Year 2020, Volume 7 , Issue 3, Pages 420 - 435 2020-09-15

The Relationship between Effective Teacher Characteristics and Reasons for Choosing Teaching Profession (Development of an Effective Teacher Inventory)

Çetin TORAMAN [1] , Melek ÇAKMAK [2]


The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between the opinions of secondary school teachers about effective teacher characteristics and their reasons for choosing the teaching profession. In this context, the study first intends to develop a measurement tool to identify effective teacher characteristics. The study is of a correlational research type. Data were collected from three different groups of secondary school teachers. The effective teacher characteristics inventory and the choosing teaching profession as a career scale were used to collect data. The data were analysed using the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, Cronbach Alpha internal consistency analysis and multiple linear regression. Given the limitations of the study, groups from which data were obtained, the results of the analyses have shown that the “Effective Teacher Characteristics Inventory” is able to make valid and reliable measurements for effective teacher characteristics under four independent scales (e.g., subject matter knowledge, teaching skills, personality characteristics and professional development). The multiple linear regression has demonstrated that the predictor variables in the model, subject matter knowledge, personality characteristics, and professional development are positive predictors for teaching skills. However, reasons for choosing the profession is not a significant predictor for teaching skills of teachers.
Effective teacher characteristics, Choosing teaching profession as a career, Inventory development
  • Aiken, L. R. (1997). Questionnaires and inventories, surveying, opinions and assessing personality. The USA: John Willey & Sons Inc.
  • Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1984). The effect of sampling error on convergence, improper solutions, and goodness of fit indices for maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis. Psychometrika, 49(2), 155-173. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02294170
  • Balyer, A., & Ozcan, K. (2014). Choosing teaching profession as a career: Students’ reasons. International Education Studies, 7(5), 104-115. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v7n5p104
  • Bentler P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238-246. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238
  • Blömeke, S., Busse, A., Kaiser, G., König, J., & Suhl, U. (2016). The relationship between content-specific and general knowledge and skills. Teaching and Teacher Education, 56, 35-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.02.003
  • Brewer, D., & Goldhaber, D. D. (2000). Does teacher certification matter? High school teacher certification status and student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 22, 129-145. https://doi.org/10.3102/01623737022002129
  • Brookhart, S. M., & Freeman, D. J. (1992). Characteristics of entering teacher candidates. Review of Educational Research, 62(1), 37 60. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543062001037
  • Brophy, J. (2000). Teaching. Educational Practices Series 1. Switzerland: International Bureau of Education (ERIC Database, ED 440 066). Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED440066.pdf
  • Cokluk, O., Sekercioglu, G., & Buyukozturk, S. (2010). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik (Multivariate statistics for social sciences). Ankara: Pegem Akademi
  • Cotton, K. (2000). The schooling practices that matter most. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, USA: Washington, DC (ERIC Database, ED 469 234). Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED469234.pdf
  • Danielson, C. (2007). Enhancing professional practice, a framework for teaching. USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD)
  • Everitt, B. S., & Howell, D. C. (2005). Encyclopedia of statistics in behavioral science. The UK: John Willey and Sons
  • Field, A. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics. The USA: Sage
  • Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. USA: McGraw Hill
  • Gholam, A. P., & Kobeissi, A. H. (2012). Teacher evaluation instruments/systems in lebanon and other major arab countries in comparison to evidenced-based characteristics of effective teacher evaluation instruments. (Doctoral Dissertation). Graduate Faculty of Saint Louis University, Saint Louis.
  • Goe, L., Bell, C., & Little, O. (2008). Approaches to evaluating teacher effectiveness: A research synthesis. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. USA: Washington
