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Primer Dismenorede Telerehabilitasyon: Randomize Kontrollü Bir Çalışma

Year 2023, Issue: 21 - December, 806 - 818, 05.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.1351297

Abstract

Amaç: Primer dismenore, kadınlarda yaygın olarak görülen ve başta ağrı olmak üzere mide bulantısı, kusma, yorgunluk, baş ağrısı, baş dönmesi belirtileri ile seyredebilen anksiyete, depresyon, uyku bozuklukları ve yaşam kalitesinde azalmaya neden olabilen jinekolojik bir hastalıktır. Bu çalışma, primer dismenorede telerehabilitasyon programının menstrual semptomlar üzerine etkisini incelemek amacıyla yapıldı.
Yöntem: Çalışmaya primer dismenoresi olan 60 kadın dahil edildi. Bireyler müdahale grubu (n=30) ve kontrol grubu (n=30) olmak üzere iki gruba randomize edildi. Müdahale grubuna 8 hafta boyunca farklı egzersizleri içeren telerehabilitasyon programı uygulandı. Kontrol grubu ise analjezik ilaç kullandı ve lokal sıcak uyguladı. Bireylerin sosyodemografik bilgileri ve menstrüel özellikleri kaydedildi. Çalışma öncesi ve sonrasında menstrüasyon semptomları Menstrüasyon Semptom Ölçeği (MSÖ) ile değerlendirildi.
Bulgular: Müdahale ve kontrol gruplarının MSÖ alt boyutları ve toplam puanı tedavi öncesi ve sonrası grup içerisinde karşılaştırıldığında her iki grupta da anlamlı fark bulundu (p<0,05). MSÖ’ ye ait negatif etkiler/ somatik yakınmalar, ağrı belirtileri alt boyutları ve toplam puanında tedavi öncesi ve sonrasında müdahale ve kontrol grupları arasında anlamlı bir fark bulundu (p <0,05). Ancak MSÖ’ ye ilişkin baş etme yöntemleri alt boyutunda tedavi öncesinde ve sonrasında gruplar arasında anlamlı bir fark bulunamadı (p>0,05).
Sonuç: Telerehabilitasyon programının primer dismenorede menstrual semptomlar üzerinde iyileştirici etkileri olduğu saptanmıştır. Telerehabilitasyon programı yan etkisi olmayan, uygulaması kolay, zaman tasarrufu sağlayan ve ucuz bir tedavi yöntemidir; menstrual semptomları azaltmak için güvenli bir şekilde uygulanabilir.

