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Quantification of total phenols, flavonoides and tannins from Ziziphus jujuba (mill.) and Ziziphus lotus (l.) (Desf). Leaf extracts and their effects on antioxidant and antibacterial activities

Year 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, 18 - 26, 07.01.2017
https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.275886

Abstract

This work was performed to determine the biochemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts collected from four different provenances: Mahdia and Mahres (Ziziphus jujuba); Kairouan and Rouhia (Ziziphus lotus). Total phenols, flavonoids, tannins contents and antioxidant activity were evaluated using the Folin ciocalteux, Aluminum trichloride, vanillin and scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals methods, respectively. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and klebsiella pneumoniea) and three fungal strains (Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium solani and Botrytis cinerea), according to well Agar diffusion method. Total phenols and flavonoids were present at levels of 21.98 mg GAE /g DW and 7.80 mg ER/g DW; respectively in Ziziphus lotus. These levels did not exceeded 13.70 mg GAE /g DW and 6.73 mg ER/g DW for Ziziphus jujuba. The tannin contents were present in equal levels (7.9 mg EC/g DW) in two species. The high antioxidant activity (0.01 µg/ml) was noted in Rouhia provenance. The Ziziphus lotus leaf extracts showed promising efficiency against all tested microorganisms with a zone of inhibition ranging between 22 and 23.5 mm. This study could validate the medicinal potential of Ziziphus specie and explain why tunisian people traditionally use it in medicine to treat several pathologies. Ziziphus leaf extracts may be suggested in foods and pharmaceutical industries. Leaf extracts proved also to be effective against tested microorganisms. So, an adequate toxicological study must be carried out to verify the possibility of using these plants for fighting microorganisms.

References

  • [1] Bukar AM, Kyari MZ. Gwaski M, Gudusu FS, Kuburi PA and Y. I. Abadam (2015). Evaluation of phytochemical and potential antibacterial activity of Ziziphus spina-christi L. against some medically important pathogenic bacteria obtained from University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State-Nigeria. J Pharmacogn Phytochem; 3: 98-101
  • [2] Elaloui M, Laamouri A, Ennajah A, Cerny M, Mathieu C, Vilarem G, Chaar H, Hasnaoui B. (2016a). Phytoconstituents of leaf extracts of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Plants harvested in Tunisia. Ind Crops Prod. 83: 133-139.
  • [3] Elaloui M, Laamouri A, Fabre J, Mathieu C, Vilarem G, Hasnaoui B. (2014). Distribution of free amino acids: polyphenols and sugars of Ziziphus jujuba pulps harvested from plants grown in Tunisia. Nat Prod Res. 29:94-97.
  • [4] Elaloui M, Soltani I, Laamouri A, Ennajah A, Houcine S. (2016b). Allelopathic activity of extracts from leaves of Ziziphus spina-christi collected in five Tunisian ecotypes. Int J Inno Sci Res. 20: 333-342.
  • [5] Ghazghazi H, Aouadhi CH., Riahi L, Maaroufi A, Hasnaoui B. (2014). Fatty acids composition of Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. (Desf.) fruits and variation in biological activities between leaves and fruits extracts. Nat Prod Res. 28:1106-1110.
  • [6] Singleton V, Rossi J. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolibdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic. 16:144-158.
  • [7] Earp CF, Akingbala JO, Ring SH, Rooney LW. (1981). Evaluation of several methods to determine tannins in sorghums with varying kernel characteristics. Cereal Chem. 58: 234-238.
  • [8] Basuny AM, Arafat M S, Soliman H M. (2013). Chemical analysis of olive and palm pollen: Antioxidant and antimicrobial activation properties. Wudpecker J Food Technol.1: 014-021.
  • [9] Cruikshank R, Duguid JP, Marmion BP, Swain R H. 1975. Medical Microbiology, Part II, 12th edn. Churchill, Livingston (Pub.) Edinburgh, p.120.
  • [10] Cheesbrough, M., (1984). Culture Media. Pp. 60-69. In: Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries. Tropical Health Technology and Butterworth -Heineman. Cambridge.
  • [11] Medini F, Fellah H, Ksouri R, Abdelly Ch. 2014. Total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents and antioxidant andantimicrobial activities of organic extracts of shoots of the plant Limonium delicatulum Extremophile. J Taibah Univ. Sci. 8: 216-224.
  • [12] Ichiho MK, Shiro M , Keijiro N, Yumico T, Minako Y, Tetsuo S, Jun W, Akihiro H. (2013). Antioxidant capacity and polyphenols contents of extracts from crops cultivated in Japan and the effect of the cultivation, Environ. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 19: 69-79.
  • [13] Tim TPC, Lamb AJ. (2005). Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 26: 343-356.
  • [14] Al-Jassabi S. Abdullah MS. (2013). Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Antioxidant Fractions from Zizyphus spina-christi Fruits. Am Eur J Tox Sc. 5: 66-71,
  • [15] Amri I, Hamrouni L., Hanana M, Gargouri S, Fezzani T, Jamoussi B. (2013). Chemical composition, physicochemical properties, antifungal and herbicidal activities of Pinus halepensis Miller essential oils. Biol. Agric. Hortic. 29:1-16.
  • [16] Bashir A, Ibrar K, Shumaila B, Sadiq A, Farrukh H. (2011). Screening of Ziziphus jujuba for antibacterial, phytotoxic and haemagglutination activities. Afr. J. Biot. 10: 2514-2519.
  • [17] García-Lafuente A, Guillamón E, Villares A. Mauricio A. Jose R, Martınez A. (2009). Flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents: implications in cancer and cardiovascular disease. Inflamm. Res. 58: 537.
  • [18] Paroda RS, Mal B. 1989. New plant sources for food and industry in India. In: Wickens GE, Haq N, Day P (eds) New crops for food and industry. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 135-149.

