Research Article
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Usability of Computer Games in Political Science and Public Administration Education

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, 583 - 598, 30.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.798407

Abstract

In this study, the usability of computer games in political science and public administration teaching is examined through exemplary computer games. For review, 21 games were selected from among the popular games in the market. In order to present a wide range of examples, strategy and city planning games with real-time or turn-based game mechanics, released between 1998-2016, were examined. In the analysis, criteria such as game mechanics, geography, period, how it can be used in public administration were taken as basis. In conclusion, it can be said that the mechanics of the games in question allow the player to act as an active public manager, and the player has the opportunity to make independent decisions and make different management choices, and to observe the effects and consequences of these choices (public policies). Games can be used to give information on political history. However, the games in question offer very little information on managerial theoretical knowledge and legislative applications. In general, it is possible to supplement undergraduate education with computer games: Games can be interpreted as an advanced step of visual aid tools and used under the guidance of a guide.

References

  • AARSETH, E. (2001). Computer game studies, year one. Game studies, 1(1), 1-15.
  • ADAMS, P. C. (1998). Teaching and learning with SimCity 2000. Journal of geography, 97(2), 47-55.
  • ALEXANDER, A. L., BRUNYÉ, T., SIDMAN, J., & WEIL, S. A. (2005). “From gaming to training: A review of studies on fidelity, immersion, presence, and buy-in and their effects on transfer in pc-based simulations and games.” DARWARS Training Impact Group, 5, 1-14.
  • APPERLEY, T. (2018). Counterfactual communities: Strategy games, paratexts and the player’s experience of history. Open Library of Humanities, 4(1).
  • ARJORANTA, J. (2014) "Game definitions: A Wittgensteinian approach." Game Studies: the international journal of computer game research 14.
  • BASSIOUNI, D. H. (2013). “Children’s experiences of video game consumption: development, socialisation and identity.” Doktora tezi. Royal Holloway University of London.
  • GÜLER, B. A. (1994). “Nesnesini Arayan Disiplin: Kamu Yönetimi” Amme İdaresi Dergisi, 27(4), 3-19.
  • BOSTROM, N. (2003) “Are We Living in a Computer Simulation?” Philosophical Quarterly, 53(211), 243-255.
  • CHRISTESEN, P., & MACHADO, D. (2010). “Video games and classical antiquity.” Classical World, 104(1), 107-110.
  • CLARK, D. (2006). "Games and e-learning." Caspian learning.
  • CONNOLLY, T. M., BOYLE, E. A., MACARTHUR, E., HAİNEY, T., & BOYLE, J. M. (2012). “A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games.” Computers & education, 59(2), 661-686.
  • DALE, A. G. & KLASSON, C. R. (1964). Business gaming: A survey of American collegiate schools of business. Bureau of Business Research, University of Texas.
  • DEKKERS, J. & DONATTI S. (1981) "The integration of research studies on the use of simulation as an instructional strategy." The Journal of Educational Research 74(6), 424-432.
  • DEVISCH, O. (2008). Should planners start playing computer games? Arguments from SimCity and Second Life. Planning Theory & Practice, 9(2), 209-226.
  • DILL, K. E., GENTILE, D. A., RICHTER, W. A., & DILL, J. C. (2005). “Violence, sex, race and age in popular video games: A content analysis.” Featuring females: Feminist analyses of the media, 115-130.
  • FARIA, A. J. & NULSEN, R. O. (1996) "Business simulation games: current usage levels. A ten year update." Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning: Proceedings of the Annual ABSEL conference. 23, 22-28
  • FRIEDMAN, T. (1999). The semiotics of SimCity. First Monday, 4(4).
  • GABER, J. (2007). Simulating planning: SimCity as a pedagogical tool. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 27(2), 113-121.
  • GEE, J. P. (2003). “What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy.” Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 1(1), 1-4.
  • HOUGHTON, R. (2018). “World, Structure and Play: A Framework for Games as Historical Research Outputs, Tools, and Processes”. Práticas da História, (7).
  • ILLICH, I. (2017). Okulsuz Toplum. Şule Yayınları.