References

  • 1. Lefebvre G, Pinsonneault O, Antao V, et al. Primary dysmenorrhea consensus guideline. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2005;27(12):1117-46.
  • 2. Shah M, Monga A, Patel S, Shah M, Bakshi H. A study of prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in young students - a cross-sectional study. Healthline. 2013;4(2):30-34.
  • 3. Şahin S, Kaplan S, Halime A, Akalın A, Demirhan İ, Pınar G. Üniversite öğrencilerinde dismenore yaşama sıklığı ve etkileyen faktörlerin değerlendirilmesi. Ankara Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2015;4(1):25-44.
  • 4. De Sanctis V, Soliman A, Bernasconi S, et al. Primary dysmenorrhea in adolescents: prevalence, impact and recent knowledge. Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews (PER). 2015;13(2):465-73.
  • 5. Harada T. Dysmenorrhea and endometriosis in young women. Yonago Acta Medica. 2013;56(4):81.
  • 6. Osayande AS, Mehulic S. Diagnosis and initial management of dysmenorrhea. American Family Physician. 2014;89(5):341-46.
  • 7. Lee CH, Roh JW, Lim CY, Hong JH, Lee JK, Min EG. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of a far infrared-emitting sericite belt in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2011;19(4):187-93.
  • 8. Dawood MY. Primary dysmenorrhea: Advances in pathogenesis and management. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2006;108(2):428-41.
  • 9. Uysal M, Doğru HY, Sapmaz E, et al. Investigating the effect of rose essential oil in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2016;24:45-49.
  • 10. Hall J. Menstrual disorders and pelvic pain. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2012.
  • 11. Ishikura IA, Hachul H, Pires GN, Tufik S, Andersen ML. The impact of primary dysmenorrhea on sleep and the consequences for adolescent academic performance. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2020;16(3):467-68.
  • 12. Iacovides S, Avidon I, Baker FC. What we know about primary dysmenorrhea today: A critical review. Human Reproduction Update. 2015;21(6):762-78.
  • 13. Yu A. Complementary and alternative treatments for primary dysmenorrhea in adolescents. The Nurse Practitioner. 2014;39(11):1-12.
  • 14. Azima S, Bakhshayesh HR, Kaviani M, Abbasnia K, Sayadi M. Comparison of the effect of massage therapy and isometric exercises on primary dysmenorrhea: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 2015;28(6):486-91.
  • 15. Chao MT, Wade CM, Abercrombie PD, Gomolak D. An innovative acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2014;20(1):49.
  • 16. Chaudhuri A, Singh A, Dhaliwal L. A randomised controlled trial of exercise and hot water bottle in the management of dysmenorrhoea in school girls of Chandigarh, India. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;57(2):114-22.
  • 17. Çelik AS, Apay SE. Effect of progressive relaxation exercises on primary dysmenorrhea in Turkish students: A randomized prospective controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2021;42:101280.
  • 18. Kokjohn K, Schmid DM, Triano JJ, Brennan PC. The effect of spinal manipulation on pain and prostaglandin levels in women with primary dysmenorrhea. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 1992;15(5):279-85.
  • 19. Lauretti GR, Oliveira R, Parada F, Mattos AL. The new portable transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation device was efficacious in the control of primary dysmenorrhea cramp pain. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface. 2015;18(6):522-27.
  • 20. Lim C, Park Y, Bae Y. The effect of the kinesio taping and spiral taping on menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2013;25(7):761-64.
  • 21. Ortiz MI, Cortés-Márquez SK, Romero-Quezada LC, Murguía-Cánovas G, Jaramillo-Díaz AP. Effect of a physiotherapy program in women with primary dysmenorrhea. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2015;194:24-29.
  • 22. Rakhshaee Z. Effect of three yoga poses (cobra, cat and fish poses) in women with primary dysmenorrhea: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 2011;24(4):192-96.
  • 23. Shahr-Jerdy S, Hosseini RS, Gh ME. Effects of stretching exercises on primary dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls. Biomedical Human Kinetics. 2012;4(2012):127-32.
  • 24. Gbiri CA. Perception of the therapeutic benefit of exercise on primary dysmenorrhoea among post-pubertal students in a northwestern city of Nigeria. Ghana Journal of Physiotherapy. 2015;4(1):14-20.
  • 25. Tandon R. COVID-19 and mental health: Preserving humanity, maintaining sanity, and promoting health. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020;51:102256.
  • 26. Seron P, Oliveros MJ, Gutierrez-Arias R, et al. Effectiveness of telerehabilitation in physical therapy: a rapid overview. Physical Therapy. 2021;101(6):pzab053.
  • 27. Carroquino-Garcia P, Jiménez-Rejano JJ, Medrano-Sanchez E, De La Casa-Almeida M, Diaz-Mohedo E, Suarez-Serrano C. Therapeutic exercise in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Physical Therapy. 2019;99(10):1371-80.
  • 28. Armour M, Parry K, Manohar N, et al. The prevalence and academic impact of dysmenorrhea in 21 573 young women: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Women's Health. 2019;28(8):1161-71.
  • 29. Bağcı S. Primer Dismenore Şikayeti Olan Gençlerde Kor Egzersizlerinin Ağrı ve Yaşam Kalitesine Etkisi: Non-Randomize Çalışma. [doktora tezi] Konya: Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Hemşirelik Anabilim Dalı;2021.
  • 30. Motahari-Tabari N, Shirvani MA, Alipour A. Comparison of the effect of stretching exercises and mefenamic acid on the reduction of pain and menstruation characteristics in primary dysmenorrhea: A randomized clinical trial. Oman Medical Journal. 2017;32(1):47.
  • 31. Chesney MA, Tasto DL. The development of the menstrual symptom questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 1975;13(4):237-44.
  • 32. Güvenç G, Seven M, Akyüz A. Menstrüasyon semptom ölçeği'nin Türkçe'ye uyarlanması. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin. 2014;13(5):367-374.
  • 33. Ferries-Rowe E, Corey E, Archer JS. Primary dysmenorrhea: Diagnosis and therapy. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2020;136(5):1047-58.
  • 34. Aboualsoltani F, Bastani P, Khodaie L, Fazljou SMB. Non-pharmacological treatments of primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review. Arch Pharma Pract. 2020;11(S1):136-42.
  • 35. Ju H, Jones M, Mishra G. The prevalence and risk factors of dysmenorrhea. Epidemiologic Reviews. 2014;36(1):104-13.
  • 36. Oladosu FA, Tu FF, Hellman KM. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug resistance in dysmenorrhea: epidemiology, causes, and treatment. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2018;218(4):390-400.
  • 37. Marjoribanks J, Ayeleke RO, Farquhar C, Proctor M, Gynaecology C Group F. Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1996;2015(7):CD001751.
  • 38. Sharghi M, Mansurkhani SM, Larky DA, et al. An update and systematic review on the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. JBRA Assisted Reproduction. 2019;23(1):51.
  • 39. Shirvani MA, Motahari-Tabari N, Alipour A. The effect of mefenamic acid and ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: A randomized clinical trial. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2015;291:1277-81.
  • 40. Kannan P, Claydon LS, Miller D, et al. Vigorous exercises in the management of primary dysmenorrhea: a feasibility study. Disability and Rehabilitation. 2015;37(15):1334-1339.
  • 41. López-Liria R, Torres-Álamo L, Vega-Ramírez FA, et al. Efficacy of physiotherapy treatment in primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(15):7832.
  • 42. Corral-Moreno V, Munuera-Jiménez F, Cascos-Vicente L, et al. Tratamiento fisioterapéutico para la dismenorrea primaria: Una revisión sistemática. Fisioterapia. 2022;44(1):43-50.
  • 43. Çay B, Saka S. The effect of short term aerobic exercise on dysmenorrhea in young adults. JHPR. 2020;2(3):94-101.
  • 44. Elverişli GB, Armağan N, Atilgan E. Comparison of the efficacy of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments in women with primary dysmenorrhea: Randomized controlled parallel-group study. Ginekologia Polska. 2023;94(9):687-697.
  • 45. Günebakan Ö, Acar M. The effect of tele-yoga training in healthy women on menstrual symptoms, quality of life, anxiety-depression level, body awareness, and self-esteem during COVID-19 pandemic. Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971-). 2023;192(1):467-79.

