5. Pradhan D, Biswasroy P, Ghosh G, Rath G. A review of current interventions for COVID-19 prevention. Arch Med Res. 2020;51(5):363-74.
  • 6. Demirbilek Y, Pehlivantürk G, Özgüler ZÖ, Alp Meşe E. COVID-19 outbreak control, example of ministry of health of Turkey. Turk J Med Sci. 2020;50(3):489-94.
  • 7. Erikson EH. Identity and life Cycle. New York: Norton; 1980.
  • 8. Dayan J, Bernard A, Olliac B, Mailhes AS, Kermarrec S. Adolescent brain development, risk taking and vulnerability to addiction. J Physiol Paris. 2010;104(5):279-86.
  • 9. Blos P. The second individuation process of adolescence. Psychoanal Study Child. 1967;22:162-86.
  • 10. Nivette A, Ribeaud D, Murray A, Steinhoff A, Bechtiger L, Hepp U, et al. Non-compliance with covid-19-related public health measures among young adults in Switzerland: insights from a longitudinal cohort study. Soc Sci Med. 2021;268:e113370.
  • 11. Park CL, Russell BS, Fendrich M, Finkelstein-Fox L, Hutchison M, Becker J. Americans' COVID-19 stress, coping, and adherence to CDC guidelines. J Gen Intern Med. 2020;35(8):2296-303.
  • 12. CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Severe outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) United States, February 12-March 16, 2020 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(12):343-46.
  • 13. Petersen AC, Hamburg BA. Adolescence: A developmental approach to problems and psychopathology. Behav Ther. 1986;17(5):480-99.
  • 14. Costello EJ, Mustillo S, Erkanli A, Keeler G, Angold A. Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60(8):837-44.15.
  • 15. Newman DL, Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Magdol L, Silva PA, Stanton WR. Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance, and new case incidence from ages 11 to 21. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996;64(3):552-62.
  • 16. Fegert JM, Vitiello B, Plener Pl, Clemens V. Challenges and burden of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for child and adolescent mental health: a narrative review to highlight clinical and research needs in the acute phase and the long return to normality. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2020;14:e20.17.
  • 17. Fluori E, Tzavidis N, Kallis C. Adverse life events, area socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychopathology and resilience in young children: the importance of risk factors’ accumulation and protective factors’ specificity. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;19(6):535-46.
  • 18. Salleh M. Life event, stress and illness. Malays J Med Sci. 2009;15(4):9-18.
  • 19. Schneiderman N, Ironson G, Siegel SD. Stress and health: psychological, behavioral, and biological determinants. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2005;1(1):607-28.20.
  • 20. Compas BE, Orosan PG, Grant KE. Adolescent stress and coping: implications for psychopathology during adolescence J Adolesc. 1993;16(3):331-49.
  • 21. Hartman CA, Rommelse N, van der Klugt CL, Wanders RBK, Timmerman ME. Stress exposure and the course of ADHD from childhood to young adulthood: comorbid severe emotion dysregulation or mood and anxiety problems. J Clin Med. 2019;8(11):1824-39.
  • 22. Kendler KS, Thornton LM, Prescott CA. Gender differences in the rates of exposure to stressful life events and sensitivity to their depressogenic effects. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;58(4):587-93.
  • 23. Bouma EMC, Ormel J, Verhulst FC, Oldehinkel AJ. Stressful life events and depressive problems in early adolescent boys and girls: the influence of parental depression, temperament and family environment. J Affect Disord. 2008;105(1-3):185-93.
  • 24. Wong CY, Tang CS. Practice of habitual and volitional health behaviors to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. J Adolesc Health. 2005;36(3):193-200.
  • 25. Kovacs M. The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). Psychopharmacol Bull. 1985;21(4):995-98.26.
  • 26. Öy B. Children’s Depression Inventory: validity and reliability study. Turkish J Psychiatry. 1991;2:132-36.
  • 27. Birmaher B, Khetarpal S, Brent D, Cully M, Balach L, Kaufman J, et al. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): scale construction and psychometric characteristics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(7):545-53. 28. Karaceylan Cakmakci F. Reliability and validity of SCARED in Turkish children (PhD dissertation). Kocaeli: Kocaeli University; 2005.
  • 29. Commodari E, La Rosa VL. Adolescents in quarantine during COVID-19 pandemic in Italy: perceived health risk, beliefs, psychological experiences and expectations for the future. Front Psychol. 2020;11:e559951.
  • 30. Dardas LA, Khalaf I, Nabolsi M, Nassar O, Halasa S. Developing an understanding of adolescents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward COVID-19. J Sch Nurs. 2020;36(6):430-41.
  • 31. Cohen AK, Hoyt LT, Dull B. A descriptive study of coronavirus disease 2019 related experiences and perspectives of a national sample of college students in spring. J Adolesc Health. 2020;67(3):369-75.
  • 32. Saurabh K, Ranjan S. Compliance and psychological impact of quarantine in children and adolescents due to Covid-19 pandemic. Indian J Pediatr. 2020;87(7):532-36.
  • 33. Hamulka J, Jeruszka-Bielak M, Gornicka M, Drywien ME, Zielinska-Pukos MA. Dietary supplements during COVID-19 outbreak. Results of Google Trends Analysis Supported by PLifeCOVID-19 Online Studies. Nutrients. 2021;13(1):54-71.
  • 34. Mertens G, Gerritsen L, Duijndam S, Salemink E, Engelhard I. Fear of the coronavirus (COVID-19): predictors in an online study conducted in March 2020. J Anxiety Disord. 2020;74:e102258.
  • 35. Youngminds, 2020, March. Coronavirus: Impact on young people with mental health needs. Available from: https://youngminds.org.uk/media/3708/coronavirusreport_march2020.pdf. (access Jan 19, 2021)
  • 36. Guessoum SB, Lachal J, Radjack R, Carretier E, Minassian S, Benoit L, Moro MR. Adolescent psychiatric disorders during the covid-19 pandemic and lockdown. Psychiatry Res. 2020;291:e113264.
  • 37. Zhou SJ, Zhang LG, Wang LL, Guo ZC, Wang JQ, Chen JC, et al. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of psychological health problems in Chinese adolescents during the outbreak of COVID-19. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020;29:749-58.
  • 38. Liu N, Zhang F, Wei C, Jia Y, Shang Z, Sun L, et al. Prevalence and predictors of PTSS during COVID-19 outbreak in China hardest-hit areas: gender differences matter Psychiatry Res. 2020;287: e112921.
  • 39. Singh S, Roy D, Sinha K, Parveen S, Sharma G, Joshi G. Impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on mental health of children and adolescents: a narrative review with recommendations. Psychiatry Res. 2020;20:e113429.