  • KIRRIEMUIR, J. (2002). The relevance of video games and gaming consoles to the higher and further education learning experience. Techwatch report TSW, 2
  • KIRRIEMUIR, J., & MCFARLANE, A. (2004). Literature review in games and learning. Futurelab Series, 1-35.
  • LAIRD, J. E. (2005). History of computer games. EECS Department, 9(7).
  • LUCAT, B., & HAAHR, M. (2015). “Ideological Narratives of Play in Tropico 4 and Crusader Kings II.” In DiGRA Conference.
  • LUNDGREN, S., & BJÖRK, S. (2012, May). “Neither playing nor gaming: Pottering in games.” In Proceedings of the international conference on the foundations of digital games. 113-120
  • MACCALLUM-STEWART, E. & PARSLER, J. (2007) “Controversies: Historicising the Computer Game Situated Play”, Proceedings of DiGRA 2007 Conference Tokyo: The University of Tokyo, September, 2007, 203-210
  • MCGUIRE, C. ( 1973) “Simulation Technique in the Teaching and Testing of Problem-Solving Skills.” Occasional Paper Series-Science Paper 8. Columbus Ohio State University Center for Science and Mathematics Education. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED091152.pdf
  • MCMICHAEL A. (2007) “PC Games and the Teaching of History” The History Teacher, 40(2), 203-218
  • MOZELIUS, P., FAGERSTRÖM, A., & SÖDERQUİST, M. (2017). “Motivating factors and tangential learning for knowledge acquisition in educational games.” Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 15(4), 343-354.
  • PRENSKY, M. (2001). “Fun, play and games: What makes games engaging.” Digital game-based learning, 5(1), 5-31.
  • PRENSKY, M. (2006). Don't bother me, Mom, I'm learning! How computer and video games are preparing your kids for 21st century success and how. St. Paul: Paragon House.
  • PRENSKY, M. & BERRY, B. D. (2001). “Do they really think differently.” On the horizon, 9(6), 1-9.
  • RAIA, A. (1966) "A study of the educational value of management games." Journal of Business, 39, 339-352.
  • REINART, B., & POPLIN, A. (2014). “Games in urban planning–a comparative study”. Real Corp, 1-10.
  • ROSEN, G. (1979). “The effectiveness of the use of games as a revision technique in junior high school science.” Research in Science Education, 9(1), 133-143.
  • SABATIER, P. A. & WEIBLE, C. M. eds. Theories of the policy process. Westview Press, 2014.
  • SICART, M. (2011). The ethics of computer games. MIT press.
  • SQUIRE, K. D. (2004). Replaying History: Learnıng World History Through Playıng Civilization III, Doktora Tezi, Indiana University.
  • TANES, Z., & CEMALCILAR, Z. (2010). Learning from SimCity: An empirical study of Turkish adolescents. Journal of adolescence, 33(5), 731-739.
  • TYACK, A., & WYETH, P. (2016). Reflective experiences in videogame play. https://eprints.qut.edu.au/114893/1/DiGRAA%202016%20-%20upload.pdf
  • VANSICKLE, R. L. (1978) "Designing simulation games to teach decision-making skills." Small Group Behavior. 9(4). 413-428.
  • VANSICKLE, R. L. (1986). “A quantitative review of research on instructional simulation gaming: A twenty-year perspective.” Theory & Research in Social Education, 14(3), 245-264.
  • WAINWRIGHT, A. M. (2014). Teaching historical theory through video games. The History Teacher, 47(4), 579-612.
  • WATRALL, E. (2002) "Digital pharaoh: Archaeology, public education and interactive entertainment." Public Archaeology 2.3: 163-169.
  • WENTWORTH, D. R. & DARRELL R. L. (1973) "An evaluation of a simulation game for teaching introductory economics in junior colleges." The Journal of Experimental Education 42, 87-96.
  • WINNERLING, T. (2014). “The eternal recurrence of all bits: how historicizing video game series transform factual history into affective historicity.” Eludamos. Journal for Computer Game Culture, 8(1), 151-170.
  • WITTGENSTEIN, L. (2009) Philosophical investigations. (çev.) G. E. M. Anscombe, P. M. S. Hacker ve Joachim Schulte; (ed.) P. M. S. Hacker and Joachim Schulte, John Wiley & Sons, UK.
  • WOODROW, W. "The study of administration." Political Science Quarterly 2.2 (1887): 197-222.
  • WOUTERS, P., VAN DER SPEK, E. D., & VAN OOSTENDORP, H. (2009). “Current practices in serious game research: A review from a learning outcomes perspective.” Games-based learning advancements for multi-sensory human computer interfaces: techniques and effective practices. IGI Global, 232-250.
  • YEŞİLYURT, F. "Türkiye’de Eğitim-Öğretim Alanında Yapılan Bilgisayar Oyunları Konulu Lisansüstü Tezlerin İncelenmesi." OPUS Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi, 9(16), 1506-1524.