Telerehabilitation in Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Year 2023, Issue: 21 - December, 806 - 818, 05.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.1351297

Abstract

Aim: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological condition in women, characterized by symptoms such as pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, headache, dizziness, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and decreased quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a telerehabilitation program on menstrual symptoms in primary dysmenorrhea.
Methods: Sixty women with primary dysmenorrhea were included in the study and randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=30) and a control group (n=30). The intervention group received a telerehabilitation program consisting of various exercises for 8 weeks. The control group used analgesic medication and applied local heat. Sociodemographic and menstrual characteristics of the participants were recorded. Menstrual symptoms were assessed using the Menstrual Symptom Scale (MSS) before and after the study.
Results: When comparing the pre- and post-treatment scores within each group, both the intervention and control groups showed significant differences in MSS subscales and total scores (p<0.05). Significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups in negative effects/somatic complaints, pain symptoms subscales, and total scores before and after treatment (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the coping methods subscale of MSS before and after treatment (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The telerehabilitation program was found to have beneficial effects on menstrual symptoms in primary dysmenorrhea. This method is a safe, easy-to-implement, time-saving, and cost-effective treatment option for reducing menstrual symptoms.

References

  • 1. Lefebvre G, Pinsonneault O, Antao V, et al. Primary dysmenorrhea consensus guideline. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2005;27(12):1117-46.
  • 2. Shah M, Monga A, Patel S, Shah M, Bakshi H. A study of prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in young students - a cross-sectional study. Healthline. 2013;4(2):30-34.
  • 3. Şahin S, Kaplan S, Halime A, Akalın A, Demirhan İ, Pınar G. Üniversite öğrencilerinde dismenore yaşama sıklığı ve etkileyen faktörlerin değerlendirilmesi. Ankara Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2015;4(1):25-44.
  • 4. De Sanctis V, Soliman A, Bernasconi S, et al. Primary dysmenorrhea in adolescents: prevalence, impact and recent knowledge. Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews (PER). 2015;13(2):465-73.
  • 5. Harada T. Dysmenorrhea and endometriosis in young women. Yonago Acta Medica. 2013;56(4):81.
  • 6. Osayande AS, Mehulic S. Diagnosis and initial management of dysmenorrhea. American Family Physician. 2014;89(5):341-46.
  • 7. Lee CH, Roh JW, Lim CY, Hong JH, Lee JK, Min EG. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of a far infrared-emitting sericite belt in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2011;19(4):187-93.
  • 8. Dawood MY. Primary dysmenorrhea: Advances in pathogenesis and management. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2006;108(2):428-41.
  • 9. Uysal M, Doğru HY, Sapmaz E, et al. Investigating the effect of rose essential oil in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2016;24:45-49.
  • 10. Hall J. Menstrual disorders and pelvic pain. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2012.
  • 11. Ishikura IA, Hachul H, Pires GN, Tufik S, Andersen ML. The impact of primary dysmenorrhea on sleep and the consequences for adolescent academic performance. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2020;16(3):467-68.
  • 12. Iacovides S, Avidon I, Baker FC. What we know about primary dysmenorrhea today: A critical review. Human Reproduction Update. 2015;21(6):762-78.
  • 13. Yu A. Complementary and alternative treatments for primary dysmenorrhea in adolescents. The Nurse Practitioner. 2014;39(11):1-12.
  • 14. Azima S, Bakhshayesh HR, Kaviani M, Abbasnia K, Sayadi M. Comparison of the effect of massage therapy and isometric exercises on primary dysmenorrhea: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 2015;28(6):486-91.
  • 15. Chao MT, Wade CM, Abercrombie PD, Gomolak D. An innovative acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2014;20(1):49.
  • 16. Chaudhuri A, Singh A, Dhaliwal L. A randomised controlled trial of exercise and hot water bottle in the management of dysmenorrhoea in school girls of Chandigarh, India. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;57(2):114-22.
  • 17. Çelik AS, Apay SE. Effect of progressive relaxation exercises on primary dysmenorrhea in Turkish students: A randomized prospective controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2021;42:101280.
  • 18. Kokjohn K, Schmid DM, Triano JJ, Brennan PC. The effect of spinal manipulation on pain and prostaglandin levels in women with primary dysmenorrhea. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 1992;15(5):279-85.
  • 19. Lauretti GR, Oliveira R, Parada F, Mattos AL. The new portable transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation device was efficacious in the control of primary dysmenorrhea cramp pain. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface. 2015;18(6):522-27.
