Year 2020, Volume , Issue 10, Pages 77 - 93 2020-04-17

İnsan-COVID-19'da Pandemik SARS Coronavirus-2 Enfeksiyonları
Pandemic SARS Coronavirus-2 Infections in Humans-COVID-19

Nasir MUSTAFA [1] , Hina ZAHOOR [2] , Fuzail M. MAJOO [3]


İlk olarak Wuhan'da (Çin) patlak veren Şiddetli Akut Solunum Sendromu Koronavirüs 2 (SARS-CoV-2), sonrasında dünyaya yayılmıştır. Koronavirüsler (CoVs) başlarda kuşlarda ve memelilerde zoonotik enfeksiyonlara neden olurken, son birkaç yılda insanları da enfekte edebildiği gösterilmiştir. 2003 yılında Şiddetli Akut Solunum Sendromu'nun (SARS) ve son zamanlarda Orta Doğu Solunum Sendromunun (MERS) patlak vermesi, CoV'lerin tür bariyerini geçip insanları enfekte ettiklerinde ölümcül olduklarını göstermiştir. Koronavirüs (CoV), soğuk algınlığından Orta Doğu Solunum Sendromu (MERS-CoV) ve Şiddetli Akut Solunum Sendromu (SARS-CoV) gibi daha şiddetli patolojilere kadar çeşitli rahatsızlıklara neden olan büyük bir virüs ailesidir. Yeni koronavirüs (nCoV), insanlarda daha önce tanımlanmamış yeni bir suş türüdür. Aralık 2019’da tanımlanan yeni koronavirüs, araştırmacılar tarafından genel olarak CoVID-19 olarak adlandırılmıştır. Yapılan ayrıntılı araştırmalarda, SARS Coronavirus-2'nin başlangıçta misk kedilerinden, MERS-CoV'un ise tek hörgüçlü develerden insanlara bulaştığı bulunmuştur. Biyoloji alanındaki gelişmeler koranavirüsün, yeni ortamlara adaptasyonu, trans-tür enfeksiyonu ve yeni alt tiplerinin ortaya çıkması da dahil olmak üzere daha iyi anlaşılmasını sağlamıştır. Hücre ve moleküler biyolojide kullanılan yeni araçlar, hücre içi replikasyon ve viral hücre biyolojisinin daha iyi anlaşılmasını sağlamıştır. Son beş yılda ters genetik yaklaşımların ortaya çıkmasıyla birlikte; artık viral replikasyonun, trans-tür adaptasyonunun ve insan hastalığının belirleyicilerini tanımlamaya başlamak mümkündür. Bu derlemede, CoV'nin yaşam döngüsü, genetiği, replikasyon süreci ve SCoV'ye ters genetik uygulamalarının araştırılması ile ilgili ilerlemelerle ilgili bilgi verilecektir. Bu derleme, yakın zamanda kaydedilen ilerlemeyi vurgulayarak ve önceki bilgilerle karşılaştırarak CoV-2 hakkındaki mevcut bilgileri oluşturmayı amaçlamaktadır. Ayrıca, bulaşma ve tedavi seçenekleri için risk faktörlerini azaltmaya yönelik uygulamalar hakkında kısa bir tartışma ele alınmıştır.

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) first broke out in Wuhan (China) and subsequently spread worldwide. Coronaviruses (CoVs) primarily cause zoonotic infections in birds and mammals however, in the last few decades have shown to be capable of infecting humans as well. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and more recently, Middle-East respiratory syndrome, (MERS) has demonstrated the lethality of CoVs when they cross the species barrier and infect humans. Coronavirus (CoV) is a large family of viruses that cause afflictions ranging from the common cold to more severe pathologies such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has now been identified in humans. The recognition of a new coronavirus identified in December 2019, named CoVID-19 are common for coronavirus researchers. Detailed investigations found that SARS Coronavirus-2 was initially transmitted from civets to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans. Advances in biology have resulted in a greater understanding of coronavirus, including them to adapt to new environments, trans-species infection and the emergence of new subtypes. New tools of cell and molecular biology have led to an increased understanding of intracellular replication and viral cell biology. Along with the advent of reverse genetic approaches in the past five years; it is now possible to begin to define the determinants of viral replication, trans-species adaptation, and human disease. The most progress has been made on SARS-CoV 2, highlighting specific structural requirements for its functions in the CoV life cycle as well as mechanisms behind its pathogenesis. In this review, we will provide a through insight to the life cycle of CoV, its genetics, replication process and reverse genetic applications to SCoV along with advances in its research. This review aims to establish the current knowledge on CoV-2 by highlighting the recent progress that has been made and comparing it to previous knowledge. We also conclude with a brief discussion on practices to decrease risk factors for transmission and treatment options. 

