Research Article
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Avrupa Birliği’nin Arap İsyanlarına Yönelik Dış Politikası

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, 612 - 627, 30.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.860921

Abstract

Arap İsyanlarının ortaya çıkışı bölgesel bir değişim ve dönüşümü ortaya çıkardı ve bölgesel ve küresel aktörlerin politikalarının değişmesine yol açtı. Avrupa Birliği bölgesel aktörlerle yakın ekonomik ve siyasi ilişkilere sahip olmasına rağmen Avrupa Birliği de diğer birçok aktör gibi bölgesel ayaklanmalara hazırlıksız yakalandı. Avrupa Birliği’nin farklı ülkelerdeki Arap İsyanlarına yönelik izlediği bekle-gör politikası ve temkinli adımları, normatif bir güç ve küresel bir aktör olarak Avrupa Birliği’ne karşı eleştirilerin artmasına sebep oldu. Avrupa Birliği üyesi ülkeler arasındaki çıkar çatışmaları ve özellikle beklenmeyen olaylara yönelik ortak bir dış politika belirleme ve uygulama anlamındaki işbirliğinin eksikliği nedeniyle Avrupa Birliği, Arap İsyanları sürecinde öncü bir rol oynayamadı. Bunun aynı zamanda Avrupa Birliği’nin göstermiş olduğu düşük performans nedeniyle kendisine komşu olan bir bölgede kaçırdığı bir fırsat olduğu söylenebilir. Dahası, Avrupa Birliği mülteci akını ve terörist eylemlerdeki artış gibi Arap İsyanları kaynaklı yeni problemlerle yüzleşmek zorunda kaldı. Bu makale, Arap İsyanlarının farklı ülkelerdeki yansımalarına yönelik AB dış politikasını süreç izleme (süreç takibi) araştırma yöntemini kullanarak niteliksel olarak analiz edecektir.