  • 20. Lim C, Park Y, Bae Y. The effect of the kinesio taping and spiral taping on menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2013;25(7):761-64.
  • 21. Ortiz MI, Cortés-Márquez SK, Romero-Quezada LC, Murguía-Cánovas G, Jaramillo-Díaz AP. Effect of a physiotherapy program in women with primary dysmenorrhea. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2015;194:24-29.
  • 22. Rakhshaee Z. Effect of three yoga poses (cobra, cat and fish poses) in women with primary dysmenorrhea: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 2011;24(4):192-96.
  • 23. Shahr-Jerdy S, Hosseini RS, Gh ME. Effects of stretching exercises on primary dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls. Biomedical Human Kinetics. 2012;4(2012):127-32.
  • 24. Gbiri CA. Perception of the therapeutic benefit of exercise on primary dysmenorrhoea among post-pubertal students in a northwestern city of Nigeria. Ghana Journal of Physiotherapy. 2015;4(1):14-20.
  • 25. Tandon R. COVID-19 and mental health: Preserving humanity, maintaining sanity, and promoting health. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020;51:102256.
  • 26. Seron P, Oliveros MJ, Gutierrez-Arias R, et al. Effectiveness of telerehabilitation in physical therapy: a rapid overview. Physical Therapy. 2021;101(6):pzab053.
  • 27. Carroquino-Garcia P, Jiménez-Rejano JJ, Medrano-Sanchez E, De La Casa-Almeida M, Diaz-Mohedo E, Suarez-Serrano C. Therapeutic exercise in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Physical Therapy. 2019;99(10):1371-80.
  • 28. Armour M, Parry K, Manohar N, et al. The prevalence and academic impact of dysmenorrhea in 21 573 young women: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Women's Health. 2019;28(8):1161-71.
  • 29. Bağcı S. Primer Dismenore Şikayeti Olan Gençlerde Kor Egzersizlerinin Ağrı ve Yaşam Kalitesine Etkisi: Non-Randomize Çalışma. [doktora tezi] Konya: Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Hemşirelik Anabilim Dalı;2021.
  • 30. Motahari-Tabari N, Shirvani MA, Alipour A. Comparison of the effect of stretching exercises and mefenamic acid on the reduction of pain and menstruation characteristics in primary dysmenorrhea: A randomized clinical trial. Oman Medical Journal. 2017;32(1):47.
  • 31. Chesney MA, Tasto DL. The development of the menstrual symptom questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 1975;13(4):237-44.
  • 32. Güvenç G, Seven M, Akyüz A. Menstrüasyon semptom ölçeği'nin Türkçe'ye uyarlanması. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin. 2014;13(5):367-374.
  • 33. Ferries-Rowe E, Corey E, Archer JS. Primary dysmenorrhea: Diagnosis and therapy. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2020;136(5):1047-58.
  • 34. Aboualsoltani F, Bastani P, Khodaie L, Fazljou SMB. Non-pharmacological treatments of primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review. Arch Pharma Pract. 2020;11(S1):136-42.
  • 35. Ju H, Jones M, Mishra G. The prevalence and risk factors of dysmenorrhea. Epidemiologic Reviews. 2014;36(1):104-13.
  • 36. Oladosu FA, Tu FF, Hellman KM. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug resistance in dysmenorrhea: epidemiology, causes, and treatment. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2018;218(4):390-400.
  • 37. Marjoribanks J, Ayeleke RO, Farquhar C, Proctor M, Gynaecology C Group F. Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1996;2015(7):CD001751.
  • 38. Sharghi M, Mansurkhani SM, Larky DA, et al. An update and systematic review on the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. JBRA Assisted Reproduction. 2019;23(1):51.
  • 39. Shirvani MA, Motahari-Tabari N, Alipour A. The effect of mefenamic acid and ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: A randomized clinical trial. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2015;291:1277-81.
  • 40. Kannan P, Claydon LS, Miller D, et al. Vigorous exercises in the management of primary dysmenorrhea: a feasibility study. Disability and Rehabilitation. 2015;37(15):1334-1339.
  • 41. López-Liria R, Torres-Álamo L, Vega-Ramírez FA, et al. Efficacy of physiotherapy treatment in primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(15):7832.
  • 42. Corral-Moreno V, Munuera-Jiménez F, Cascos-Vicente L, et al. Tratamiento fisioterapéutico para la dismenorrea primaria: Una revisión sistemática. Fisioterapia. 2022;44(1):43-50.
  • 43. Çay B, Saka S. The effect of short term aerobic exercise on dysmenorrhea in young adults. JHPR. 2020;2(3):94-101.
  • 44. Elverişli GB, Armağan N, Atilgan E. Comparison of the efficacy of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments in women with primary dysmenorrhea: Randomized controlled parallel-group study. Ginekologia Polska. 2023;94(9):687-697.
  • 45. Günebakan Ö, Acar M. The effect of tele-yoga training in healthy women on menstrual symptoms, quality of life, anxiety-depression level, body awareness, and self-esteem during COVID-19 pandemic. Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971-). 2023;192(1):467-79.
There are 45 citations in total.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Physiotherapy
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Zümra Baltaş 0000-0001-9835-287X