Bilgisayar Oyunlarının Siyaset Bilimi ve Kamu Yönetimi Öğretiminde Kullanılabilirliği

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, 583 - 598, 30.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.798407

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, bilgisayar oyunlarının siyaset bilimi ve kamu yönetimi öğretiminde kullanılabilirliği örnek seçilen bilgisayar oyunları üzerinden irdelenmektedir. İncelemek üzere piyasada bilinirliği ve popülerliği olan oyunlar arasından 21 adet oyun seçilmiştir. Geniş bir yelpaze örneği sunabilmek için, 1998-2016 yılları arasında piyasaya sürülen, gerçek zamanlı veya sıra tabanlı oyun mekaniğine sahip strateji ve şehir planlama oyunları incelenmiştir. İncelemede, oyun mekaniği, coğrafya, dönem, kamu yönetiminde nasıl kullanılabileceği gibi ölçütler esas alınmıştır. Sonuçta, söz konusu oyunların mekaniğinin oyuncuya aktif bir kamu yöneticisi olarak hareket etme imkânı tanıdığı, oyuncunun bağımsız karar alma ve uygulama imkânı bularak farklı yönetim tercihlerinde bulunma, bu tercihlerin (kamu politikalarının) etki ve sonuçlarını gözlemleme olanağı sağladığı söylenebilir. Oyunlar siyasi tarih bilgisinin verilmesinde kullanılabilir. Bununla birlikte söz konusu oyunlar, yönetsel teorik bilgi ve mevzuat uygulamaları alanında çok az bilgi sunmaktadır. Genel olarak lisans öğretiminin bilgisayar oyunlarıyla ikmal edilmesi mümkündür: Oyunlar, görsel yardım araçlarının gelişmiş bir adımı olarak yorumlanabilir ve bir rehber gözetiminde kullanılabilir. 

