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On the Appropriate Interpretation of Revealed Comparative Advantage Indexes

Year 2022, Issue 13, 176 - 202, 25.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.21733/ibad.1109313

Abstract

In this study, Balassa’s revealed comparative advantage index and the indexes of logarithmic revealed comparative advantage, symmetric revealed comparative advantage, weighted revealed comparative advantage, which are defined as an increasing function of the initial one, have been investigated theoretically and empirically from the point of consistency. In theoretical investigating the apparatus for evaluating consistency is the notion of Pearson’s sample correlation. Empirical investigating has been based on the foreign trade data for the year of 2020 of four digits subsectors of Turkish manufacturing industry classified according to ISIC (Rev. 4). The findings obtained from both theoretical and empirical investigating can be listed as follows: If any pair of the indexes mentioned above depend on each other linearly, then they are perfectly consistent as cardinal measure; but if not, they are not perfectly consistent. Moreover, even if they are depend on each other linearly or not, the following result is valid all the time: They are perfectly consistent without no condition when they are interpreted as ordinal measure; and are also perfectly consistent when they are interpreted as dichotomous measure provided that their neutral points are compatible.

References

  • Altay, B. ve Gürpınar, K. (2008). Açıklanmış karşılaştırmalı üstünlükler ve bazı rekabet gücü endeksleri: Türk mobilya sektörü üzerine bir uygulama. Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 10 (1), 257-274.
  • Ashish, A. ve Kannan, E. (2015). Analysis of India's revealed comparative advantage in agro-processed products. Indian Journal of Economics and Business, 14 (1), 115-130.
  • Atlas, E. (2019). Türkiye-BRICS ülkeleri dış ticaretinin sektörel rekabet gücü analizi: (2008-2017) dönemi üzerine bir uygulama. (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Isparta.
  • Balassa, B. (1965). Trade liberalisation and “revealed” comparative advantage. The Manchester School, 33 (2), 99-123.
  • Balassa, B. (1977). “Revealed” comparative advantage revisited: An analysis of relative export shares of the industrial countries, 1953–1971. The Manchester School, 45 (4), 327-344.
  • Ballance, R. H., Forstner, H. ve Murray, T. (1987). Consistency tests of alternative measures of comparative advantage. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 157-161.
  • Bebek, U. G. (2017). RCA: Choosing the right measure. Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
  • Bowen, H. P. (1983). On the theoretical interpretation of indices of trade intensity and revealed comparative advantage. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 119 (3), 464-472.
  • Dalum, B., Laursen, K. ve Villumsen, G. (1998). Structural change in OECD export specialisation patterns: De-specialisation and ‘stickiness’. International Review of Applied Economics, 12 (3), 423-443.
  • De Benedictis, L. ve Tamberi, M. (2001). A note on the Balassa index of revealed comparative advantage. Available at SSRN 289602.
  • Deb, K. ve Basu, P. (2011). Indices of revealed comparative advantage and their consistency with the Heckscher-Ohlin theory: A cross sectional analysis. Foreign Trade Review, 46 (3), 3-28.
  • Donges, J. B., ve Riedel, J. (1977). The expansion of manufactured exports in developing countries: An empirical assessment of supply and demand issues. Review of World Economics, 113 (1), 58-87.
  • Erkan, B. (2012). Ülkelerin karşılaştırmalı ihracat performanslarının açıklanmış karşılaştırmalı üstünlük katsayılarıyla belirlenmesi: Türkiye-Suriye örneği. Uluslararası Yönetim İktisat ve İşletme Dergisi, 8 (15), 195-218.