Ömer Şevgin 0000-0003-2145-5939

Beyzanur Dikmen Hoşbaş 0000-0003-2494-480X

Early Pub Date January 8, 2024
Publication Date January 5, 2024
Acceptance Date December 11, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Issue: 21 - December

Cite

APA Baltaş, Z., Şevgin, Ö., & Dikmen Hoşbaş, B. (2024). Primer Dismenorede Telerehabilitasyon: Randomize Kontrollü Bir Çalışma. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi(21), 806-818. https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.1351297
AMA Baltaş Z, Şevgin Ö, Dikmen Hoşbaş B. Primer Dismenorede Telerehabilitasyon: Randomize Kontrollü Bir Çalışma. IGUSABDER. January 2024;(21):806-818. doi:10.38079/igusabder.1351297
Chicago Baltaş, Zümra, Ömer Şevgin, and Beyzanur Dikmen Hoşbaş. “Primer Dismenorede Telerehabilitasyon: Randomize Kontrollü Bir Çalışma”. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, no. 21 (January 2024): 806-18. https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.1351297.
EndNote Baltaş Z, Şevgin Ö, Dikmen Hoşbaş B (January 1, 2024) Primer Dismenorede Telerehabilitasyon: Randomize Kontrollü Bir Çalışma. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 21 806–818.
IEEE Z. Baltaş, Ö. Şevgin, and B. Dikmen Hoşbaş, “Primer Dismenorede Telerehabilitasyon: Randomize Kontrollü Bir Çalışma”, IGUSABDER, no. 21, pp. 806–818, January 2024, doi: 10.38079/igusabder.1351297.
ISNAD Baltaş, Zümra et al. “Primer Dismenorede Telerehabilitasyon: Randomize Kontrollü Bir Çalışma”. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 21 (January 2024), 806-818. https://doi.org/10.38079/igusabder.1351297.
JAMA Baltaş Z, Şevgin Ö, Dikmen Hoşbaş B. Primer Dismenorede Telerehabilitasyon: Randomize Kontrollü Bir Çalışma. IGUSABDER. 2024;:806–818.
MLA Baltaş, Zümra et al. “Primer Dismenorede Telerehabilitasyon: Randomize Kontrollü Bir Çalışma”. İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, no. 21, 2024, pp. 806-18, doi:10.38079/igusabder.1351297.
Vancouver Baltaş Z, Şevgin Ö, Dikmen Hoşbaş B. Primer Dismenorede Telerehabilitasyon: Randomize Kontrollü Bir Çalışma. IGUSABDER. 2024(21):806-18.

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