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Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’ndeki Latin Göçmenler: Florida’da Yaşayan Kübalı ve Venezuelalı Göçmenler Üzerine Karşılaştırmalı Analiz

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, 567 - 582, 30.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.795584

Abstract

Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nde yaşayan Latin kökenli göçmenler çoğunlukla tekil vaka çalışmaları kullanılarak analiz edilmektedir, bu tür çalışmalarda ülkede yaşayan her bir Latin kökenli grup bir kitabın veya makalenin birbirinden bağımsız bölümlerinde ayrı ayrı ele alınmaktadır. Bu çalışma ise ABD’nin Florida eyaletine göç eden Kübalı ve Venezuelalı göçmenlerin, göç sebepleri, göç yolları ve göç sonrası Florida’ya yerleşme düzenlerini Charles Tilly’nin Bireyselleştirici Karşılaştırma yöntemini kullanarak analiz etmek üzere hazırlanmıştır. Her iki göçmen grubunun da göç etme sebepleri ve göç için tercih ettiği eyaletler (Florida başta olmak üzere) benzer olduğundan, göç sonrası yerleşme düzenlerinin de aynı olduğu varsayılmaktadır. Çalışma için diğer Latin kökenli göçmen gruplarının yerine, Kübalı ve Venezuelalı göçmenlerin seçilmesinin sebebi de bu varsayımdır. Her iki grup, politik sebeplerle, ABD tarafından diğer Latin göçmen gruplarına kıyasla daha sıcak karşılanmaktadırlar. Çalışma boyunca her iki göçmen grubunun İngilizce yeterlik seviyeleri, gelir düzeyleri, vatandaşlığa kabul edilme oranları, siyasi parti eğilimleri vb. karşılaştırılarak söz konusu varsayımın yanlış olduğunu ortaya çıkarılmaktadır.