References

  • ABDEL SALAM, E. A. (2015). The Arab Spring: its origins, evolution and consequences…four years on. Intellectual Discourse, Vol. 23 (1), 119-139.
  • AGGESTAM, L. (2008). Introduction: ethical power Europe? International Affairs, (84), 1-11.
  • BENAM, Ç. H. (2011). Emergence of a “big brother” in Europe: border control and securitization of migration. Insight Turkey, Vol. 13 (3), 191-207.
  • BENGTSSON, R. and ELGSTRÖM, O. (2012). Conflicting role conceptions? The European Union in global politics. Foreign Policy Analysis, Vol. 8 (1), 93-108.
  • BENVENUTI, B. (2017, January). The migration paradox and EU-Turkey relations. Istituto Affari Internazionali.
  • BISHARA, A. (2019, October/ November). Remarks on external factors in democratic transition. AlMuntaqa, Vol. 2 (2), 40-60.
  • DIEZ, T. (2013, June). Normative power as hegemony. Cooperation and conflict, Vol. 48 (2), 194-210.
  • DIEZ, T. (2014). Setting the limits: discourse and EU foreign policy. Cooperation and Conflict, Vol. 49 (3), 319-333.
  • FABBRINI, S. (2014). The European Union and the Libyan crisis. International Politics, Vol. 51(2), 177-195.
  • FIORAMONTI, L. and POLETTI, A. (2008). Facing the giant: southern perspectives on the European Union. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 29 (1), 167-180.
  • GHILÉS, F. (2012). A new deal for Arab people. Insight Turkey, Vol. 14 (1), 13-27.
  • GORA, M. (2019). Allied constructive criticism? Politeja, Vol. 63, 27-42.
  • GRIMM, S. (2018). Democracy promotion and the European Union. In Democracy promotion in times of uncertainty: trends and challenges (16-19). Peace Research Institute Frankfurt/ Leibniz-Institut Hessische Stiftung Friedens- Und Konfliktforschung.
  • HARIK, I. (2006). Democracy, “Arab exceptionalism,” and social science. Middle East Journal, Vol. 60 (4), 664-684.
  • HOLLIS, R. (2012). No friend of democratization: Europe's role in the genesis of the "Arab Spring". International Affairs, Vol. 88 (1), 81-94.
  • HETTNE, B. and SÖDERBAUM, F. (2005). Civilian Power or Soft Imperialism? The EU as a global actor and the role of interregionalism. European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 10 (4), 535-552.
  • IRIMIE, R. C. (2014). European Union: A global actor in challenging times. Studia Ubb. Europaea. Vol. 60 (4), 101-133.
  • ISLEYEN, B. (2017). The external dimension of European Union counter-terrorism discourse: good governance, the Arab “Spring” and the “foreign fighters”. Uluslararası İlişkiler/ International Relations, Vol. 14 (55), 59-74.
  • KARACASULU, N. and KARAKIR, I. A. (2014). EU-Turkey relations in the context of the Middle East after the Arab Spring. Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 (4), 201-219.
  • KARAKIR, I. A. (2014). Limits of EU democracy promotion in the Arab Middle East: the cases of Egypt and Morocco. Uluslararası Hukuk ve Politika, Vol. 10 (38), 33-67.
  • KAVALSKI, E. and CHO, Y. C. (2018). Worlding the study of normative power. Uluslararası İlişkiler/ International Relations, Vol. 15 (57), 49-65.
  • KREUTZ, J. (2015, Winter). Human rights, geostrategy and EU foreign policy, 1989-2008. International Organization, Vol. 69 (1), 195-217.
  • LENZ, T. (2013). EU normative power and regionalism: ideational diffusion and its limits. Cooperation and Conflict, Vol. 48 (2), 211-228.
  • LEXMANN, M. (2017). The European Union and Russia. International Issues & Slovak Foreign Policy Affairs, Vol. 26 (3-4), 35-55.
  • MANNERS, I. (2008). The normative ethics of the European Union. International Affairs, Vol. 84 (1), 45-60.
  • MANNERS, I. (2013, June). Assessing the decennial, reassing the global: Understanding European Union normative power in global politics. Cooperation and conflict, Vol. 48 (2), 304-329.
