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INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF MARAGING STEELS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 3, 654 - 662, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.46519/ij3dptdi.1024485

Abstract

Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology produces parts in layers and offers design freedom (3D design), zero waste, reduced expensive tool material requirements, and improved mechanical properties. Maraging steels have superior strength and toughness with adequate ductility. The effect of aging process parameters on the final properties of AM Maraging steels is enormous. In this study, the effects of heat treatment atmospheres and temperatures to the direct metal laser sintered (DMLS) maraging steels were examined. Aging heat treatment was applied in different atmospheres(Ar/H2 and air) and temperatures(4900C,5200C,5500C,5800C). SEM and XRD devices were used to examine the microstructure properties, and Vickers hardness device was used to determine the mechanical properties. When the results are evaluated, it was observed that the increased temperature after 490 0C adversely affected the hardness value. XRD analysis showed martensite and austenite phases in air and Ar/H2 atmospheres. According to the SEM images, it can be said that the traces of the melt pool remaining from the AM disappear with the increasing temperature in general.

References

  • 1. Godec, M., Donik, C. Kocijan, A., Podgornik, B., Skobir Balantic, D. A.. “Effect of post-treated low-temperature plasma nitriding on the wear and corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel manufactured by laser powder bed fusion”, Additive Manufacturing, Vol.32, Pages:1-9, 2020.
  • 2. Herzog, D., Seyda, V., Wycisk, E., Emmelmann, C. “Additive manufacturing of metals”, Acta Materialia, Vol.117, Pages:371-392, 2016.
  • 3. Çevik Z.A, Özsoy K., Erçetin A, The Effect of Machining Process on The Pyhsical and Surface Morphology of Ti6Al4V Specimens Produced Through Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing” Int. J. of 3D Printing Tech. Dig. Ind., Vol.5 Issue 2, Pages:187-194, 2021.
  • 4. Casalino, G., Campanelli, S.L., Contuzzi, N., Ludovico, A.D “Experimental investigation and statistical optimisation of the selective laser melting process of a maraging steel”, Optics & Laser Technology, Vol.65, Pages:151-158, 2015.
  • 5. ASTM F2792, F2792-12a - Standard Terminology for Additive ManufacturingTechnologies, ASTM B. Stand, Pages:10-12, 2013.
  • 6. Özer G., “Eklemeli üretim teknolojileri üzerine derleme” NÖHÜ Müh. Bilim. Derg. / NOHU J. Eng. Sci., Vol.9 Issue 1, Pages:606-621, 2020
  • 7. Li, X., & Yin, Z., Reverted austenite during aging in 18Ni(350) maraging steel. Materials Letters, Vol.24 Issue 4, Pages:239-242, 1995
  • 8. Mooney, B., Kourousis, K. I., Raghavendra, R., “Plastic Anisotropy of additively manufactured maraging steel: Influence of the build orientation and heat treatments”, Additive Manufacturing, Vol.25, Pages:19-31, 2018.
  • 9. I. Adam, W. B. du Preez, J. Combrinck, M. Zwemstra, “Conformal cooling channel design for direct metal sintering of maraging steel injection mould inserts”, Pages:1-11, 2019.
  • 10. dos Reis, A. G., Reis, D. A. P., Abdalla, A. J., Otubo, J., Zepka, S., Couto, A. A., & Scheid, V. H. B., “Effect of simultaneous plasma nitriding and aging treatment on the microstructure and hardness of maraging 300 steel”, Advanced Structured Materials, Vol.70, Pages:277–284, 2015.
  • 11. Bai, Y., Wang, D., Yang, Y., & Wang, H., “Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of maraging steel by selective laser melting”, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol.760, Pages:105–117, 2015
  • 12. Yan, X., Huang, C., Chen, C., Bolot, R., Dembinski, L., Huang, R., Ma, W., Liao, H., & Liu, M., “Additive manufacturing of WC reinforced maraging steel 300 composites by cold spraying and selective laser melting”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol.371, Pages:161–171, 2019.
  • 13. Aydın İ., “Investigation of Effects of Heat Treatment Process on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured 18Ni300 Maraging Steel”, Graduate thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, 2020
  • 14. Gordon Jones , “https://all3dp.com/2/direct-metal-laser-sintering-dmls-simply-explained/”, 2021.
  • 15. Stornelli, G., Gaggia, D., Rallini, M., & di Schino, A., “Heat treatment effect on maraging steel manufactured by laser powder bed fusion technology: Microstructure and mechanical properties”, Acta Metallurgica Slovaca, Vol.27 Issue 3, Pages:122–126, 2021.
  • 16. EOS, ”Material Data Sheet”, eos.info/03_system-related-assets/material-related-contents/metal-materials-and-examples/metal-material-datasheet/werkzeugstahl_ms1_cx/ms1/ms-ms1-m280_m290_400w_material_data_sheet_05-14_en.pdf”, Erişim:21.12.2016, 2021
  • 17. Gökhan Özer, Ahmet Karaaslan, “A Study on the Effects of Different Heat-Treatment Parameters on Microstructure–Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Maraging Steel Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering”, Steel research international, Vol. 91 Issue 10, Pages:1-8 ,2020.
  • 18. Song, J., Tang, Q., Feng, Q., Ma, S., Setchi, R., Liu, Y., Han, Q., Fan, X., & Zhang, M., “Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical behaviours of 18Ni-300 maraging steel manufactured by selective laser melting”, Optics and Laser Technology, Vol.120, 2019.
  • 19. Tan, C., Zhou, K., Ma, W., Zhang, P., Liu, M., & Kuang, T., “Microstructural evolution, nanoprecipitation behavior and mechanicalproperties of selective laser melted high-performance grade 300maraging steel” Materials and Design, Vol.134, Pages:23-34, 2017.

INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF MARAGING STEELS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 3, 654 - 662, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.46519/ij3dptdi.1024485

Abstract

Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology produces parts in layers and offers design freedom (3D design), zero waste, reduced expensive tool material requirements, and improved mechanical properties. Maraging steels have superior strength and toughness with adequate ductility. The effect of aging process parameters on the final properties of AM Maraging steels is enormous. In this study, the effects of heat treatment atmospheres and temperatures to the direct metal laser sintered (DMLS) maraging steels were examined. Aging heat treatment was applied in different atmospheres(Ar/H2 and air) and temperatures(4900C,5200C,5500C,5800C). SEM and XRD devices were used to examine the microstructure properties, and Vickers hardness device was used to determine the mechanical properties. When the results are evaluated, it was observed that the increased temperature after 490 0C adversely affected the hardness value. XRD analysis showed martensite and austenite phases in air and Ar/H2 atmospheres. According to the SEM images, it can be said that the traces of the melt pool remaining from the AM disappear with the increasing temperature in general.

References

  • 1. Godec, M., Donik, C. Kocijan, A., Podgornik, B., Skobir Balantic, D. A.. “Effect of post-treated low-temperature plasma nitriding on the wear and corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel manufactured by laser powder bed fusion”, Additive Manufacturing, Vol.32, Pages:1-9, 2020.
  • 2. Herzog, D., Seyda, V., Wycisk, E., Emmelmann, C. “Additive manufacturing of metals”, Acta Materialia, Vol.117, Pages:371-392, 2016.
  • 3. Çevik Z.A, Özsoy K., Erçetin A, The Effect of Machining Process on The Pyhsical and Surface Morphology of Ti6Al4V Specimens Produced Through Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing” Int. J. of 3D Printing Tech. Dig. Ind., Vol.5 Issue 2, Pages:187-194, 2021.
  • 4. Casalino, G., Campanelli, S.L., Contuzzi, N., Ludovico, A.D “Experimental investigation and statistical optimisation of the selective laser melting process of a maraging steel”, Optics & Laser Technology, Vol.65, Pages:151-158, 2015.
  • 5. ASTM F2792, F2792-12a - Standard Terminology for Additive ManufacturingTechnologies, ASTM B. Stand, Pages:10-12, 2013.
  • 6. Özer G., “Eklemeli üretim teknolojileri üzerine derleme” NÖHÜ Müh. Bilim. Derg. / NOHU J. Eng. Sci., Vol.9 Issue 1, Pages:606-621, 2020
  • 7. Li, X., & Yin, Z., Reverted austenite during aging in 18Ni(350) maraging steel. Materials Letters, Vol.24 Issue 4, Pages:239-242, 1995
  • 8. Mooney, B., Kourousis, K. I., Raghavendra, R., “Plastic Anisotropy of additively manufactured maraging steel: Influence of the build orientation and heat treatments”, Additive Manufacturing, Vol.25, Pages:19-31, 2018.