References

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  • ARREDONDO, P. (2018). (Ed.). Latinx immigrants: Transcending acculturation and xenophobia. Cham: Springer.
  • BATALOVA, J., BLIZZARD, B., BOLTER, J. (2020). Frequently Requested Statistics on the Immigrants and Immigration in the United States. Access Date: 21.04.2020. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/frequently-requested-statistics-immigrants-and-immigration-united-states (21.04.2020)
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  • BUTZER, R., DONALD F. L., YAIR M. (2002). Inter-sectorial migration in Venezuela. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 50 (2), 227-248.
  • CADENAS, G. (2018). The growing Venezuelan Diaspora in the United States. Arredondo, P. (Ed.). Latinx Immigrants. (p. 211-228). Cham: Springer.
  • CASTELLANOS, J., ALBERTA M. G. (2018). Cuban Americans: From golden exiles to dusty feet—freedom, hope, endurance, and the American Dream. Arredondo, P. (Ed.). Latinx Immigrants (p. 75-94). Cham: Springer.
  • COBAS, J. A., DUANY, J., FEAGIN, J. R. (2015). How the United States racializes Latinos: White hegemony and its consequences. New York: Routledge.
  • CRISP, B. F., LEVINE, D. H., REY, J. C. (1995). El problema de la legitimidad en Venezuela. Cuestiones Políticas, 12 (16), 6-43.
  • CROCKETT, Z. (2016). How has your state voted in the past 15 elections? Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/11/8/13563106/election-map-historical-vote
  • DEGUZMÁN, M. (2017). Latinx: Estamos aquí!, or being “Latinx” at UNC-chapel hill. Cultural dynamics, 29(3), 214-230.
  • DELGADO, A. M. (2014). Venezuela agobiada por la fuga masiva de cerebros. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.elnuevoherald.com/noticias/mundo/americalatina/venezuela-es/article2039010.html
  • DONAHUE, B. (2019). Haiti, El Salvador, Liberia: Trump insulted them all. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/lifestyle/magazine/trump-insulted-these-countries-travel-writer-celebrates-them/
  • DUANY, J. (2017). Cuban migration: A post revolution exodus ebbs and flows. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/cuban-migration-postrevolution-exodus-ebbs-and-flows
  • ELLNER, S. (2013). Social and political diversity and the democratic road to change in Venezuela. Latin American Perspectives, 40 (3), 63-82.
  • ELLNER, S. (2018). Venezuela: The challenge to a “model democracy”. Knippers Black, Jan (Ed.), Latin America: Its problems and its promise: A multidisciplinary introduction (p. 399-412). New York: Routledge.
  • FLORES, A., LOPEZ, M. H., KROGSTAD, J. M. (2018). Hispanic voter registration rises in Florida. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/10/12/hispanic-voter-registration-rises-in-florida-but-role-of-puerto-ricans-remains-unclear/
  • FREITEZ, A. (2011). La emigración desde Venezueladurante la última década. Temas de Coyuntura, 63 (1), 11-38.
  • GALLARDO, L. H., BATALOVA, J. (2020). Venezuelan immigrants in the United States. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/venezuelan-immigrants-united-states
  • GELB, A. H. (1988). Oil windfalls: Blessing or curse. Washington: Oxford University Press.
  • GOSIN, M. (2019). The racial politics of division: Interethnic struggles for legitimacy in multicultural Miami. New York: Cornell University Press.
  • GOTT, R. (2005). Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian Revolution. New York: Verso Books.
  • GRENIER, G. J. and GLADWIN, H. (2019). How Cuban Americans in Miami view U.S. policies toward Cuba. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://cri.fiu.edu/research/cuba-poll/2018-fiu-cuba-poll.pdf
  • HOOGHE, M., DASSONNEVILLE, R. (2018). Explaining the Trump vote: The effect of racist resentment and anti-immigrant sentiments. PS: Political Science & Politics, 51(3), 528-534.
  • INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION. (2018). Flows of Venezuelan population. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.iom.int/countries/venezuela
  • INSIGHT CRIME. (2018). Venezuela: Country crime profile. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.insightcrime.org/venezuela-organized-crime-news/
  • JANSEN, B., GOMEZ, A. (2018). President Trump calls caravan immigrants 'stone cold criminals.' Here's what we know. Access Date: 20.04.2020 https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2018/11/26/president-trump-migrant-caravan-criminals/2112846002/
  • KARL, T. L. (1987). Petroleum and political pacts: The transition to democracy in Venezuela. Latin American Research Review, 22 (1), 63-94.
  • LOO, B. (2018). Venezuela in crisis: What does it mean for Northbound student mobility?. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://wenr.wes.org/2018/11/venezuela-in-crisis-what-does-it-mean-for-northbound-student-mobility
  • MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE. (2020). South American immigrants in the United States. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/south-american-immigrants-united-states