Quantification of total phenols, flavonoides and tannins from Ziziphus jujuba (mill.) and Ziziphus lotus (l.) (Desf). Leaf extracts and their effects on antioxidant and antibacterial activities

Year 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, 18 - 26, 07.01.2017
https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.275886

Abstract

This work was performed to determine the biochemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts collected from four different provenances: Mahdia and Mahres (Ziziphus jujuba); Kairouan and Rouhia (Ziziphus lotus). Total phenols, flavonoids, tannins contents and antioxidant activity were evaluated using the Folin ciocalteux, Aluminum trichloride, vanillin and scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals methods, respectively. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and klebsiella pneumoniea) and three fungal strains (Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium solani and Botrytis cinerea), according to well Agar diffusion method. Total phenols and flavonoids were present at levels of 21.98 mg GAE /g DW and 7.80 mg ER/g DW; respectively in Ziziphus lotus. These levels did not exceeded 13.70 mg GAE /g DW and 6.73 mg ER/g DW for Ziziphus jujuba. The tannin contents were present in equal levels (7.9 mg EC/g DW) in two species. The high antioxidant activity (0.01 µg/ml) was noted in Rouhia provenance. The Ziziphus lotus leaf extracts showed promising efficiency against all tested microorganisms with a zone of inhibition ranging between 22 and 23.5 mm. This study could validate the medicinal potential of Ziziphus specie and explain why tunisian people traditionally use it in medicine to treat several pathologies. Ziziphus leaf extracts may be suggested in foods and pharmaceutical industries. Leaf extracts proved also to be effective against tested microorganisms. So, an adequate toxicological study must be carried out to verify the possibility of using these plants for fighting microorganisms.

