Research Article
PDF Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

German Foreign Policy During the First Gulf Crisis: Overcoming a Taboo on Being a Military Power on World Stage

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 1 - 13, 28.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.707826

Abstract

When Iraq attacked Kuwait on 2 August 1990, the international respond was immediate and enormous. In this international context, Germany could not stand irresponsive although its agenda was heavily preoccupied by the ongoing reunification negotiations. Additionally, another challenge for Germany in participating in such an international coalition was its post-World War II settlement which constrained Germany internally and externally from being a military power on world stage. Within this framework, this paper analyses German foreign policy during the First Gulf Crisis when 1990s made a fundamental reassessment about the scope and means of German foreign and security policy a necessity. This paper starts with a brief historical background of the international context and the Gulf War. Then, the paper focuses on the analysis of German foreign policy during the crisis in three periods. In doing so, this study mostly relies on secondary sources in its analysis by reviewing the relevant literature. In conclusion, the paper argues that, though it was comparatively limited, Germany’s participation in the international coalition responding the crisis is not a simple foreign policy choice but a strategic decision about reunified Germany’s role in the newly emerging international system, which will have greater implications as it substantially questioned a taboo on being an active international power including military means in world politics. 

References

  • BASIC LAW, the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany, Accessed on 18.03.2020, https://www.btg-bestellservice.de/pdf/80201000.pdf
  • BAUMANN, R., (2001). German security policy within NATO, German Foreign Policy Since Unification (pp. 141-184). RITTBERGER, V. (Ed.), Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • BUSH, G. H. W., (1990). “Remarks and an exchange with reporters on the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait”, 5 August. Accessed on 16.03.2020, https://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/110704
  • COOPER, A. H., (2002). Media framing and social movement mobilization: German peace protest against INF missiles, the Gulf War, and NATO peace enforcement in Bosnia, European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 41, pp.37-80.
  • DONALDSON, G. A., (1996). America at war since 1945 politics and diplomacy in Korea, Vietnam, and the Gulf War. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers.
  • FINLAN, A., (2003). Essential histories: the Gulf War 1991. London: Routledge.
  • FRIEDMAN, T. L., (1990). “Standoff in the Gulf; A Particular Pullout by Iraq is Feared as Deadline ‘Ploy’”, The New York Times, 17 December.
  • HAFTENDORN, H., (1996). Gulliver in the Centre of Europe: International Involvement and National Capabilities for Action, Germany in Europe in the nineties (pp. 91-123). HEURLIN, B. (Ed.), London: MacMillan Press Ltd.
  • HESS, G. R., (2009). Presidential decisions for war Korea, Vietnam, the Persian Gulf, and Iraq. Second Edition, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • HAYES, T. C., (1990). “Confrontation in the Gulf, The Oilfield Lying Below the Iraq-Kuwait Dispute”, The New York Times, 3 September.
  • KELLNER, D., (1992). The Persian Gulf TV war. Boulder, Col.: Westview Press.
  • KHADDURI, M., GHAREEB, E., (1997). War in the gulf 1990-91 the Iraq-Kuwait conflict and its implications. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • KIMBALL, S., (2010). “Germany’s struggle with military power in a changing World”, Deutsche Welle, 28 December. Accessed on 10.03.2020, https://www.dw.com/en/germanys-struggle-with-military-power-in-a-changing-world/a-6308457
  • LANTIS, J. S., (2002). Strategic dilemmas and the evolution of German foreign policy since unification. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers.
  • LAUTERPACHT, E., GREENWOOD, C. J., WELLER, M. & BETHLEHEM, D. (1991) The Kuwait crisis: basic documents, Cambridge international document series, vol. 1. Cambridge: Grotius Publications.
  • LEGRENZI, M., & GAUSE, F. G. III., (2016). The International Politics of the Gulf. International relations of the Middle East (pp.304-323). FAWCETT, L. (Ed.), Fourth Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • MATTHEWS, K., (1993). The gulf conflict and international relations. London: Routledge.
  • MOBLEY, R. A., (2007). “Gauging the Iraqi Threat to Kuwait in the 1960s UK Indications and Warning”, Central Intelligence Agency, 14 April. Accessed on 17.03.2020, https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/fall_winter_2001/article03.html
  • MONRO, A., (2006). Arab storm politics and diplomacy behind the Gulf War. Second Edition, New York: I. B. Tauris.
  • NATO, The North Atlantic Treaty, 4 April 1949, Washington D.C., Accessed on 18.03.2020, https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_17120.htm
  • PERTHES, V. (2004). “Germany and the Gulf: On the Way to a Policy?” International Interests in the Gulf: Policy Implications fort he GCC Members, Workshop by Emirates Center for Strategic STudies, UAE, 15-16 March. Accessed on 10.03.2020, https://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/arbeitspapiere/EmiratesSymp0402_ks.pdf
  • RESENDE-SANTOS, J. (1992). The Persian Gulf crisis: a chronology of events, After the storm: lessons from the Gulf War (pp. 295-355). NYE, J. S. & SMITH, R. K. (Eds.), New York: Madison Books.
  • RONALD, D. A., (1992). Germany after the Gulf War, Santa Monica, CA.: RAND.
  • RONALD, D. A., (1994). German strategy and opinion after the wall 1990-1993. Santa Monica, CA.: RAND.
  • SKED, A. (1991). Cheap Excuses: Germany and the Gulf Crisis, The National Interest, No. 24 pp. 51-60.
  • UNSC Resolution, (1990). S/RES/660, 2 August. Accessed on 16.03.2020, http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/660
  • UNSC Resolution, (1990). S/RES/661, 6 August. Accessed on 17.03.2020, http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/661
  • UNSC Resolution, (1990). S/RES/678, 29 November. Accessed on 17.03.2020, http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/678
  • UNSC Resolution, (1991). S/RES/688, 5 April. Accessed on 19.03.2020, http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/688