References

  • AARSETH, E. (2001). Computer game studies, year one. Game studies, 1(1), 1-15.
  • ADAMS, P. C. (1998). Teaching and learning with SimCity 2000. Journal of geography, 97(2), 47-55.
  • ALEXANDER, A. L., BRUNYÉ, T., SIDMAN, J., & WEIL, S. A. (2005). “From gaming to training: A review of studies on fidelity, immersion, presence, and buy-in and their effects on transfer in pc-based simulations and games.” DARWARS Training Impact Group, 5, 1-14.
  • APPERLEY, T. (2018). Counterfactual communities: Strategy games, paratexts and the player’s experience of history. Open Library of Humanities, 4(1).
  • ARJORANTA, J. (2014) "Game definitions: A Wittgensteinian approach." Game Studies: the international journal of computer game research 14.
  • BASSIOUNI, D. H. (2013). “Children’s experiences of video game consumption: development, socialisation and identity.” Doktora tezi. Royal Holloway University of London.
  • GÜLER, B. A. (1994). “Nesnesini Arayan Disiplin: Kamu Yönetimi” Amme İdaresi Dergisi, 27(4), 3-19.
  • BOSTROM, N. (2003) “Are We Living in a Computer Simulation?” Philosophical Quarterly, 53(211), 243-255.
  • CHRISTESEN, P., & MACHADO, D. (2010). “Video games and classical antiquity.” Classical World, 104(1), 107-110.
  • CLARK, D. (2006). "Games and e-learning." Caspian learning.
  • CONNOLLY, T. M., BOYLE, E. A., MACARTHUR, E., HAİNEY, T., & BOYLE, J. M. (2012). “A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games.” Computers & education, 59(2), 661-686.
  • DALE, A. G. & KLASSON, C. R. (1964). Business gaming: A survey of American collegiate schools of business. Bureau of Business Research, University of Texas.
  • DEKKERS, J. & DONATTI S. (1981) "The integration of research studies on the use of simulation as an instructional strategy." The Journal of Educational Research 74(6), 424-432.
  • DEVISCH, O. (2008). Should planners start playing computer games? Arguments from SimCity and Second Life. Planning Theory & Practice, 9(2), 209-226.
  • DILL, K. E., GENTILE, D. A., RICHTER, W. A., & DILL, J. C. (2005). “Violence, sex, race and age in popular video games: A content analysis.” Featuring females: Feminist analyses of the media, 115-130.
  • FARIA, A. J. & NULSEN, R. O. (1996) "Business simulation games: current usage levels. A ten year update." Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning: Proceedings of the Annual ABSEL conference. 23, 22-28
  • FRIEDMAN, T. (1999). The semiotics of SimCity. First Monday, 4(4).
  • GABER, J. (2007). Simulating planning: SimCity as a pedagogical tool. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 27(2), 113-121.
  • GEE, J. P. (2003). “What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy.” Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 1(1), 1-4.
  • HOUGHTON, R. (2018). “World, Structure and Play: A Framework for Games as Historical Research Outputs, Tools, and Processes”. Práticas da História, (7).
  • ILLICH, I. (2017). Okulsuz Toplum. Şule Yayınları.
  • KIRRIEMUIR, J. (2002). The relevance of video games and gaming consoles to the higher and further education learning experience. Techwatch report TSW, 2
  • KIRRIEMUIR, J., & MCFARLANE, A. (2004). Literature review in games and learning. Futurelab Series, 1-35.
  • LAIRD, J. E. (2005). History of computer games. EECS Department, 9(7).
  • LUCAT, B., & HAAHR, M. (2015). “Ideological Narratives of Play in Tropico 4 and Crusader Kings II.” In DiGRA Conference.
  • LUNDGREN, S., & BJÖRK, S. (2012, May). “Neither playing nor gaming: Pottering in games.” In Proceedings of the international conference on the foundations of digital games. 113-120
  • MACCALLUM-STEWART, E. & PARSLER, J. (2007) “Controversies: Historicising the Computer Game Situated Play”, Proceedings of DiGRA 2007 Conference Tokyo: The University of Tokyo, September, 2007, 203-210
  • MCGUIRE, C. ( 1973) “Simulation Technique in the Teaching and Testing of Problem-Solving Skills.” Occasional Paper Series-Science Paper 8. Columbus Ohio State University Center for Science and Mathematics Education. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED091152.pdf
