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Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Different Extracts of Silybum marianum Collected from Duhok (Iraq)

Year 2019, Volume 6, Issue 4, 317 - 322, 15.01.2020
https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.581500

Abstract

In this study, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. collected from Duhok (Iraq) were determined. Ethanol, methanol and dichloromethane extracts of the fruit part of plant were obtained. Antioxidant potential was determined with TAS and TOS kits using ethanol extracts. Antibacterial and antifungal activity were determined using agar dilution method. Antibacterial activity was determined against 6 bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii). Antifungal activity was determined against Candida albicans, C. krusei and C. glabrata. As a result of the studies, it was determined that plant extracts have high antioxidant activity. It was also found to be effective against bacteria at 25-400 µg/mL concentrations.  Plant extracts were found to be more effective against gram negative bacteria. It was found to be effective against Candida species at 400-800 µg/mL concentrations. As a result, it was determined that the fruit parts of plant could be a natural antioxidant and antibacterial source.

References

  • [1]. Dar, R.A., Shahnawaz, M., Qazi, P.H. (2017). General overview of medicinal plants: A review. J. Pharmacol., 6(6), 349-351.
  • [2]. Al–Douri, N.A. (2014). Some important medicinal plants in Iraq. Int. J. Adv. Herb. Altern. Med., 2, 10-20.
  • [3]. Katar, D., Yaman, H., Subașı, İ., Arslan, Y. (2013). Determination of some characteristics of M1 seedling of milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) obtained by treatment of different doses of gama irradiation. SDÜ Ziraat Fak. Derg., 8(1), 78-83.
  • [4]. Zhao, F., Li, X.H. (2015). Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of Silymarin Extract from Silybum Marianum in Mice of Health Food. Adv. J. Food Sci. Technol., 8(4), 278-282.
  • [5]. Surai, P.F. (2015). Silymarin as a natural antioxidant: an overview of the current evidence and perspectives. Antioxidants, 4(1), 204-247.
  • [6]. Alhidary, I.A., Rehman, Z., Khan, R.U., Tahir, M. (2017). Anti-aflatoxin activities of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) in broiler. Worlds Poult. Sci. J., 73(3), 559-566.
  • [7]. Yue, J., Zhu, Z., Li, X. (2017). Antibacterial activity of protease hydrolysates isolated from Silybum marianum. Curr. Sci., 113(3), 00113891
  • [8]. Zhu, S.Y., Jiang, N., Jie, T.U., Yang, J., Zhou, Y. (2017). Antioxidant and Anti-aging Activities of Silybum Marianum Protein Hydrolysate in Mice Treated with D-galactose. Biomed Environ Sci, 30(9), 623-631.
  • [9]. Townsend, C.C., Guest, E. (1966-1985). Flora of Iraq. vols. 1-9. Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • [10]. Erel, O. (2004). A novel automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation. Clin. biochem., 37(4), 277-285.
  • [11]. Erel, O. (2005). A new automated colorimetric method for measuring total oxidant status. Clin. Biochem., 38(12), 1103-1111.
  • [12]. Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M., Sherris, J.C., Turck, M. (1966). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method, Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 45, 493-96.
  • [13]. Hindler, J., Hochstein, L., , Howell, A. (1992). Preparation of routine media and reagents used in antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Part 1. McFarland standards, 5.19.1-5.19.6. In H. D. Isenberg (ed) Clinical microbiology procedures handbook, vol. 1. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
  • [14]. CLSI (The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). (2012). Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria; Approved Standard-Eighth Edition (M11-A8).
  • [15]. EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing). (2014). Breakpoint tables Fungal isolate for interpretation of MICs. Version 7.0.
  • [16]. Matuschek, E., Brown, D.F., Kahlmeter, G. (2017). Development of the EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing method and its implementation in routine microbiology laboratories, Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 20, 255-266.