Birinci Körfez Krizi’nde Alman Dış Politikası: Dünya Sahnesinde Askeri Güç Olma Tabusunun Aşılması

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 1 - 13, 28.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.707826

Abstract

2 Ağustos 1990’da Irak’ın Kuveyt’i işgaline yönelik uluslararası tepki, hızlı ve muazzamdı. Gündemi devam etmekte olan yeniden birleşme müzakereleriyle fazlasıyla meşgul olmasına rağmen, böylesi bir uluslararası bağlam Almanya’nın Birinci Körfez Krizi’ne karşı tepkisiz kalmasını imkânsız hale getirmiştir. Esasında devam eden yeniden birleşme müzakerelerinin dışında, Almanya’yı İkinci Dünya Savaşı sonrasında dünya sahnesinde askeri güç olmaktan alıkoyan iç ve dış politika kurgusu göz önüne alındığında Almanya’nın böylesi bir uluslararası koalisyona katılması daha düşündürücü olmaktadır. Bahse konu çerçevede bu çalışma, Alman dış ve güvenlik politikalarının kapsamı ve araçları konusunda temelden bir yeniden değerlendirmenin zaruriyet haline geldiği 1990’ların başındaki Birinci Körfez Krizi sırasındaki Alman dış politikasını incelemektedir. Bu amaçla makale, dönemin uluslararası bağlamının ve Körfez Savaşı’nın kısa bir tarihsel geçmişinin ele alınmasıyla başlamakta olup sonrasında Alman dış politikası ve onu oluşturan iç ve dış tartışmaların bahse konu krizin üç ayrı safhasındaki analizine odaklanmaktadır. Bunu yaparken bu çalışma, ilgili literatürü değerlendirerek analizinde çoğunlukla ikincil kaynaklara dayanmaktadır. Sonuç olarak makale, göreceli olarak sınırlı olsa da Almanya’nın uluslararası koalisyona katılmasının, basit bir dış politika seçiminden ziyade, Almanya’nın dünya siyasetinde askeri araçlar da dâhil olmak üzere aktif bir uluslararası güç olma tabusunun sorgulanması hasebiyle ülkenin 1990’ların başında ortaya çıkmakta olan yeni uluslararası sistemdeki rolünün yeniden yapılandırılmasına yönelik ve ilerleyen yıllarda daha büyük sonuçları olan stratejik bir karar olduğunu savunmaktadır. 