Bir Çocuk Psikiyatrisi Klinik Örnekleminde Ergenlerin Covid-19 Algısı ve Tedbirlere Uyumu

Year 2021, Volume 18, Issue 2, 297 - 305, 27.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.35440/hutfd.888635

Abstract

Amaç: Çalışmamız, çocuk psikiyatrisi polikliniğine başvuran ergenlerin Covid-19 algılarını ve önleyici tedbirlere uyumlarını değerlendirmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Ayrıca pandemi sırasında katılımcıların psikolojik sıkıntılarında artış olup olmadığı değerlendirilmiştir. Materyal ve metod: Covid-19 pandemi başlangıcından önceki 3 aylık dönemde herhangi bir nedenle çocuk ve ergen psikiyatri polikliniğine başvuran 12-18 yaş ergenlerin ebeveynlerine çalışma davetiyesi ve anket linki gönderilmiştir. Nisan-Mayıs 2020 arasında 32 kız ve 21 erkek çevrimiçi anketi doldurmuştur. Ankette Çocukluk Depresyon Envanteri ve Çocukluk Çağı Kaygı Bozuklukları Özbildirim Ölçeği Çocuk Formu ile sosyodemografik veriler elde edilmesine yönelik sorular, ergenlerin Covid-19 enfeksiyonu algısına ilişkin sorular ve psikolojik sıkıntılarında artış olup olmadığına dair sorular yer almaktadır. Bulgular: Ergenlerin % 66'sı Covid-19'u sağlık tehdidi olarak algıladı, %60,4'ü Covid-19 önleyici tedbirlere uyduğunu bildirmiştir. Ergenlerin %30,4'ü maske kullanıyor, %90,6'sı hapşırırken ağzını ve burnunu kapatıyor, %94,3'ü sosyal mesafeye dikkat ediyordu. Kız ergenlerde bağışıklık sistemi destek ürünleri kullanımı istatistiksel olarak anlamlı düzeyde yüksek bulunurken (x2 = 6,359; p = 0,017), diğer sağlık davranışları açısından fark yoktu. Ergenlerin% 32,1'i çocuk psikiyatrisi polikliniklerine başvurmalarına neden olan şikayetlerinde artış olduğunu bildirmiştir. Ergenlerin tanısal durumlarının ve anksiyete veya depresyon düzeylerinin uyumlarını etkilemediği görülmüştür. Sonuç: Çalışma sonuçları, pandemi öncesi dönemde çocuk psikiyatrisi poliklinik başvuru öyküsü olan ve genel topluma göre daha yüksek düzeyde psikiyatrik yakınmaları olan ergenlerin orta-iyi düzeyde Covid-19 önlemlerine uyduğunu göstermiştir. Ayrıca, yaklaşık üçte biri başvuru şikayetlerinde artış yaşamıştır.