  • MCMICHAEL A. (2007) “PC Games and the Teaching of History” The History Teacher, 40(2), 203-218
  • MOZELIUS, P., FAGERSTRÖM, A., & SÖDERQUİST, M. (2017). “Motivating factors and tangential learning for knowledge acquisition in educational games.” Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 15(4), 343-354.
  • PRENSKY, M. (2001). “Fun, play and games: What makes games engaging.” Digital game-based learning, 5(1), 5-31.
  • PRENSKY, M. (2006). Don't bother me, Mom, I'm learning! How computer and video games are preparing your kids for 21st century success and how. St. Paul: Paragon House.
  • PRENSKY, M. & BERRY, B. D. (2001). “Do they really think differently.” On the horizon, 9(6), 1-9.
  • RAIA, A. (1966) "A study of the educational value of management games." Journal of Business, 39, 339-352.
  • REINART, B., & POPLIN, A. (2014). “Games in urban planning–a comparative study”. Real Corp, 1-10.
  • ROSEN, G. (1979). “The effectiveness of the use of games as a revision technique in junior high school science.” Research in Science Education, 9(1), 133-143.
  • SABATIER, P. A. & WEIBLE, C. M. eds. Theories of the policy process. Westview Press, 2014.
  • SICART, M. (2011). The ethics of computer games. MIT press.
  • SQUIRE, K. D. (2004). Replaying History: Learnıng World History Through Playıng Civilization III, Doktora Tezi, Indiana University.
  • TANES, Z., & CEMALCILAR, Z. (2010). Learning from SimCity: An empirical study of Turkish adolescents. Journal of adolescence, 33(5), 731-739.
  • TYACK, A., & WYETH, P. (2016). Reflective experiences in videogame play. https://eprints.qut.edu.au/114893/1/DiGRAA%202016%20-%20upload.pdf
  • VANSICKLE, R. L. (1978) "Designing simulation games to teach decision-making skills." Small Group Behavior. 9(4). 413-428.
  • VANSICKLE, R. L. (1986). “A quantitative review of research on instructional simulation gaming: A twenty-year perspective.” Theory & Research in Social Education, 14(3), 245-264.
  • WAINWRIGHT, A. M. (2014). Teaching historical theory through video games. The History Teacher, 47(4), 579-612.
  • WATRALL, E. (2002) "Digital pharaoh: Archaeology, public education and interactive entertainment." Public Archaeology 2.3: 163-169.
  • WENTWORTH, D. R. & DARRELL R. L. (1973) "An evaluation of a simulation game for teaching introductory economics in junior colleges." The Journal of Experimental Education 42, 87-96.
  • WINNERLING, T. (2014). “The eternal recurrence of all bits: how historicizing video game series transform factual history into affective historicity.” Eludamos. Journal for Computer Game Culture, 8(1), 151-170.
  • WITTGENSTEIN, L. (2009) Philosophical investigations. (çev.) G. E. M. Anscombe, P. M. S. Hacker ve Joachim Schulte; (ed.) P. M. S. Hacker and Joachim Schulte, John Wiley & Sons, UK.
  • WOODROW, W. "The study of administration." Political Science Quarterly 2.2 (1887): 197-222.
  • WOUTERS, P., VAN DER SPEK, E. D., & VAN OOSTENDORP, H. (2009). “Current practices in serious game research: A review from a learning outcomes perspective.” Games-based learning advancements for multi-sensory human computer interfaces: techniques and effective practices. IGI Global, 232-250.
  • YEŞİLYURT, F. "Türkiye’de Eğitim-Öğretim Alanında Yapılan Bilgisayar Oyunları Konulu Lisansüstü Tezlerin İncelenmesi." OPUS Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi, 9(16), 1506-1524.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Muhammed Tolga GEDİKKAYA> (Primary Author)
Aile, Çalışma ve Sosyal Hizmetler Bakanlığı
0000-0003-0476-2320
Türkiye

Early Pub Date October 30, 2022
Publication Date October 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2

Cite

APA Gedikkaya, M. T. (2022). Bilgisayar Oyunlarının Siyaset Bilimi ve Kamu Yönetimi Öğretiminde Kullanılabilirliği . İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 9 (2) , 583-598 . DOI: 10.17336/igusbd.798407

 Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)