References

  • [1] Bukar AM, Kyari MZ. Gwaski M, Gudusu FS, Kuburi PA and Y. I. Abadam (2015). Evaluation of phytochemical and potential antibacterial activity of Ziziphus spina-christi L. against some medically important pathogenic bacteria obtained from University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State-Nigeria. J Pharmacogn Phytochem; 3: 98-101
  • [2] Elaloui M, Laamouri A, Ennajah A, Cerny M, Mathieu C, Vilarem G, Chaar H, Hasnaoui B. (2016a). Phytoconstituents of leaf extracts of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Plants harvested in Tunisia. Ind Crops Prod. 83: 133-139.
  • [3] Elaloui M, Laamouri A, Fabre J, Mathieu C, Vilarem G, Hasnaoui B. (2014). Distribution of free amino acids: polyphenols and sugars of Ziziphus jujuba pulps harvested from plants grown in Tunisia. Nat Prod Res. 29:94-97.
  • [4] Elaloui M, Soltani I, Laamouri A, Ennajah A, Houcine S. (2016b). Allelopathic activity of extracts from leaves of Ziziphus spina-christi collected in five Tunisian ecotypes. Int J Inno Sci Res. 20: 333-342.
  • [5] Ghazghazi H, Aouadhi CH., Riahi L, Maaroufi A, Hasnaoui B. (2014). Fatty acids composition of Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. (Desf.) fruits and variation in biological activities between leaves and fruits extracts. Nat Prod Res. 28:1106-1110.
  • [6] Singleton V, Rossi J. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolibdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic. 16:144-158.
  • [7] Earp CF, Akingbala JO, Ring SH, Rooney LW. (1981). Evaluation of several methods to determine tannins in sorghums with varying kernel characteristics. Cereal Chem. 58: 234-238.
  • [8] Basuny AM, Arafat M S, Soliman H M. (2013). Chemical analysis of olive and palm pollen: Antioxidant and antimicrobial activation properties. Wudpecker J Food Technol.1: 014-021.
  • [9] Cruikshank R, Duguid JP, Marmion BP, Swain R H. 1975. Medical Microbiology, Part II, 12th edn. Churchill, Livingston (Pub.) Edinburgh, p.120.
  • [10] Cheesbrough, M., (1984). Culture Media. Pp. 60-69. In: Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries. Tropical Health Technology and Butterworth -Heineman. Cambridge.
  • [11] Medini F, Fellah H, Ksouri R, Abdelly Ch. 2014. Total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents and antioxidant andantimicrobial activities of organic extracts of shoots of the plant Limonium delicatulum Extremophile. J Taibah Univ. Sci. 8: 216-224.
  • [12] Ichiho MK, Shiro M , Keijiro N, Yumico T, Minako Y, Tetsuo S, Jun W, Akihiro H. (2013). Antioxidant capacity and polyphenols contents of extracts from crops cultivated in Japan and the effect of the cultivation, Environ. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 19: 69-79.
  • [13] Tim TPC, Lamb AJ. (2005). Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 26: 343-356.
  • [14] Al-Jassabi S. Abdullah MS. (2013). Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Antioxidant Fractions from Zizyphus spina-christi Fruits. Am Eur J Tox Sc. 5: 66-71,
  • [15] Amri I, Hamrouni L., Hanana M, Gargouri S, Fezzani T, Jamoussi B. (2013). Chemical composition, physicochemical properties, antifungal and herbicidal activities of Pinus halepensis Miller essential oils. Biol. Agric. Hortic. 29:1-16.
  • [16] Bashir A, Ibrar K, Shumaila B, Sadiq A, Farrukh H. (2011). Screening of Ziziphus jujuba for antibacterial, phytotoxic and haemagglutination activities. Afr. J. Biot. 10: 2514-2519.
  • [17] García-Lafuente A, Guillamón E, Villares A. Mauricio A. Jose R, Martınez A. (2009). Flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents: implications in cancer and cardiovascular disease. Inflamm. Res. 58: 537.
  • [18] Paroda RS, Mal B. 1989. New plant sources for food and industry in India. In: Wickens GE, Haq N, Day P (eds) New crops for food and industry. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 135-149.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Biology
Published Date January
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Meriem ELALOUİ This is me

Tunisia


Ame ENNAJAH This is me
Laboratory of Management and Forest Valorization
Tunisia


Hanene GHAZGHAZİ This is me
Laboratory of Management and Forest Valorization


İmen Ben YOUSSEF This is me
National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology (INSAT)
Tunisia


Nada Ben OTHMAN This is me
National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology (INSAT)
Tunisia


Mohamed Rabeh HAJLAOUİ This is me
National Institute of Agronomic Research of Tunisia
Tunisia


Ali KHOUJA This is me
National Agricultural Institute of Tunisia


Abdelwahed LAAMOURİ This is me
National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology (INSAT)

Publication Date January 7, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1

Cite

APA Elaloui, M. , Ennajah, A. , Ghazghazi, H. , Youssef, İ. B. , Othman, N. B. , Hajlaoui, M. R. , Khouja, A. & Laamouri, A. (2017). Quantification of total phenols, flavonoides and tannins from Ziziphus jujuba (mill.) and Ziziphus lotus (l.) (Desf). Leaf extracts and their effects on antioxidant and antibacterial activities . International Journal of Secondary Metabolite , 4 (1) , 18-26 . DOI: 10.21448/ijsm.275886

International Journal of Secondary Metabolite (IJSM)

ISSN-e: 2148-6905