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Primary Language en
Subjects Medicine
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-5821-9297
Author: Nasir MUSTAFA (Primary Author)
Institution: ISTANBUL GELISIM UNIVERSITY
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0003-2322-5678
Author: Hina ZAHOOR
Institution: ISTANBUL GELISIM UNIVERSITY
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-4413-8795
Author: Fuzail M. MAJOO
Institution: ISTANBUL GELISIM UNIVERSITY
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : April 17, 2020

Bibtex @review { igusabder695778, journal = {İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {2536-4499}, eissn = {2602-2605}, address = {İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Yüksekokulu - Cihangir Mah. Şehit Jandarma Komando Er Hakan Öner Sk. No: 1 Avcılar / İstanbul / Türkiye}, publisher = {İstanbul Gelisim University}, year = {2020}, volume = {}, pages = {77 - 93}, doi = {10.38079/igusabder.695778}, title = {Pandemic SARS Coronavirus-2 Infections in Humans-COVID-19}, key = {cite}, author = {Mustafa, Nasir and Zahoor, Hina and Majoo, Fuzail M.} }
APA Mustafa, N , Zahoor, H , Majoo, F . (2020). Pandemic SARS Coronavirus-2 Infections in Humans-COVID-19 . İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi , (10) , 77-93 . DOI: 10.38079/igusabder.695778
MLA Mustafa, N , Zahoor, H , Majoo, F . "Pandemic SARS Coronavirus-2 Infections in Humans-COVID-19" . İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi (2020 ): 77-93 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/igusabder/issue/53551/695778>
Chicago Mustafa, N , Zahoor, H , Majoo, F . "Pandemic SARS Coronavirus-2 Infections in Humans-COVID-19". İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi (2020 ): 77-93
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Pandemic SARS Coronavirus-2 Infections in Humans-COVID-19 AU - Nasir Mustafa , Hina Zahoor , Fuzail M. Majoo Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.38079/igusabder.695778 DO - 10.38079/igusabder.695778 T2 - İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 77 EP - 93 VL - IS - 10 SN - 2536-4499-2602-2605 M3 - doi: 10.38079/igusabder.695778 UR - https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.695778 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi Pandemic SARS Coronavirus-2 Infections in Humans-COVID-19 %A Nasir Mustafa , Hina Zahoor , Fuzail M. Majoo %T Pandemic SARS Coronavirus-2 Infections in Humans-COVID-19 %D 2020 %J İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi %P 2536-4499-2602-2605 %V %N 10 %R doi: 10.38079/igusabder.695778 %U 10.38079/igusabder.695778
ISNAD Mustafa, Nasir , Zahoor, Hina , Majoo, Fuzail M. . "Pandemic SARS Coronavirus-2 Infections in Humans-COVID-19". İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi / 10 (April 2020): 77-93 . https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.695778
AMA Mustafa N , Zahoor H , Majoo F . Pandemic SARS Coronavirus-2 Infections in Humans-COVID-19. IGUSABDER. 2020; (10): 77-93.
Vancouver Mustafa N , Zahoor H , Majoo F . Pandemic SARS Coronavirus-2 Infections in Humans-COVID-19. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2020; (10): 77-93.
IEEE N. Mustafa , H. Zahoor and F. Majoo , "Pandemic SARS Coronavirus-2 Infections in Humans-COVID-19", İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, no. 10, pp. 77-93, Apr. 2020, doi:10.38079/igusabder.695778