  • MORALES, E. (2018). Latinx: The new force in American politics and culture. London: Verso Books.
  • MORENO, D., WARREN, C. (2018). The Conservative Enclave Revisited: Cuban Americans in Florida. de la Garza, D. O. and DeSipio, L. (Eds.), Ethnic Ironies (p. 169-184). New York: Routledge
  • MURRIEL, M. (2016). Venezuelans flee to the US, claiming their country is 'worse than Cuba' in the 1960s. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.pri.org/stories/2016-03-21/venezuelans-flee-us-claiming-their-country-worse-cuba-1960s
  • NAR. (2017). Venezuelan Home Buyers Rank as South Florida’s Top International Clients. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.miamirealtors.com/international/research-and-resources/miami-herald-international-edition/articles/international-articles/2017/08/16/venezuelan-home-buyers-rank-as-south-florida-s-top-international-clients
  • NOE-BUSTAMANTE, L., FLORES, A., SHAH, S. (2019a). Facts on Hispanics of Venezuelan origin in the United States, 2017. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/fact-sheet/u-s-hispanics-facts-on-venezuelan-origin-latinos/#age
  • NOE-BUSTAMANTE, L., FLORES, A., SHAH, S. (2019b). Facts on Hispanics of Cuban origin in the United States, 2017. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/fact-sheet/u-s-hispanics-facts-on-cuban-origin-latinos/
  • OBSERVATORIO VENEZOLANO DE VIOLENCIA. (2018). Informe anual de violencia 2018. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://observatoriodeviolencia.org.ve/ovv-lacso-informe-anual-de-violencia-2018/
  • OSORIO, S. (2019). They fled a nightmare in Venezuela, only to wind up in U.S. immigration prisons. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/venezuela/article238072964.html#storylink=cpy (20.04.2020).
  • OPEC. (2018). Venezuela: Facts and figures. Access Date: 20.04.2020 https://www.opec.org/opec_web/en/about_us/171.htm
  • PADGETT, T. (2019). Venezuelan expats survey shows most are with democrats — but it's complicated. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.wlrn.org/post/venezuelan-expats-survey-shows-most-are-democrats-its-complicated#stream/0
  • PÁEZ, T., VIVAS, M., PULIDO, J. R. (2014). Comunidad Venezolana en el exterior: ¿Una nueva modalidad de exilio?. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://konzapata.com/noticia/4970/katalejo/el-50-de-los-venezolanos-que-se-va-tiene-maestria-postgrados-y-doctorados.html
  • PÉREZ, L. (1986). Cubans in the United States. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 487 (1), 126-137.
  • PORTES, A. (1987). The social origins of the Cuban enclave economy of Miami. Sociological Perspectives, 30 (4), 340-372.
  • RABELLINO, A. (2017). How Venezuelans could reshape elections in Florida. Access Date: 20.04.2020. http://www.americasquarterly.org/content/how-venezuelans-couldreshape-elections-florida
  • REEVE, C. (2015). Goodbye, Venezuela. World Policy Journal, 32 (4), 26-36.
  • ROSS, M. L. (2013). The Oil Curse: How petroleum wealth shapes the development of nations. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • ROTHE, E. M. and PUMARIEGA, A. (2008). The new face of Cubans in the United States: cultural process and generational change in an exile community. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 6 (2), 247-266.
  • SAUCEDO, S. G., ITZIGSOHN, J. (2006). Diferencias de género en la experiencia migratoria: Transnacionalismo e incorporación de los migrantes latinos en Estados Unidos. Papeles de Población, 12 (47), 9-37.
  • SALAS, M. T. (2015). Venezuela: What everyone needs to know? New York: Oxford University Press.
  • SCHUBERT, S. R. (2006). Revisiting the oil curse: Are oil rich nations really doomed to autocracy and inequality? Oil and Gas Business, Vol. 2006, 1-16.
  • SEMPLE, K. (2008). Rise of Chávez sends Venezuelans to Florida. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/23/us/23florida.html?hp
  • STAVANS, I. (2017). Latinos in the United States: What everyone needs to know? New York: Oxford University Press.
  • TILLY, C. (1984). Big structures, large processes, huge comparisons. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • THE DHS. (1999). Yearbook of immigration statistics 1996 to 1999. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.dhs.gov/immigration-statistics/yearbook/1996_1999
  • TORRES, L. (2018). Latinx? Latino Studies. Vol. 16, 283-285
  • TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL. (2020). Country profile: Venezuela. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.transparency.org/country/VEN
  • UNHCR. (2018). Number of refugees and migrants from Venezuela reaches 3 million. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.unhcr.org/news/press/2018/11/5be4192b4/number-refugees-migrants-venezuela-reaches-3-million.html
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Latinx Immigrants in the United States: A Comparative Analysis on the Venezuelan and Cuban Immigrants in Florida