References

  • 1. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(8):727-33.
  • 2. Cucinotta D, Vanelli M. WHO declares COVID-19 a pandemic. Acta Biomed. 2020;91(1):157-60.
  • 3. Şeker M, Özer A, Tosun Z, Korkut C, Doğrul M. COVID-19 küresel salgın değerlendirme raporu. Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Yayınları, TÜBA Raporları. 2020;34. Available from http://www.tuba.gov.tr/files/images/2020/kovidraporu/Covid-19%20Raporu-Final%2B.pdf. (access Jan 19, 2021)
  • 4. World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports. (access Jan 16, 2021)
  • 5. Pradhan D, Biswasroy P, Ghosh G, Rath G. A review of current interventions for COVID-19 prevention. Arch Med Res. 2020;51(5):363-74.
  • 6. Demirbilek Y, Pehlivantürk G, Özgüler ZÖ, Alp Meşe E. COVID-19 outbreak control, example of ministry of health of Turkey. Turk J Med Sci. 2020;50(3):489-94.
  • 7. Erikson EH. Identity and life Cycle. New York: Norton; 1980.
  • 8. Dayan J, Bernard A, Olliac B, Mailhes AS, Kermarrec S. Adolescent brain development, risk taking and vulnerability to addiction. J Physiol Paris. 2010;104(5):279-86.
  • 9. Blos P. The second individuation process of adolescence. Psychoanal Study Child. 1967;22:162-86.
  • 10. Nivette A, Ribeaud D, Murray A, Steinhoff A, Bechtiger L, Hepp U, et al. Non-compliance with covid-19-related public health measures among young adults in Switzerland: insights from a longitudinal cohort study. Soc Sci Med. 2021;268:e113370.
  • 11. Park CL, Russell BS, Fendrich M, Finkelstein-Fox L, Hutchison M, Becker J. Americans' COVID-19 stress, coping, and adherence to CDC guidelines. J Gen Intern Med. 2020;35(8):2296-303.
  • 12. CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Severe outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) United States, February 12-March 16, 2020 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(12):343-46.
  • 13. Petersen AC, Hamburg BA. Adolescence: A developmental approach to problems and psychopathology. Behav Ther. 1986;17(5):480-99.
  • 14. Costello EJ, Mustillo S, Erkanli A, Keeler G, Angold A. Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60(8):837-44.15.
  • 15. Newman DL, Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Magdol L, Silva PA, Stanton WR. Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance, and new case incidence from ages 11 to 21. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996;64(3):552-62.
  • 16. Fegert JM, Vitiello B, Plener Pl, Clemens V. Challenges and burden of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for child and adolescent mental health: a narrative review to highlight clinical and research needs in the acute phase and the long return to normality. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2020;14:e20.17.
  • 17. Fluori E, Tzavidis N, Kallis C. Adverse life events, area socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychopathology and resilience in young children: the importance of risk factors’ accumulation and protective factors’ specificity. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;19(6):535-46.
  • 18. Salleh M. Life event, stress and illness. Malays J Med Sci. 2009;15(4):9-18.
  • 19. Schneiderman N, Ironson G, Siegel SD. Stress and health: psychological, behavioral, and biological determinants. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2005;1(1):607-28.20.
  • 20. Compas BE, Orosan PG, Grant KE. Adolescent stress and coping: implications for psychopathology during adolescence J Adolesc. 1993;16(3):331-49.
  • 21. Hartman CA, Rommelse N, van der Klugt CL, Wanders RBK, Timmerman ME. Stress exposure and the course of ADHD from childhood to young adulthood: comorbid severe emotion dysregulation or mood and anxiety problems. J Clin Med. 2019;8(11):1824-39.
  • 22. Kendler KS, Thornton LM, Prescott CA. Gender differences in the rates of exposure to stressful life events and sensitivity to their depressogenic effects. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;58(4):587-93.
  • 23. Bouma EMC, Ormel J, Verhulst FC, Oldehinkel AJ. Stressful life events and depressive problems in early adolescent boys and girls: the influence of parental depression, temperament and family environment. J Affect Disord. 2008;105(1-3):185-93.