References

  • BASIC LAW, the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany, Accessed on 18.03.2020, https://www.btg-bestellservice.de/pdf/80201000.pdf
  • BAUMANN, R., (2001). German security policy within NATO, German Foreign Policy Since Unification (pp. 141-184). RITTBERGER, V. (Ed.), Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • BUSH, G. H. W., (1990). “Remarks and an exchange with reporters on the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait”, 5 August. Accessed on 16.03.2020, https://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/110704
  • COOPER, A. H., (2002). Media framing and social movement mobilization: German peace protest against INF missiles, the Gulf War, and NATO peace enforcement in Bosnia, European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 41, pp.37-80.
  • DONALDSON, G. A., (1996). America at war since 1945 politics and diplomacy in Korea, Vietnam, and the Gulf War. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers.
  • FINLAN, A., (2003). Essential histories: the Gulf War 1991. London: Routledge.
  • FRIEDMAN, T. L., (1990). “Standoff in the Gulf; A Particular Pullout by Iraq is Feared as Deadline ‘Ploy’”, The New York Times, 17 December.
  • HAFTENDORN, H., (1996). Gulliver in the Centre of Europe: International Involvement and National Capabilities for Action, Germany in Europe in the nineties (pp. 91-123). HEURLIN, B. (Ed.), London: MacMillan Press Ltd.
  • HESS, G. R., (2009). Presidential decisions for war Korea, Vietnam, the Persian Gulf, and Iraq. Second Edition, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • HAYES, T. C., (1990). “Confrontation in the Gulf, The Oilfield Lying Below the Iraq-Kuwait Dispute”, The New York Times, 3 September.
  • KELLNER, D., (1992). The Persian Gulf TV war. Boulder, Col.: Westview Press.
  • KHADDURI, M., GHAREEB, E., (1997). War in the gulf 1990-91 the Iraq-Kuwait conflict and its implications. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • KIMBALL, S., (2010). “Germany’s struggle with military power in a changing World”, Deutsche Welle, 28 December. Accessed on 10.03.2020, https://www.dw.com/en/germanys-struggle-with-military-power-in-a-changing-world/a-6308457
  • LANTIS, J. S., (2002). Strategic dilemmas and the evolution of German foreign policy since unification. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers.
  • LAUTERPACHT, E., GREENWOOD, C. J., WELLER, M. & BETHLEHEM, D. (1991) The Kuwait crisis: basic documents, Cambridge international document series, vol. 1. Cambridge: Grotius Publications.
  • LEGRENZI, M., & GAUSE, F. G. III., (2016). The International Politics of the Gulf. International relations of the Middle East (pp.304-323). FAWCETT, L. (Ed.), Fourth Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • MATTHEWS, K., (1993). The gulf conflict and international relations. London: Routledge.
  • MOBLEY, R. A., (2007). “Gauging the Iraqi Threat to Kuwait in the 1960s UK Indications and Warning”, Central Intelligence Agency, 14 April. Accessed on 17.03.2020, https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/fall_winter_2001/article03.html
  • MONRO, A., (2006). Arab storm politics and diplomacy behind the Gulf War. Second Edition, New York: I. B. Tauris.
  • NATO, The North Atlantic Treaty, 4 April 1949, Washington D.C., Accessed on 18.03.2020, https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_17120.htm
  • PERTHES, V. (2004). “Germany and the Gulf: On the Way to a Policy?” International Interests in the Gulf: Policy Implications fort he GCC Members, Workshop by Emirates Center for Strategic STudies, UAE, 15-16 March. Accessed on 10.03.2020, https://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/arbeitspapiere/EmiratesSymp0402_ks.pdf
  • RESENDE-SANTOS, J. (1992). The Persian Gulf crisis: a chronology of events, After the storm: lessons from the Gulf War (pp. 295-355). NYE, J. S. & SMITH, R. K. (Eds.), New York: Madison Books.
  • RONALD, D. A., (1992). Germany after the Gulf War, Santa Monica, CA.: RAND.
  • RONALD, D. A., (1994). German strategy and opinion after the wall 1990-1993. Santa Monica, CA.: RAND.
  • SKED, A. (1991). Cheap Excuses: Germany and the Gulf Crisis, The National Interest, No. 24 pp. 51-60.
  • UNSC Resolution, (1990). S/RES/660, 2 August. Accessed on 16.03.2020, http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/660
  • UNSC Resolution, (1990). S/RES/661, 6 August. Accessed on 17.03.2020, http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/661
  • UNSC Resolution, (1990). S/RES/678, 29 November. Accessed on 17.03.2020, http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/678
  • UNSC Resolution, (1991). S/RES/688, 5 April. Accessed on 19.03.2020, http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/688

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Murat TINAS (Primary Author)
POLİS AKADEMİSİ
0000-0001-5844-0808
Türkiye

Publication Date April 28, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1

Cite

APA Tınas, M. (2022). German Foreign Policy During the First Gulf Crisis: Overcoming a Taboo on Being a Military Power on World Stage . İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 9 (1) , 1-13 . DOI: 10.17336/igusbd.707826

 Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)