  • MARTINEZ, J. M. G. and MARTINEZ, M. A. N. (2017). The Islamic State’s political organization. The political impact of jihadist terrorism: consequences in the European Union. In A. Sroka, F. C. Garrone and R. D. T. Kumbrian (Eds.) Radicalism and terrorism in the 21st century: implications for security (261-292). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang AG.
  • METAWE, M. (2013). How and why the West reacted to the Arab Spring: an Arab perspective. Insight Turkey, Vol. 15 (3), 141-155.
  • NAS, C. (2019). The EU’s approach to the Syrian crisis. Uluslararası İlişkiler/ International Relations, Vol. 16 (62), 45-64.
  • OKTAV, O. Z. and CELIKAKSOY, A. (2015). The Syrian refugee challenge and Turkey’s quest for normative power in the Middle East. International Journal, Vol. 70 (3), 408-420.
  • PERSSON, A. 2020. EU diplomacy and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, 1967-2019. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • PIERCE, A. R. (2014). US “partnership” with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and its effect on civil society and human rights. Society, Vol. 51 (1), 68-86.
  • PORTELA, C. (2012, October). The EU sanctions operation in Syria: conflict management by other means. UNISCI Discussion Papers, 151-158.
  • RAMADAN, T. (2012). The future of political Islam in the Arab world. The Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research, No. 93, 1-25.
  • RATKA, E. (2012). Germany and the Arab Spring- foreign policy between new activism and old habits. German Politics and Society, Vol. 30 (2), 59-74.
  • ROUET, G. (2014). Turbulences, European neighbourhood policy and European identity. Politické Vedy, No. 2, 9-27.
  • SCHUMACHER, T. (2011). The EU and the Arab Spring: between spectatorship and actorness. Insight Turkey, Vol. 13 (3), 107-119.
  • SMITH, K. E. (2014, March). Is the European Union’s soft power in decline? Current History, Vol. 113 (761), 104-109.
  • TAUSCH, A. (2019). Migration from the Muslim world to the West. Jewish Political Studies Review, Vol. 30 (1/2), 65-225.
  • THYEN, K. (2018, March). Why it matters what we do: Arab citizens’ perceptions of the European Union after the 2011 uprisings. German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA), No. 312, 1-25.
  • TIILIKAINEN, T.(2014, Spring). The EU’s international identity and the construction of the international order. European Review of International Studies, Vol. 1 (1), 125-131.
  • WARDIN, K. (2018). Armed conflicts in fragile states and their influence on illegal migrations and refugees in the European Union in the 21st century. Politeja, Vol. 56, 211-230.
  • WEBBER, D. (2016). Declining power Europe. European Review of International Studies, Vol. 3 (1), 31-52.
  • WHITMAN, R. G. (2013). The neo-normative turn in theorising the EU’s international presence. Cooperation and Conflict, Vol. 48 (2), 171-193.
  • WICHMANN, N. (2007). Promoting the rule of law in the European Neighbourhood Policy- strategic or normative power? Politique Européenne, (22), 81-104.
  • WODKA, J. and KUZMICZ, S. (2013). European Union and Turkey in the post Arab Spring era: mapping strategic interests in the turbulent neighborhood. Insight Turkey, Vol. 15 (3), 123-140.
  • WOOD, S. (2011). Pragmatic power EUrope? Cooperation and Conflict, Vol. 46 (2), 242-261.
  • World Leaders Voice Concern, Optimism over Egyptian Coup. (2013, July 4). Deutsche Welle. Retrieved on February 21, 2019, from https://www.dw.com/en/world-leaders-voice-concern-optimism-over-egyptian-coup/a-16928311
  • WOUTERS, J. and DUQUET, S. (2013). The Arab Uprisings and the European Union: in search of a comprehensive strategy. Yearbook of European Law, Vol. 32 (1), 230-265.
  • YILMAZ-ELMAS, F. (2020). EU’s global actorness in question. Uluslararası İlişkiler/ International Relations, Vol. 17 (68), 161-177.