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, 567 - 582, 30.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.795584

Abstract

Latinx immigrants in the U.S. are often analyzed through single case study methodology where each selected Latinx immigrant group in the U.S. analyzed through separate chapters of a book or a sub-section of an article. This study is prepared to compare the push factors, migration journeys and post-migration patterns of Cuban and Venezuelan immigrants in Florida by adopting Charles Tilly's Individualizing Comparison methodology. Since both of the Venezuelan and Cuban immigrants have been fleeing from left-wing home governments and choosing the same point of destination (Florida), there is a common misunderstanding that both of these immigrant groups have the same post-migration patterns. For this reason, levels of English proficiency, income, education and political party tendencies are compared throughout this study to show the differences and peculiarities of both immigrant groups in a comparative perspective. According to the findings of this study, the common assumptions about the two immigrants groups are wrong.

References

  • ALBERTS, H. C. (2016). The multiple transformations of Miami. Smith, H. A., and Owen, J. F. (Eds.). Latinos in the New South. (p. 149-166). Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.
  • ARREDONDO, P. (2018). (Ed.). Latinx immigrants: Transcending acculturation and xenophobia. Cham: Springer.
  • BATALOVA, J., BLIZZARD, B., BOLTER, J. (2020). Frequently Requested Statistics on the Immigrants and Immigration in the United States. Access Date: 21.04.2020. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/frequently-requested-statistics-immigrants-and-immigration-united-states (21.04.2020)
  • BLITZER, J. (2019). The Fight for the Latino Vote in Florida. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/09/23/the-fight-for-the-latino-vote-in-florida
  • BUTZER, R., DONALD F. L., YAIR M. (2002). Inter-sectorial migration in Venezuela. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 50 (2), 227-248.
  • CADENAS, G. (2018). The growing Venezuelan Diaspora in the United States. Arredondo, P. (Ed.). Latinx Immigrants. (p. 211-228). Cham: Springer.
  • CASTELLANOS, J., ALBERTA M. G. (2018). Cuban Americans: From golden exiles to dusty feet—freedom, hope, endurance, and the American Dream. Arredondo, P. (Ed.). Latinx Immigrants (p. 75-94). Cham: Springer.
  • COBAS, J. A., DUANY, J., FEAGIN, J. R. (2015). How the United States racializes Latinos: White hegemony and its consequences. New York: Routledge.
  • CRISP, B. F., LEVINE, D. H., REY, J. C. (1995). El problema de la legitimidad en Venezuela. Cuestiones Políticas, 12 (16), 6-43.
  • CROCKETT, Z. (2016). How has your state voted in the past 15 elections? Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/11/8/13563106/election-map-historical-vote
  • DEGUZMÁN, M. (2017). Latinx: Estamos aquí!, or being “Latinx” at UNC-chapel hill. Cultural dynamics, 29(3), 214-230.
  • DELGADO, A. M. (2014). Venezuela agobiada por la fuga masiva de cerebros. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.elnuevoherald.com/noticias/mundo/americalatina/venezuela-es/article2039010.html
  • DONAHUE, B. (2019). Haiti, El Salvador, Liberia: Trump insulted them all. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/lifestyle/magazine/trump-insulted-these-countries-travel-writer-celebrates-them/
  • DUANY, J. (2017). Cuban migration: A post revolution exodus ebbs and flows. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/cuban-migration-postrevolution-exodus-ebbs-and-flows
  • ELLNER, S. (2013). Social and political diversity and the democratic road to change in Venezuela. Latin American Perspectives, 40 (3), 63-82.
  • ELLNER, S. (2018). Venezuela: The challenge to a “model democracy”. Knippers Black, Jan (Ed.), Latin America: Its problems and its promise: A multidisciplinary introduction (p. 399-412). New York: Routledge.
  • FLORES, A., LOPEZ, M. H., KROGSTAD, J. M. (2018). Hispanic voter registration rises in Florida. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/10/12/hispanic-voter-registration-rises-in-florida-but-role-of-puerto-ricans-remains-unclear/
  • FREITEZ, A. (2011). La emigración desde Venezueladurante la última década. Temas de Coyuntura, 63 (1), 11-38.
  • GALLARDO, L. H., BATALOVA, J. (2020). Venezuelan immigrants in the United States. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/venezuelan-immigrants-united-states
  • GELB, A. H. (1988). Oil windfalls: Blessing or curse. Washington: Oxford University Press.
  • GOSIN, M. (2019). The racial politics of division: Interethnic struggles for legitimacy in multicultural Miami. New York: Cornell University Press.
  • GOTT, R. (2005). Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian Revolution. New York: Verso Books.
  • GRENIER, G. J. and GLADWIN, H. (2019). How Cuban Americans in Miami view U.S. policies toward Cuba. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://cri.fiu.edu/research/cuba-poll/2018-fiu-cuba-poll.pdf
  • HOOGHE, M., DASSONNEVILLE, R. (2018). Explaining the Trump vote: The effect of racist resentment and anti-immigrant sentiments. PS: Political Science & Politics, 51(3), 528-534.
  • INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION. (2018). Flows of Venezuelan population. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.iom.int/countries/venezuela
  • INSIGHT CRIME. (2018). Venezuela: Country crime profile. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.insightcrime.org/venezuela-organized-crime-news/
  • JANSEN, B., GOMEZ, A. (2018). President Trump calls caravan immigrants 'stone cold criminals.' Here's what we know. Access Date: 20.04.2020 https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2018/11/26/president-trump-migrant-caravan-criminals/2112846002/
  • KARL, T. L. (1987). Petroleum and political pacts: The transition to democracy in Venezuela. Latin American Research Review, 22 (1), 63-94.