  • Erkesim, A. A. (2020). Türkiye’de halı sektörünün dış ticaretinin ve rekabet gücünün değerlendirilmesi. (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Dış Ticaret Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
  • Fertö, I. ve Hubbard, L. J. (2003). Revealed comparative advantage and competitiveness in Hungarian agri–food sectors. World Economy, 26 (2), 247-259.
  • Gnidchenko, A. ve Salnikov, V. (2015). Net comparative advantage index: Overcoming the drawbacks of the existing indices. Higher School of Economics Research Paper No. WP BRP, 119.
  • Hoen, A. R. ve Oosterhaven, J. (2006). On the measurement of comparative advantage. The Annals of Regional Science, 40 (3), 677-691.
  • Jagdambe, S. (2016). Analysis of revealed comparative advantage in export of India's agricultural products. Institute for Social and Economic Change.
  • Jagdambe, S. (2019). Consistency test of revealed comparative advantage index: Evidence from India’s agricultural export. Foreign Trade Review, 54 (1), 16-28.
  • Jiang, T. (2004). The asymptotic distributions of the largest entries of sample correlation matrices. The Annals of Applied Probability, 14 (2), 865-880.
  • Khai, N. X., Ismail, M. M. ve Sidique, S. F. (2016). Consistency tests of comparative advantage measures: An empirical evidence from the Malaysian and selected Asian shrimp products. International Food Research Journal, 23 (6).
  • Lafay, G. (1992). The measurement of revealed comparative advantages. M.G. Dagenais and P.A. Muet (eds.), International Trade Modelling. London: Chapman & Hill.
  • Laursen, K. (1998). Revealed comparative advantage and the alternatives as measures of international specialisation. DRUID Working Paper, No. 98-30.
  • Liesner, H. H. (1958). The European common market and British industry. The Economic Journal, 68 (270), 302-316.
  • Oduro, A. D. ve Offei, E. L. (2014). Investigating Ghana’s revealed comparative advantage in agro-processed products. Modern Economy, 2014.
  • Proudman, J. ve Redding, S. J. (1997). Persistence and mobility in international trade. The Bank of England, UK.
  • Ravgotra, S. ve Kaur, H. (2017). Revealed comparative advantage of India and China. International Journal of Economics, 7 (4), 17-28.
  • Ruben, H. (1966). Some new results on the distribution of the sample correlation coefficient. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 28 (3), 513-525.
  • Sanidas, E. ve Shin, Y. (2010, July). Comparison of revealed comparative advantage indices with application to trade tendencies of East Asian countries. In 9th Korea and the World Economy Conference, Incheon.
  • Silverman, R. A. (1985). Calculus with analytic geometry. Prentice Hall.
  • Şahinli, M. A. (2011). Açıklanmış karşılaştırmalı üstünlükler endeksi: Türkiye pamuk endüstrisi üzerine bir uygulama. Sosyal Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 11 (21), 227-240.
  • Vollrath, T. L. (1991). A theoretical evaluation of alternative trade intensity measures of revealed comparative advantage. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 127 (2): 265–280.
  • Yalçınkaya, M. H., Çılbant, C., Erataş, F. ve Hartoğlu, D. (2014). Açıklanmış karşılaştırmalı üstünlükler ekseninde rekabet gücünün analizi: Türk-Çin dış ticareti üzerine bir uygulama. Yönetim ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 12 (24), 41-57.
  • Yeats, A. J. (1985). On the appropriate interpretation of the revealed comparative advantage index: Implications of a methodology based on industry sector analysis. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 121 (1): 61–73.
  • Yu, R., Cai, J. ve Leung, P. (2009). The normalized revealed comparative advantage index. The Annals of Regional Science, 43 (1), 267-282.

Açıklanmış Karşılaştırmalı Üstünlük Göstergelerinin Uygun Anlamlandırılmaları Üzerine

Year 2022, Issue 13, 176 - 202, 25.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.21733/ibad.1109313