Foreign Policy of the European Union towards the Arab Uprisings

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, 612 - 627, 30.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.17336/igusbd.860921

Abstract

The emergence of the Arab Uprisings started a regional transformation and led to changes of the policies of the regional and external actors. Although the EU had close economic and political relations with the regional actors, the EU, like many other actors, was caught unprepared against the regional upheaval. The EU’s wait-and-see policy and cautious steps towards different cases of the Arab Uprisings increased criticisms against the EU as a normative power and global actor. Due to lack of cooperation for determining and implementing a common foreign policy especially in case of surprising events and the diverging interests of the EU member states, the EU could not play a leading role during the Arab Uprisings. Therefore, the low performance of the EU meant a missed opportunity in its neighborhood. Additionally, the EU had to encounter new problems stemming from the Uprisings such as influx of refugees and increase in terrorist actions. This article will qualitatively analyze the foreign policy of the EU towards the different cases of the Arab Uprisings by using the research method of process tracing.

References

  • ABDEL SALAM, E. A. (2015). The Arab Spring: its origins, evolution and consequences…four years on. Intellectual Discourse, Vol. 23 (1), 119-139.
  • AGGESTAM, L. (2008). Introduction: ethical power Europe? International Affairs, (84), 1-11.
  • BENAM, Ç. H. (2011). Emergence of a “big brother” in Europe: border control and securitization of migration. Insight Turkey, Vol. 13 (3), 191-207.
  • BENGTSSON, R. and ELGSTRÖM, O. (2012). Conflicting role conceptions? The European Union in global politics. Foreign Policy Analysis, Vol. 8 (1), 93-108.
  • BENVENUTI, B. (2017, January). The migration paradox and EU-Turkey relations. Istituto Affari Internazionali.
  • BISHARA, A. (2019, October/ November). Remarks on external factors in democratic transition. AlMuntaqa, Vol. 2 (2), 40-60.
  • DIEZ, T. (2013, June). Normative power as hegemony. Cooperation and conflict, Vol. 48 (2), 194-210.
  • DIEZ, T. (2014). Setting the limits: discourse and EU foreign policy. Cooperation and Conflict, Vol. 49 (3), 319-333.
  • FABBRINI, S. (2014). The European Union and the Libyan crisis. International Politics, Vol. 51(2), 177-195.
  • FIORAMONTI, L. and POLETTI, A. (2008). Facing the giant: southern perspectives on the European Union. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 29 (1), 167-180.
  • GHILÉS, F. (2012). A new deal for Arab people. Insight Turkey, Vol. 14 (1), 13-27.
  • GORA, M. (2019). Allied constructive criticism? Politeja, Vol. 63, 27-42.
  • GRIMM, S. (2018). Democracy promotion and the European Union. In Democracy promotion in times of uncertainty: trends and challenges (16-19). Peace Research Institute Frankfurt/ Leibniz-Institut Hessische Stiftung Friedens- Und Konfliktforschung.
  • HARIK, I. (2006). Democracy, “Arab exceptionalism,” and social science. Middle East Journal, Vol. 60 (4), 664-684.
  • HOLLIS, R. (2012). No friend of democratization: Europe's role in the genesis of the "Arab Spring". International Affairs, Vol. 88 (1), 81-94.
  • HETTNE, B. and SÖDERBAUM, F. (2005). Civilian Power or Soft Imperialism? The EU as a global actor and the role of interregionalism. European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 10 (4), 535-552.
  • IRIMIE, R. C. (2014). European Union: A global actor in challenging times. Studia Ubb. Europaea. Vol. 60 (4), 101-133.
  • ISLEYEN, B. (2017). The external dimension of European Union counter-terrorism discourse: good governance, the Arab “Spring” and the “foreign fighters”. Uluslararası İlişkiler/ International Relations, Vol. 14 (55), 59-74.
  • KARACASULU, N. and KARAKIR, I. A. (2014). EU-Turkey relations in the context of the Middle East after the Arab Spring. Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 (4), 201-219.
  • KARAKIR, I. A. (2014). Limits of EU democracy promotion in the Arab Middle East: the cases of Egypt and Morocco. Uluslararası Hukuk ve Politika, Vol. 10 (38), 33-67.
  • KAVALSKI, E. and CHO, Y. C. (2018). Worlding the study of normative power. Uluslararası İlişkiler/ International Relations, Vol. 15 (57), 49-65.
  • KREUTZ, J. (2015, Winter). Human rights, geostrategy and EU foreign policy, 1989-2008. International Organization, Vol. 69 (1), 195-217.
  • LENZ, T. (2013). EU normative power and regionalism: ideational diffusion and its limits. Cooperation and Conflict, Vol. 48 (2), 211-228.
  • LEXMANN, M. (2017). The European Union and Russia. International Issues & Slovak Foreign Policy Affairs, Vol. 26 (3-4), 35-55.