  • 24. Wong CY, Tang CS. Practice of habitual and volitional health behaviors to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. J Adolesc Health. 2005;36(3):193-200.
  • 25. Kovacs M. The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). Psychopharmacol Bull. 1985;21(4):995-98.26.
  • 26. Öy B. Children’s Depression Inventory: validity and reliability study. Turkish J Psychiatry. 1991;2:132-36.
  • 27. Birmaher B, Khetarpal S, Brent D, Cully M, Balach L, Kaufman J, et al. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): scale construction and psychometric characteristics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(7):545-53. 28. Karaceylan Cakmakci F. Reliability and validity of SCARED in Turkish children (PhD dissertation). Kocaeli: Kocaeli University; 2005.
  • 29. Commodari E, La Rosa VL. Adolescents in quarantine during COVID-19 pandemic in Italy: perceived health risk, beliefs, psychological experiences and expectations for the future. Front Psychol. 2020;11:e559951.
  • 30. Dardas LA, Khalaf I, Nabolsi M, Nassar O, Halasa S. Developing an understanding of adolescents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward COVID-19. J Sch Nurs. 2020;36(6):430-41.
  • 31. Cohen AK, Hoyt LT, Dull B. A descriptive study of coronavirus disease 2019 related experiences and perspectives of a national sample of college students in spring. J Adolesc Health. 2020;67(3):369-75.
  • 32. Saurabh K, Ranjan S. Compliance and psychological impact of quarantine in children and adolescents due to Covid-19 pandemic. Indian J Pediatr. 2020;87(7):532-36.
  • 33. Hamulka J, Jeruszka-Bielak M, Gornicka M, Drywien ME, Zielinska-Pukos MA. Dietary supplements during COVID-19 outbreak. Results of Google Trends Analysis Supported by PLifeCOVID-19 Online Studies. Nutrients. 2021;13(1):54-71.
  • 34. Mertens G, Gerritsen L, Duijndam S, Salemink E, Engelhard I. Fear of the coronavirus (COVID-19): predictors in an online study conducted in March 2020. J Anxiety Disord. 2020;74:e102258.
  • 35. Youngminds, 2020, March. Coronavirus: Impact on young people with mental health needs. Available from: https://youngminds.org.uk/media/3708/coronavirusreport_march2020.pdf. (access Jan 19, 2021)
  • 36. Guessoum SB, Lachal J, Radjack R, Carretier E, Minassian S, Benoit L, Moro MR. Adolescent psychiatric disorders during the covid-19 pandemic and lockdown. Psychiatry Res. 2020;291:e113264.
  • 37. Zhou SJ, Zhang LG, Wang LL, Guo ZC, Wang JQ, Chen JC, et al. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of psychological health problems in Chinese adolescents during the outbreak of COVID-19. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020;29:749-58.
  • 38. Liu N, Zhang F, Wei C, Jia Y, Shang Z, Sun L, et al. Prevalence and predictors of PTSS during COVID-19 outbreak in China hardest-hit areas: gender differences matter Psychiatry Res. 2020;287: e112921.
  • 39. Singh S, Roy D, Sinha K, Parveen S, Sharma G, Joshi G. Impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on mental health of children and adolescents: a narrative review with recommendations. Psychiatry Res. 2020;20:e113429.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Medicine
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Ömer BAŞAY (Primary Author)
PAU. Tıp Fakültesi Çocuk ve Ergen Ruh Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları AD
0000-0001-7816-3983
Türkiye


Bürge KABUKCU BAŞAY
PAMUKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-4124-2340
Türkiye


Funda ÖZTÜRK
PAMUKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-3029-3794
Türkiye

Publication Date August 27, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 18, Issue 2

Cite

Vancouver Başay Ö. , Kabukcu Başay B. , Öztürk F. A Child Psychiatry Clinical Sample of Adolescents’ Covid-19 Perception and Compliance with Measures. Harran Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi. 2021; 18(2): 297-305.

Harran Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi  / Journal of Harran University Medical Faculty