Abstract

Bu çalışmada Balassa’nın açıklanmış karşılaştırmalı üstünlük göstergesi ile onun artan bir işlevi olarak tanımlanan logaritmik açıklanmış karşılaştırmalı üstünlük, simetrik açıklanmış karşılaştırmalı üstünlük, ağırlıklandırılmış açıklanmış karşılaştırmalı üstünlük göstergeleri tutarlılıkları bakımından kuramsal ve görgül olarak incelenmiştir. Kuramsal incelemede tutarlılığı değerlendirmek için kullanılan araç Pearson’un gözlemsel korelasyon kavramıdır. Görgül inceleme ise 2020 yılı için ISIC (Rev. 4) sınıflandırmasına göre Türkiye imalat sanayiinin dört basamaklı alt sektörlerine ilişkin dış ticaret verilerine dayalıdır. Hem kuramsal hem de görgül incelemeye göre elde edilen bulgular şöyledir: Yukarıda dile getirilen kapsamdaki herhangi iki gösterge birbirlerine doğrusal olarak bağlı ise sayısal ölçü olarak yetkin bir biçimde tutarlıdır, değil ise tutarlı değildir. Bununla birlikte anılan iki gösterge birbirlerine doğrusal olarak bağlı olsalar da olmasalar da şu sonuç geçerlidir: Bu iki gösterge sırasal ölçü olarak anlamlandırıldığında koşulsuz olarak yetkin bir biçimde tutarlıdır; iki-sınıfsal ölçü olarak anlamlandırıldığında yetkin bir biçimde tutarlı olmak ise iki göstergenin nötr noktalarının uyumluluğu koşuluna bağlıdır.