  • MANNERS, I. (2008). The normative ethics of the European Union. International Affairs, Vol. 84 (1), 45-60.
  • MANNERS, I. (2013, June). Assessing the decennial, reassing the global: Understanding European Union normative power in global politics. Cooperation and conflict, Vol. 48 (2), 304-329.
  • MARTINEZ, J. M. G. and MARTINEZ, M. A. N. (2017). The Islamic State’s political organization. The political impact of jihadist terrorism: consequences in the European Union. In A. Sroka, F. C. Garrone and R. D. T. Kumbrian (Eds.) Radicalism and terrorism in the 21st century: implications for security (261-292). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang AG.
  • METAWE, M. (2013). How and why the West reacted to the Arab Spring: an Arab perspective. Insight Turkey, Vol. 15 (3), 141-155.
  • NAS, C. (2019). The EU’s approach to the Syrian crisis. Uluslararası İlişkiler/ International Relations, Vol. 16 (62), 45-64.
  • OKTAV, O. Z. and CELIKAKSOY, A. (2015). The Syrian refugee challenge and Turkey’s quest for normative power in the Middle East. International Journal, Vol. 70 (3), 408-420.
  • PERSSON, A. 2020. EU diplomacy and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, 1967-2019. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • PIERCE, A. R. (2014). US “partnership” with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and its effect on civil society and human rights. Society, Vol. 51 (1), 68-86.
  • PORTELA, C. (2012, October). The EU sanctions operation in Syria: conflict management by other means. UNISCI Discussion Papers, 151-158.
  • RAMADAN, T. (2012). The future of political Islam in the Arab world. The Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research, No. 93, 1-25.
  • RATKA, E. (2012). Germany and the Arab Spring- foreign policy between new activism and old habits. German Politics and Society, Vol. 30 (2), 59-74.
  • ROUET, G. (2014). Turbulences, European neighbourhood policy and European identity. Politické Vedy, No. 2, 9-27.
  • SCHUMACHER, T. (2011). The EU and the Arab Spring: between spectatorship and actorness. Insight Turkey, Vol. 13 (3), 107-119.
  • SMITH, K. E. (2014, March). Is the European Union’s soft power in decline? Current History, Vol. 113 (761), 104-109.
  • TAUSCH, A. (2019). Migration from the Muslim world to the West. Jewish Political Studies Review, Vol. 30 (1/2), 65-225.
  • THYEN, K. (2018, March). Why it matters what we do: Arab citizens’ perceptions of the European Union after the 2011 uprisings. German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA), No. 312, 1-25.
  • TIILIKAINEN, T.(2014, Spring). The EU’s international identity and the construction of the international order. European Review of International Studies, Vol. 1 (1), 125-131.
  • WARDIN, K. (2018). Armed conflicts in fragile states and their influence on illegal migrations and refugees in the European Union in the 21st century. Politeja, Vol. 56, 211-230.
  • WEBBER, D. (2016). Declining power Europe. European Review of International Studies, Vol. 3 (1), 31-52.
  • WHITMAN, R. G. (2013). The neo-normative turn in theorising the EU’s international presence. Cooperation and Conflict, Vol. 48 (2), 171-193.
  • WICHMANN, N. (2007). Promoting the rule of law in the European Neighbourhood Policy- strategic or normative power? Politique Européenne, (22), 81-104.
  • WODKA, J. and KUZMICZ, S. (2013). European Union and Turkey in the post Arab Spring era: mapping strategic interests in the turbulent neighborhood. Insight Turkey, Vol. 15 (3), 123-140.
  • WOOD, S. (2011). Pragmatic power EUrope? Cooperation and Conflict, Vol. 46 (2), 242-261.
  • World Leaders Voice Concern, Optimism over Egyptian Coup. (2013, July 4). Deutsche Welle. Retrieved on February 21, 2019, from https://www.dw.com/en/world-leaders-voice-concern-optimism-over-egyptian-coup/a-16928311
  • WOUTERS, J. and DUQUET, S. (2013). The Arab Uprisings and the European Union: in search of a comprehensive strategy. Yearbook of European Law, Vol. 32 (1), 230-265.
  • YILMAZ-ELMAS, F. (2020). EU’s global actorness in question. Uluslararası İlişkiler/ International Relations, Vol. 17 (68), 161-177.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Abdurrahman GÜMÜŞ> (Primary Author)
YILDIZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1746-7876
Türkiye

Early Pub Date October 30, 2022
Publication Date October 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2

Cite

APA Gümüş, A. (2022). Foreign Policy of the European Union towards the Arab Uprisings . İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 9 (2) , 612-627 . DOI: 10.17336/igusbd.860921

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