  • 9. I. Adam, W. B. du Preez, J. Combrinck, M. Zwemstra, “Conformal cooling channel design for direct metal sintering of maraging steel injection mould inserts”, Pages:1-11, 2019.
  • 10. dos Reis, A. G., Reis, D. A. P., Abdalla, A. J., Otubo, J., Zepka, S., Couto, A. A., & Scheid, V. H. B., “Effect of simultaneous plasma nitriding and aging treatment on the microstructure and hardness of maraging 300 steel”, Advanced Structured Materials, Vol.70, Pages:277–284, 2015.
  • 11. Bai, Y., Wang, D., Yang, Y., & Wang, H., “Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of maraging steel by selective laser melting”, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol.760, Pages:105–117, 2015
  • 12. Yan, X., Huang, C., Chen, C., Bolot, R., Dembinski, L., Huang, R., Ma, W., Liao, H., & Liu, M., “Additive manufacturing of WC reinforced maraging steel 300 composites by cold spraying and selective laser melting”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol.371, Pages:161–171, 2019.
  • 13. Aydın İ., “Investigation of Effects of Heat Treatment Process on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured 18Ni300 Maraging Steel”, Graduate thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, 2020
  • 14. Gordon Jones , “https://all3dp.com/2/direct-metal-laser-sintering-dmls-simply-explained/”, 2021.
  • 15. Stornelli, G., Gaggia, D., Rallini, M., & di Schino, A., “Heat treatment effect on maraging steel manufactured by laser powder bed fusion technology: Microstructure and mechanical properties”, Acta Metallurgica Slovaca, Vol.27 Issue 3, Pages:122–126, 2021.
  • 16. EOS, ”Material Data Sheet”, eos.info/03_system-related-assets/material-related-contents/metal-materials-and-examples/metal-material-datasheet/werkzeugstahl_ms1_cx/ms1/ms-ms1-m280_m290_400w_material_data_sheet_05-14_en.pdf”, Erişim:21.12.2016, 2021
  • 17. Gökhan Özer, Ahmet Karaaslan, “A Study on the Effects of Different Heat-Treatment Parameters on Microstructure–Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Maraging Steel Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering”, Steel research international, Vol. 91 Issue 10, Pages:1-8 ,2020.
  • 18. Song, J., Tang, Q., Feng, Q., Ma, S., Setchi, R., Liu, Y., Han, Q., Fan, X., & Zhang, M., “Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical behaviours of 18Ni-300 maraging steel manufactured by selective laser melting”, Optics and Laser Technology, Vol.120, 2019.
  • 19. Tan, C., Zhou, K., Ma, W., Zhang, P., Liu, M., & Kuang, T., “Microstructural evolution, nanoprecipitation behavior and mechanicalproperties of selective laser melted high-performance grade 300maraging steel” Materials and Design, Vol.134, Pages:23-34, 2017.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Materials Science, Biomaterials
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

İlkgül ÖKSÜZCAN This is me
IZMIR KATIP CELEBI UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-8308-9615
Türkiye