  • [17]. EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing). (2015). Breakpoint tables for Bacteria interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. Version 5.0
  • [18]. Khalaf, N.A., Shakya, A.K., Al-Othman, A., El-Agbar, Z., Farah, H. (2008). Antioxidant activity of some common plants. Turk. J. Biol., 32(1), 51-55.
  • [19]. Dastan, S.D., Gulhan, M.F., Selamoglu, Z., Dastan, T. (2017). The determination of different effective concentration of ethanolic extract of bee pollen on biochemical analysis in liver, spleen and heart tissues of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792). Iran. J. Fish. Sci., 16(1), 326-340.
  • [20]. Ramadan, S.I., Shalaby, M.A., Afifi, N., El-Banna, H.A. (2011). Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Silybum marianum plant in rats. Int. J. Agro. Veter. Med. Sci., 5, 541-47.
  • [21]. Arampatzis, D.A., Karkanis, A.C., Tsiropoulos, N.G. (2019). Silymarin content and antioxidant activity of seeds of wild Silybum marianum populations growing in Greece. Ann. Appl. Biol., 174(1), 61-73.
  • [22]. Serçe, A., Toptancı, B.Ç., Tanrıkut, S.E., Altaş, S., Kızıl, G., Kızıl, S., Kızıl, M. (2016). Assessment of the Antioxidant Activity of Silybum marianum Seed Extract and Its Protective Effect against DNA Oxidation, Protein Damage and Lipid Peroxidation. Food Technol. Biotechnol., 54(4), 455.
  • [23]. Sun, J., Li, X. H., Yu, X. L. (2016). Antioxidant activities, total flavonoids and phenolics content in different parts of silybum marianum l. plants. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 55, 37-42.
  • [24]. Kurkin, V. (2016). Antioxidant Activity of Flavolignans from Silybum marianum (L). Gaertn. Fruits. Res. Rev. J. Pharma. Phytochem., 4(1), 50-53
  • [25]. Pehlivan, M., Mohammed, F. S., Sevindik, M., Akgul, H. (2018). Antioxidant and oxidant potential of Rosa canina. Eurasian Journal of Forest Science, 6(4), 22-25.
  • [26]. Pehlivan, M., Sevindik, M. (2018). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Salvia multicaulis. Turk. J.A.F. Sci. Tech, 6(5), 628-631.
  • [27]. Mohammed, F.S., Akgul, H., Sevindik, M., Khaled, B.M.T. (2018). Phenolic content and biological activities of Rhus coriaria var. zebaria. Fresen. Environ. Bull., 27(8), 5694-5702.
  • [28]. Sevindik, M., Akgul, H., Pehlivan, M., Selamoglu, Z. (2017). Determination of therapeutic potential of Mentha longifolia ssp. longifolia. Fresen Environ Bull, 26(7), 4757-4763.
  • [29]. Aksoy, L., Kolay, E., Ağılönü, Y., Aslan, Z., Kargıoğlu, M. (2013). Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total antioxidant status, and total oxidant status of endemic Thermopsis turcica. Saudi J. Biol. Sci., 20(3), 235-239.
  • [30]. Gul, S., Ahmed, S., Gul, H., Shad, K. F., Zia-Ul-Haq, M., Badiu, D. (2013). The antioxidant potential of Brassica rapa L. on glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase enzymes and total antioxidant status. Rev. Rom. Med. Lab., 21(2), 161-169.
  • [31]. Verma, P.K., Raina, R., Sultana, M., Singh, M., Kumar, P. (2016). Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Renal failure, 38(1), 142-150.
  • [32]. Goud, M.J.P., Komraiah, A., Rao, K., Ragan, A., Raju, V.S., Charya, M.S. (2008). Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants from South India. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med., 5(4), 421-426.
  • [33]. Thangavel, K., Sasikala, M., Maridass, M., Nadu, T. (2008). In vitro antibacterial potential of Aegle marmelos (L.) callus extract. Pharmacol. Online, 3, 190-196.
  • [34]. Yaldiz, G. (2017). Effects of potassium sulfate [K2SO4] on the element contents, polyphenol content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of milk thistle [Silybum marianum]. Pharmacogn. Mag., 13(49), 102.
  • [35]. Ahmad, N., Perveen, R., Jamil, M., Naeem, R., Ilyas, M. (2015). Comparison of antimicrobial properties of Silybum marianum (L) collected from ten different localities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan and diversity analysis through RAPDs pattern. Int. J. Plant. Sci. Ecol., 1(6), 241-5.
  • [36]. Zaouia, K., Segni, L., Noureddine, G., Redha, O. M. (2010). Antimicrobial activity of nine medicinal plants growing in the south of Algeria. Ann. Biol. Res., 1(4), 145-147.

Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Different Extracts of Silybum marianum Collected from Duhok (Iraq)

Year 2019, Volume 6, Issue 4, 317 - 322, 15.01.2020
https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.581500

Abstract

In this study, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. collected from Duhok (Iraq) were determined. Ethanol, methanol and dichloromethane extracts of the fruit part of plant were obtained. Antioxidant potential was determined with TAS and TOS kits using ethanol extracts. Antibacterial and antifungal activity were determined using agar dilution method. Antibacterial activity was determined against 6 bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii). Antifungal activity was determined against Candida albicans, C. krusei and C. glabrata. As a result of the studies, it was determined that plant extracts have high antioxidant activity. It was also found to be effective against bacteria at 25-400 µg/mL concentrations. Plant extracts were found to be more effective against gram negative bacteria. It was found to be effective against Candida species at 400-800 µg/mL concentrations. As a result, it was determined that the fruit parts of plant could be a natural antioxidant and antibacterial source.

References

  • [1]. Dar, R.A., Shahnawaz, M., Qazi, P.H. (2017). General overview of medicinal plants: A review. J. Pharmacol., 6(6), 349-351.
  • [2]. Al–Douri, N.A. (2014). Some important medicinal plants in Iraq. Int. J. Adv. Herb. Altern. Med., 2, 10-20.
  • [3]. Katar, D., Yaman, H., Subașı, İ., Arslan, Y. (2013). Determination of some characteristics of M1 seedling of milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) obtained by treatment of different doses of gama irradiation. SDÜ Ziraat Fak. Derg., 8(1), 78-83.
  • [4]. Zhao, F., Li, X.H. (2015). Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of Silymarin Extract from Silybum Marianum in Mice of Health Food. Adv. J. Food Sci. Technol., 8(4), 278-282.
  • [5]. Surai, P.F. (2015). Silymarin as a natural antioxidant: an overview of the current evidence and perspectives. Antioxidants, 4(1), 204-247.
  • [6]. Alhidary, I.A., Rehman, Z., Khan, R.U., Tahir, M. (2017). Anti-aflatoxin activities of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) in broiler. Worlds Poult. Sci. J., 73(3), 559-566.
  • [7]. Yue, J., Zhu, Z., Li, X. (2017). Antibacterial activity of protease hydrolysates isolated from Silybum marianum. Curr. Sci., 113(3), 00113891
  • [8]. Zhu, S.Y., Jiang, N., Jie, T.U., Yang, J., Zhou, Y. (2017). Antioxidant and Anti-aging Activities of Silybum Marianum Protein Hydrolysate in Mice Treated with D-galactose. Biomed Environ Sci, 30(9), 623-631.
  • [9]. Townsend, C.C., Guest, E. (1966-1985). Flora of Iraq. vols. 1-9. Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • [10]. Erel, O. (2004). A novel automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation. Clin. biochem., 37(4), 277-285.
  • [11]. Erel, O. (2005). A new automated colorimetric method for measuring total oxidant status. Clin. Biochem., 38(12), 1103-1111.
  • [12]. Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M., Sherris, J.C., Turck, M. (1966). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method, Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 45, 493-96.
  • [13]. Hindler, J., Hochstein, L., , Howell, A. (1992). Preparation of routine media and reagents used in antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Part 1. McFarland standards, 5.19.1-5.19.6. In H. D. Isenberg (ed) Clinical microbiology procedures handbook, vol. 1. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
  • [14]. CLSI (The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). (2012). Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria; Approved Standard-Eighth Edition (M11-A8).
  • [15]. EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing). (2014). Breakpoint tables Fungal isolate for interpretation of MICs. Version 7.0.
  • [16]. Matuschek, E., Brown, D.F., Kahlmeter, G. (2017). Development of the EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing method and its implementation in routine microbiology laboratories, Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 20, 255-266.
  • [17]. EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing). (2015). Breakpoint tables for Bacteria interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. Version 5.0
  • [18]. Khalaf, N.A., Shakya, A.K., Al-Othman, A., El-Agbar, Z., Farah, H. (2008). Antioxidant activity of some common plants. Turk. J. Biol., 32(1), 51-55.