References

  • Altay, B. ve Gürpınar, K. (2008). Açıklanmış karşılaştırmalı üstünlükler ve bazı rekabet gücü endeksleri: Türk mobilya sektörü üzerine bir uygulama. Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 10 (1), 257-274.
  • Ashish, A. ve Kannan, E. (2015). Analysis of India's revealed comparative advantage in agro-processed products. Indian Journal of Economics and Business, 14 (1), 115-130.
  • Atlas, E. (2019). Türkiye-BRICS ülkeleri dış ticaretinin sektörel rekabet gücü analizi: (2008-2017) dönemi üzerine bir uygulama. (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Isparta.
  • Balassa, B. (1965). Trade liberalisation and “revealed” comparative advantage. The Manchester School, 33 (2), 99-123.
  • Balassa, B. (1977). “Revealed” comparative advantage revisited: An analysis of relative export shares of the industrial countries, 1953–1971. The Manchester School, 45 (4), 327-344.
  • Ballance, R. H., Forstner, H. ve Murray, T. (1987). Consistency tests of alternative measures of comparative advantage. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 157-161.
  • Bebek, U. G. (2017). RCA: Choosing the right measure. Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
  • Bowen, H. P. (1983). On the theoretical interpretation of indices of trade intensity and revealed comparative advantage. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 119 (3), 464-472.
  • Dalum, B., Laursen, K. ve Villumsen, G. (1998). Structural change in OECD export specialisation patterns: De-specialisation and ‘stickiness’. International Review of Applied Economics, 12 (3), 423-443.
  • De Benedictis, L. ve Tamberi, M. (2001). A note on the Balassa index of revealed comparative advantage. Available at SSRN 289602.
  • Deb, K. ve Basu, P. (2011). Indices of revealed comparative advantage and their consistency with the Heckscher-Ohlin theory: A cross sectional analysis. Foreign Trade Review, 46 (3), 3-28.
  • Donges, J. B., ve Riedel, J. (1977). The expansion of manufactured exports in developing countries: An empirical assessment of supply and demand issues. Review of World Economics, 113 (1), 58-87.
  • Erkan, B. (2012). Ülkelerin karşılaştırmalı ihracat performanslarının açıklanmış karşılaştırmalı üstünlük katsayılarıyla belirlenmesi: Türkiye-Suriye örneği. Uluslararası Yönetim İktisat ve İşletme Dergisi, 8 (15), 195-218.
  • Erkesim, A. A. (2020). Türkiye’de halı sektörünün dış ticaretinin ve rekabet gücünün değerlendirilmesi. (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Dış Ticaret Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
  • Fertö, I. ve Hubbard, L. J. (2003). Revealed comparative advantage and competitiveness in Hungarian agri–food sectors. World Economy, 26 (2), 247-259.
  • Gnidchenko, A. ve Salnikov, V. (2015). Net comparative advantage index: Overcoming the drawbacks of the existing indices. Higher School of Economics Research Paper No. WP BRP, 119.
  • Hoen, A. R. ve Oosterhaven, J. (2006). On the measurement of comparative advantage. The Annals of Regional Science, 40 (3), 677-691.
  • Jagdambe, S. (2016). Analysis of revealed comparative advantage in export of India's agricultural products. Institute for Social and Economic Change.
  • Jagdambe, S. (2019). Consistency test of revealed comparative advantage index: Evidence from India’s agricultural export. Foreign Trade Review, 54 (1), 16-28.
  • Jiang, T. (2004). The asymptotic distributions of the largest entries of sample correlation matrices. The Annals of Applied Probability, 14 (2), 865-880.
  • Khai, N. X., Ismail, M. M. ve Sidique, S. F. (2016). Consistency tests of comparative advantage measures: An empirical evidence from the Malaysian and selected Asian shrimp products. International Food Research Journal, 23 (6).
  • Lafay, G. (1992). The measurement of revealed comparative advantages. M.G. Dagenais and P.A. Muet (eds.), International Trade Modelling. London: Chapman & Hill.
  • Laursen, K. (1998). Revealed comparative advantage and the alternatives as measures of international specialisation. DRUID Working Paper, No. 98-30.
  • Liesner, H. H. (1958). The European common market and British industry. The Economic Journal, 68 (270), 302-316.
  • Oduro, A. D. ve Offei, E. L. (2014). Investigating Ghana’s revealed comparative advantage in agro-processed products. Modern Economy, 2014.
  • Proudman, J. ve Redding, S. J. (1997). Persistence and mobility in international trade. The Bank of England, UK.
  • Ravgotra, S. ve Kaur, H. (2017). Revealed comparative advantage of India and China. International Journal of Economics, 7 (4), 17-28.
  • Ruben, H. (1966). Some new results on the distribution of the sample correlation coefficient. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 28 (3), 513-525.
  • Sanidas, E. ve Shin, Y. (2010, July). Comparison of revealed comparative advantage indices with application to trade tendencies of East Asian countries. In 9th Korea and the World Economy Conference, Incheon.
  • Silverman, R. A. (1985). Calculus with analytic geometry. Prentice Hall.
  • Şahinli, M. A. (2011). Açıklanmış karşılaştırmalı üstünlükler endeksi: Türkiye pamuk endüstrisi üzerine bir uygulama. Sosyal Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 11 (21), 227-240.
  • Vollrath, T. L. (1991). A theoretical evaluation of alternative trade intensity measures of revealed comparative advantage. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 127 (2): 265–280.
  • Yalçınkaya, M. H., Çılbant, C., Erataş, F. ve Hartoğlu, D. (2014). Açıklanmış karşılaştırmalı üstünlükler ekseninde rekabet gücünün analizi: Türk-Çin dış ticareti üzerine bir uygulama. Yönetim ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 12 (24), 41-57.
  • Yeats, A. J. (1985). On the appropriate interpretation of the revealed comparative advantage index: Implications of a methodology based on industry sector analysis. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 121 (1): 61–73.
  • Yu, R., Cai, J. ve Leung, P. (2009). The normalized revealed comparative advantage index. The Annals of Regional Science, 43 (1), 267-282.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social
Journal Section Original Articles
Authors

Ayşenur AVAR> (Primary Author)
AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ, EKONOMETRİ BÖLÜMÜ, EKONOMETRİ ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0002-6657-3552
Türkiye


Adil KORKMAZ>
AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2432-518X
Türkiye

Early Pub Date December 2, 2022
Publication Date December 25, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume , Issue 13

Cite

APA Avar, A. & Korkmaz, A. (2022). Açıklanmış Karşılaştırmalı Üstünlük Göstergelerinin Uygun Anlamlandırılmaları Üzerine . IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , (13) , 176-202 . DOI: 10.21733/ibad.1109313

IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / IBAD Journal of Social Sciences / IBAD

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