Derya ÇAKAN This is me
IZMIR KATIP CELEBI UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-3482-5994
Türkiye


Mustafa Safa YILMAZ (Primary Author)
FATIH SULTAN MEHMET FOUNDATION UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-2614-9121
Türkiye


Onur ERTUĞRUL
IZMIR KATIP CELEBI UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9017-9443
Türkiye

Publication Date December 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { ij3dptdi1024485, journal = {International Journal of 3D Printing Technologies and Digital Industry}, issn = {2602-3350}, eissn = {2602-3350}, address = {info@3dprintturkey.org}, publisher = {Kerim ÇETİNKAYA}, year = {2021}, volume = {5}, pages = {654 - 662}, doi = {10.46519/ij3dptdi.1024485}, title = {INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF MARAGING STEELS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING}, key = {cite}, author = {Öksüzcan, İlkgül and Çakan, Derya and Yılmaz, Mustafa Safa and Ertuğrul, Onur} }
APA Öksüzcan, İ. , Çakan, D. , Yılmaz, M. S. & Ertuğrul, O. (2021). INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF MARAGING STEELS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING . International Journal of 3D Printing Technologies and Digital Industry , 5 (3) , 654-662 . DOI: 10.46519/ij3dptdi.1024485
MLA Öksüzcan, İ. , Çakan, D. , Yılmaz, M. S. , Ertuğrul, O. "INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF MARAGING STEELS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING" . International Journal of 3D Printing Technologies and Digital Industry 5 (2021 ): 654-662 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ij3dptdi/issue/65285/1024485>
Chicago Öksüzcan, İ. , Çakan, D. , Yılmaz, M. S. , Ertuğrul, O. "INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF MARAGING STEELS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING". International Journal of 3D Printing Technologies and Digital Industry 5 (2021 ): 654-662
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF MARAGING STEELS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING AU - İlkgül Öksüzcan , Derya Çakan , Mustafa Safa Yılmaz , Onur Ertuğrul Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.46519/ij3dptdi.1024485 DO - 10.46519/ij3dptdi.1024485 T2 - International Journal of 3D Printing Technologies and Digital Industry JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 654 EP - 662 VL - 5 IS - 3 SN - 2602-3350-2602-3350 M3 - doi: 10.46519/ij3dptdi.1024485 UR - https://doi.org/10.46519/ij3dptdi.1024485 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of 3D Printing Technologies and Digital Industry INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF MARAGING STEELS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING %A İlkgül Öksüzcan , Derya Çakan , Mustafa Safa Yılmaz , Onur Ertuğrul %T INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF MARAGING STEELS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING %D 2021 %J International Journal of 3D Printing Technologies and Digital Industry %P 2602-3350-2602-3350 %V 5 %N 3 %R doi: 10.46519/ij3dptdi.1024485 %U 10.46519/ij3dptdi.1024485
ISNAD Öksüzcan, İlkgül , Çakan, Derya , Yılmaz, Mustafa Safa , Ertuğrul, Onur . "INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF MARAGING STEELS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING". International Journal of 3D Printing Technologies and Digital Industry 5 / 3 (December 2021): 654-662 . https://doi.org/10.46519/ij3dptdi.1024485
AMA Öksüzcan İ. , Çakan D. , Yılmaz M. S. , Ertuğrul O. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF MARAGING STEELS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING. IJ3DPTDI. 2021; 5(3): 654-662.
Vancouver Öksüzcan İ. , Çakan D. , Yılmaz M. S. , Ertuğrul O. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF MARAGING STEELS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING. International Journal of 3D Printing Technologies and Digital Industry. 2021; 5(3): 654-662.
IEEE İ. Öksüzcan , D. Çakan , M. S. Yılmaz and O. Ertuğrul , "INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF MARAGING STEELS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING", International Journal of 3D Printing Technologies and Digital Industry, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 654-662, Dec. 2021, doi:10.46519/ij3dptdi.1024485

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