  • [19]. Dastan, S.D., Gulhan, M.F., Selamoglu, Z., Dastan, T. (2017). The determination of different effective concentration of ethanolic extract of bee pollen on biochemical analysis in liver, spleen and heart tissues of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792). Iran. J. Fish. Sci., 16(1), 326-340.
  • [20]. Ramadan, S.I., Shalaby, M.A., Afifi, N., El-Banna, H.A. (2011). Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Silybum marianum plant in rats. Int. J. Agro. Veter. Med. Sci., 5, 541-47.
  • [21]. Arampatzis, D.A., Karkanis, A.C., Tsiropoulos, N.G. (2019). Silymarin content and antioxidant activity of seeds of wild Silybum marianum populations growing in Greece. Ann. Appl. Biol., 174(1), 61-73.
  • [22]. Serçe, A., Toptancı, B.Ç., Tanrıkut, S.E., Altaş, S., Kızıl, G., Kızıl, S., Kızıl, M. (2016). Assessment of the Antioxidant Activity of Silybum marianum Seed Extract and Its Protective Effect against DNA Oxidation, Protein Damage and Lipid Peroxidation. Food Technol. Biotechnol., 54(4), 455.
  • [23]. Sun, J., Li, X. H., Yu, X. L. (2016). Antioxidant activities, total flavonoids and phenolics content in different parts of silybum marianum l. plants. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 55, 37-42.
  • [24]. Kurkin, V. (2016). Antioxidant Activity of Flavolignans from Silybum marianum (L). Gaertn. Fruits. Res. Rev. J. Pharma. Phytochem., 4(1), 50-53
  • [25]. Pehlivan, M., Mohammed, F. S., Sevindik, M., Akgul, H. (2018). Antioxidant and oxidant potential of Rosa canina. Eurasian Journal of Forest Science, 6(4), 22-25.
  • [26]. Pehlivan, M., Sevindik, M. (2018). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Salvia multicaulis. Turk. J.A.F. Sci. Tech, 6(5), 628-631.
  • [27]. Mohammed, F.S., Akgul, H., Sevindik, M., Khaled, B.M.T. (2018). Phenolic content and biological activities of Rhus coriaria var. zebaria. Fresen. Environ. Bull., 27(8), 5694-5702.
  • [28]. Sevindik, M., Akgul, H., Pehlivan, M., Selamoglu, Z. (2017). Determination of therapeutic potential of Mentha longifolia ssp. longifolia. Fresen Environ Bull, 26(7), 4757-4763.
  • [29]. Aksoy, L., Kolay, E., Ağılönü, Y., Aslan, Z., Kargıoğlu, M. (2013). Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total antioxidant status, and total oxidant status of endemic Thermopsis turcica. Saudi J. Biol. Sci., 20(3), 235-239.
  • [30]. Gul, S., Ahmed, S., Gul, H., Shad, K. F., Zia-Ul-Haq, M., Badiu, D. (2013). The antioxidant potential of Brassica rapa L. on glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase enzymes and total antioxidant status. Rev. Rom. Med. Lab., 21(2), 161-169.
  • [31]. Verma, P.K., Raina, R., Sultana, M., Singh, M., Kumar, P. (2016). Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Renal failure, 38(1), 142-150.
  • [32]. Goud, M.J.P., Komraiah, A., Rao, K., Ragan, A., Raju, V.S., Charya, M.S. (2008). Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants from South India. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med., 5(4), 421-426.
  • [33]. Thangavel, K., Sasikala, M., Maridass, M., Nadu, T. (2008). In vitro antibacterial potential of Aegle marmelos (L.) callus extract. Pharmacol. Online, 3, 190-196.
  • [34]. Yaldiz, G. (2017). Effects of potassium sulfate [K2SO4] on the element contents, polyphenol content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of milk thistle [Silybum marianum]. Pharmacogn. Mag., 13(49), 102.
  • [35]. Ahmad, N., Perveen, R., Jamil, M., Naeem, R., Ilyas, M. (2015). Comparison of antimicrobial properties of Silybum marianum (L) collected from ten different localities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan and diversity analysis through RAPDs pattern. Int. J. Plant. Sci. Ecol., 1(6), 241-5.
  • [36]. Zaouia, K., Segni, L., Noureddine, G., Redha, O. M. (2010). Antimicrobial activity of nine medicinal plants growing in the south of Algeria. Ann. Biol. Res., 1(4), 145-147.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Biology
Published Date December
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Falah Saleh MOHAMMED (Primary Author)
Zakho University
0000-0001-9083-1876
Iraq


Mustafa PEHLİVAN
Gaziantep University
0000-0002-8277-6085
Türkiye


Mustafa SEVİNDİK
AKDENIZ UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-7223-2220
Andorra

Publication Date January 15, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 6, Issue 4

Cite

APA Mohammed, F. S. , Pehlivan, M. & Sevindik, M. (2020). Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Different Extracts of Silybum marianum Collected from Duhok (Iraq) . International Journal of Secondary Metabolite , 6 (4) , 317-322 . DOI: 10.21448/ijsm.581500

International Journal of Secondary Metabolite (IJSM)

ISSN-e: 2148-6905