  • Griffin, P., McGaw, B., & Care, E. (2012). The changing role of education and schools. In P. Griffin, B. McGaw, & E. Care (Eds.), Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (pp. 1-16). Dordrecht, Germany: Springer Science+Business Media B.V. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2324-5_2
  • Heinz, M. (2015). Why choose teaching? An internationalreview of empirical studies exploring student teachers’ career motivations and levelsof commitment to teaching. Educational Research and Evaluation, 21(3), 258 297. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2015.1018278
  • Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60. Retrieved from: www.ejbrm.com/issue/download.html?idArticle=183
  • Hu L. T., & Bentler P. M. (1999). Cut off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
  • Jones, J., Jenkin, M., & Lord, S. (2006). Developing effective teacher performance. London: Paul Chapman
  • Kalayci, S. (2005). SPSS uygulamalı çok değişkenli istatistik teknikleri (Multivariate statistics techniques with SPSS applied). Ankara: Asil
  • Kamamia, L. N., Ngugi, N. T., & Thinguri, R. W. (2014). To establish the extend to which the subject mastery enhances quality teaching to student-teachers during teaching practice. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(7), 641-648. Retrieved from: https://www.ijern.com/journal/July-2014/51.pdf
  • Keeley, J., Smith, D., & Buskist, W. (2006). The teacher behaviors checklist: Factor analysis of its utility for evaluating teaching. Teaching of Psychology, 33(2), 84-91. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328023top3302_1
  • Kline, T. J. B. (2005). Psychological testing, a practical approach to design and evaluation. The USA: Sage
  • Kyriacou, C., & Coulthard, M. (2000). Undergraduates’ views of teaching as a career choice. Journal of Education for Teaching, 26(2), 117 126. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607470050127036
  • Kyriakides, L., Campbell, R. J., & Christofidou, E. (2002). Generating criteria for measuring teacher effectiveness through a self-evaluation approach: A complementary way of measuring teacher effectiveness. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 13(3), 291-325. https://doi.org/10.1076/sesi.13.3.291.3426
  • Lai, K. C., Chan, K. W., Ko, K. W., & So, K. S. (2005). Teaching as a career: A perspective from Hong Kong senior secondary students. Journal of Education for Teaching, 31(3), 153-168. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607470500168974
  • Levine, G. (2017). Effective teacher characteristics: Future teachers’ voices. NERA Conference Proceedings. Retrieved from: http://opencommons.uconn.edu/nera-2017/5
  • Marsh, H. W., Balla, J. R., & McDonald, R. P. (1988). Goodness of fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis: The effect of sample size. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 391-410. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.391
  • McArdle, K., & Coutts, N. (2003) A strong core of qualities-A model of the professional educator that moves beyond reflection. Studies in Continuing Education, 25(2), 225-237. https://doi.org/10.1080/0158037032000131547
  • McEwan, E. K. (2002). 10 traits of highly effective teachers, how to hire, coach, and mentor successful teachers. The USA: Corwin Press, Inc.
  • Metzlera, J., & Woessmann, L. (2012). The impact of teacher subject knowledge on student achievement: Evidence from within-teacher within-student variation. Journal of Development Economics, 99(2), 486-496. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2012.06.002
  • Monk, D. H. (1994). Subject area preparation of secondary mathematics and science teachers and student achievement. Economics of Education Review, 13, 125-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-7757(94)90003-5
  • Monk, D., & King, J. (1994). Multilevel teacher resource effects on pupil performance in secondary mathematics and science. In Ronald G. Ehrenberg (Ed.), Choices and consequence (pp. 29-58). Ithaca, NY: ILR.
  • Moran, C. (2005). Teacher and principal perceptions of dispositional characteristics needed by middle school teachers to be most effective in the classroom. (Doctoral Dissertation). Indiana State University, Indiana
  • Moran, A., Kilpatrick, R., Abbott, L., Dallat, J., & McClune, B. (2001). Training to teach: Motivating factors and implications for recruitment. Evaluation & Research in Education, 15(1), 17-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500790108666980
  • Muijs, D., & Reynolds, D. (2000). School effectiveness and teacher effectiveness in mathematics: some preliminary findings from the evaluation of the mathematics enhancement programme (primary). School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 11(3), 273-303. https://doi.org/10.1076/0924-3453(200009)11:3;1-G;FT273