  • LOO, B. (2018). Venezuela in crisis: What does it mean for Northbound student mobility?. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://wenr.wes.org/2018/11/venezuela-in-crisis-what-does-it-mean-for-northbound-student-mobility
  • MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE. (2020). South American immigrants in the United States. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/south-american-immigrants-united-states
  • MORALES, E. (2018). Latinx: The new force in American politics and culture. London: Verso Books.
  • MORENO, D., WARREN, C. (2018). The Conservative Enclave Revisited: Cuban Americans in Florida. de la Garza, D. O. and DeSipio, L. (Eds.), Ethnic Ironies (p. 169-184). New York: Routledge
  • MURRIEL, M. (2016). Venezuelans flee to the US, claiming their country is 'worse than Cuba' in the 1960s. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.pri.org/stories/2016-03-21/venezuelans-flee-us-claiming-their-country-worse-cuba-1960s
  • NAR. (2017). Venezuelan Home Buyers Rank as South Florida’s Top International Clients. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.miamirealtors.com/international/research-and-resources/miami-herald-international-edition/articles/international-articles/2017/08/16/venezuelan-home-buyers-rank-as-south-florida-s-top-international-clients
  • NOE-BUSTAMANTE, L., FLORES, A., SHAH, S. (2019a). Facts on Hispanics of Venezuelan origin in the United States, 2017. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/fact-sheet/u-s-hispanics-facts-on-venezuelan-origin-latinos/#age
  • NOE-BUSTAMANTE, L., FLORES, A., SHAH, S. (2019b). Facts on Hispanics of Cuban origin in the United States, 2017. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/fact-sheet/u-s-hispanics-facts-on-cuban-origin-latinos/
  • OBSERVATORIO VENEZOLANO DE VIOLENCIA. (2018). Informe anual de violencia 2018. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://observatoriodeviolencia.org.ve/ovv-lacso-informe-anual-de-violencia-2018/
  • OSORIO, S. (2019). They fled a nightmare in Venezuela, only to wind up in U.S. immigration prisons. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/venezuela/article238072964.html#storylink=cpy (20.04.2020).
  • OPEC. (2018). Venezuela: Facts and figures. Access Date: 20.04.2020 https://www.opec.org/opec_web/en/about_us/171.htm
  • PADGETT, T. (2019). Venezuelan expats survey shows most are with democrats — but it's complicated. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.wlrn.org/post/venezuelan-expats-survey-shows-most-are-democrats-its-complicated#stream/0
  • PÁEZ, T., VIVAS, M., PULIDO, J. R. (2014). Comunidad Venezolana en el exterior: ¿Una nueva modalidad de exilio?. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://konzapata.com/noticia/4970/katalejo/el-50-de-los-venezolanos-que-se-va-tiene-maestria-postgrados-y-doctorados.html
  • PÉREZ, L. (1986). Cubans in the United States. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 487 (1), 126-137.
  • PORTES, A. (1987). The social origins of the Cuban enclave economy of Miami. Sociological Perspectives, 30 (4), 340-372.
  • RABELLINO, A. (2017). How Venezuelans could reshape elections in Florida. Access Date: 20.04.2020. http://www.americasquarterly.org/content/how-venezuelans-couldreshape-elections-florida
  • REEVE, C. (2015). Goodbye, Venezuela. World Policy Journal, 32 (4), 26-36.
  • ROSS, M. L. (2013). The Oil Curse: How petroleum wealth shapes the development of nations. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • ROTHE, E. M. and PUMARIEGA, A. (2008). The new face of Cubans in the United States: cultural process and generational change in an exile community. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 6 (2), 247-266.
  • SAUCEDO, S. G., ITZIGSOHN, J. (2006). Diferencias de género en la experiencia migratoria: Transnacionalismo e incorporación de los migrantes latinos en Estados Unidos. Papeles de Población, 12 (47), 9-37.
  • SALAS, M. T. (2015). Venezuela: What everyone needs to know? New York: Oxford University Press.
  • SCHUBERT, S. R. (2006). Revisiting the oil curse: Are oil rich nations really doomed to autocracy and inequality? Oil and Gas Business, Vol. 2006, 1-16.
  • SEMPLE, K. (2008). Rise of Chávez sends Venezuelans to Florida. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/23/us/23florida.html?hp
  • STAVANS, I. (2017). Latinos in the United States: What everyone needs to know? New York: Oxford University Press.
  • TILLY, C. (1984). Big structures, large processes, huge comparisons. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • THE DHS. (1999). Yearbook of immigration statistics 1996 to 1999. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.dhs.gov/immigration-statistics/yearbook/1996_1999
  • TORRES, L. (2018). Latinx? Latino Studies. Vol. 16, 283-285
  • TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL. (2020). Country profile: Venezuela. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.transparency.org/country/VEN
  • UNHCR. (2018). Number of refugees and migrants from Venezuela reaches 3 million. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://www.unhcr.org/news/press/2018/11/5be4192b4/number-refugees-migrants-venezuela-reaches-3-million.html
  • UNHCR. (2020). Response for Venezuelans. Access Date: 20.04.2020. https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/platform
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Deniz Pelin DİNÇER> (Primary Author)
Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi
0000-0002-2902-9195
Türkiye

Early Pub Date October 30, 2022
Publication Date October 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2

Cite

APA Dinçer, D. P. (2022). Latinx Immigrants in the United States: A Comparative Analysis on the Venezuelan and Cuban Immigrants in Florida . İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 9 (2) , 567-582 . DOI: 10.17336/igusbd.795584

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