  • Ozdamar, K. (2013). Paket programlar ile istatistiksel veri analizi 1. cilt (Statistical data analysis with package programs, volume 1). Eskişehir: Nisan
  • Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS survival manual. The USA: McGraw-Hill Education
  • Polk, J. A. (2006). Traits of effective teachers. Arts Education Policy Review, 107(4), 23-29. https://doi.org/10.3200/AEPR.107.4.23-29
  • Richardson, P. W., & Watt, H. M. G. (2006). Who chooses teaching and why? Profiling characteristics and motivations across three Australian universities. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 34(1), 27-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/13598660500480290
  • Rots, I., Aelterman, A., Devos, G., & Vlerick, P. (2010). Teacher education and the choice to enter the teaching profession: A prospective study. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(8), 1619-1629. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.06.013
  • Rowan, B., Chiang, F. S., & Miller, R. J. (1997). Using research on employee’s performance to study the effects of teacher on students’ achievement. Sociology of Education, 70, 256-284. https://doi.org/10.2307/2673267
  • Saunders, L. (2000). Effective schooling in rural Africa report 2: Key issues concerning school effectiveness and improvement. World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network (ERIC Database, ED 453 045). Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED453045.pdf
  • Senol, S. (2012). Araştırma ve örnekleme yöntemleri (Research and sampling methods). Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık.
  • Shindley Elliott, B. L. (2010). Effective teacher characteristics: A two nation causal comparative study. (Doctoral Dissertation). Walden University, Minneapolis
  • Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X015002004
  • Simsek, O. F. (2007). Yapısal eşitlik modellemesine giriş: Temel ilkeler ve LISREL uygulamaları (Introduction to structural equation modeling: Basic principles and LISREL applications). İstanbul: Ekinoks
  • Stronge, J. H., Ward, T. J., & Grant, L. W. (2011). What makes good teachers good? A cross-case analysis of the connection between teacher effectiveness and student achievement. Journal of Teacher Education, 62(4), 339 355. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487111404241
  • Stronge, J. H. (2007). Qualities of effective teachers. The USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD)
  • Sumbuloglu, V., & Sumbuloglu, K. (2005). Klinik ve saha araştırmalarında örnekleme yöntemleri ve örneklem büyüklüğü (Sampling methods and sample size in clinical and field research). Ankara: Alp Ofset.
  • Swainston, T. (2008). A reflective resource for performance management, effective teachers in secondary schools. London: Network Continuum
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. The USA: Pearson Education
  • Tschannen Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 783 805. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(01)00036-1
  • Tschannen Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(6), 944-956. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2006.05.003
  • Tucker, P. D., & Stronge, J. H. (2005). Linking teacher evaluation and student learning. The USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD)
  • Vieira A. L. (2011). Interactive LISREL in practice, getting started with a SIMPLIS Approach. London: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-18044-6
  • Watt, H. M. G., Richardson, P. W., & Wilkins, K. (2014). Profiles of professional engagement and career development aspirations among USA preservice teachers. International Journal of Educational Research, 65, 23-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2013.09.008
  • Woolfolk, A. E. (1998). Educational psychology. USA: Allyn and Bacon
  • Yu, Y. (2011). Pre-service teachers’ motivations for choosing a teaching career and intention to teach in urban settings: A multilevel analysis. (Doctoral Dissertation). Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania
Primary Language en
Subjects Education, Scientific Disciplines
Published Date September
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-5319-0731
Author: Çetin TORAMAN (Primary Author)
Institution: ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-3371-4937
Author: Melek ÇAKMAK
Institution: GAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Supporting Institution None
Project Number None
Thanks None
Dates

Publication Date : September 15, 2020

APA Toraman, Ç , Çakmak, M . (2020). The Relationship between Effective Teacher Characteristics and Reasons for Choosing Teaching Profession (Development of an Effective Teacher Inventory) . International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education , 7 (3) , 420-435 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ijate/issue/56368/707272