Research Article
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Toxicological Evaluation of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Guiera senegalensis on Wistar Rats

Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1, 45 - 51, 04.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.53811/ijtcmr.1060996

Abstract

Objective: Global herbal products howbeit have enormous potential as natural drugs and are of vast commercial significance, are often processed and procured without being scientifically evaluated for their toxicity. This study evaluated the toxicological effects of Guiera senegalensis on wistar rats. Method: An acute toxicity was carried out to determine the LD50 of Guiera senegalensis stem bark extract. Sub-acute toxicity was carried out to determine the effect of the plant extract on some liver and kidney function parameters and haematological parameters. Twenty (20) rats were ramdomly placed into 4 groups of 5 rats. Group 2, 3 and 4 were orally treated with aqueous stem bark extract of Guiera senegalensis at a daily dose of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) respectively for 28 days while group 1 served as a control group. Results: ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels increased significantly as dose increases. No significant increase in K+ and urea was observed in group 2 and 3 treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg respectively. However, significant increase was observed in group 4 treated with 800 mg/kg. Na+ and Creatinine showed significant increase when compared with control group. RBC, PCV, and Hb decreased significantly whereas a significant increase was observed in WBC with increase in dose respectively. Conclusion: The aqueous stem bark extract of Guiera senegalensis have a dose-dependent toxic effect on liver, kidney and haematology of wistar rats. Key words: Toxicological Evaluation, Guiera Senegalensis, Liver, Kidney, Haematological parameters

References

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  • 3. Qureshi, R., Ghazanfar, S. A., Obied, H., Vasileva, V., & Tariq, M. A. Ethnobotany: A Living Science for Alleviating Human Suffering. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016;1-3. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9641692
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  • 5. Edebi, N. V., & Gideon, O. A. Evaluation of pharmacognostical parameters and heavy metals in some locally manufactured herbal drugs. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research.2011;3(2), 10. Retrieved from www.jocpr.com
  • 6. Mubarak, S. H., Hassan, E., Ahmed, S., Eltayeb, F., & Reem, H. A. A Review on the Taxonomy, Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Guriea senegalensis J.F.Gmel. (Combretaceae). Medicinal & Aromatic Plants. 2017;5. doi:10.4172/2167-0412.1000296
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  • 8. Fiot, J., Ollivier, E., Timon-David, P., & Balansard, G. Guiera senegalensis J.F Gmel. (combrataceae) (S. G. Pandalai, Ed.) Trivandrum India: Research Signpost. 2004;2
  • 9. Zakawa, N. N., Akesa, T. M., Timon, D., Yusuf, C. S., Magga, B., & Jacob, G. F. Ethnobotanical survey and phytochemical studies of guiera senegalensis lam. in mubi local government of adamawa state. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018;7(14), 12. doi:10.20959/wjpr201814-12885
  • 10. Alshafei, N. K., Ahmed, S., & A. Nour. Preliminary Observations on the Uses of Guiera Senegalensis as a Traditional Medicinal Plants in Western Kordufan, Sudan. International Journal of Applied and Pure Science and Agriculture. 2016;2, 42-48.
  • 11. Diatta, W., Fall, A. D., Dieye, A. M., Faty, S., Bassene, E., & Faye, B. Experimental Evidence of Against Cough Activity of Total Alkaloids from Guiera Senegalensis Lam. in Guinea Pig. Darkar Medical. 2007;52(2), 130-134.
  • 12. Abdullahi, R. A., & Mainul, H. preparation of medicinal plants. Basic extraction and fractionation procedures for experimental purposes. Journal of Pharmacy and BioAllied Sciences. 2020; 12(1), 1-16. doi:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS17519
  • 13. Sofowora, E. A. Medicinal plants and traditional use in Africa. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum books Ltd. 2006
  • 14. Banu, K. S., & Catherine, L. General Techniques Involved in Phytochemical Analysis. International Journal of Advanced Research in Chemical Science. 2015;2(4), 25-32. Retrieved from www.arcjournals.org
  • 15. Chinedu, E., Arome, D., & Ameh, F. S. A New Method for Determining Acute Toxicity in Animal Models. Toxicology International. 2013;20(3), 1-6. doi:10.4103/0971-6580.121674
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  • 17. Chopra, S., & Griffin, p. H. Laboratory Test and Diagnostic Procedures in Evaluation of Liver Disease. The American Journal of Medicine. 1985;79(2), 221-230. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(85)90012-0
  • 18. Vasudevan, D., & Vaidyanathan, K. Kidney Function Test. Indian Council of Medical Research. 2017;1-14. doi:10.5005/jp/books/13014_26
  • 19. Akhila, J. S., Deepa, S., & Alwar, M. C. Acute Toxicity Studies and Determination of Median Lethal Dose. Current Science. 2007;93(7), 917-920.
  • 20. Thapa, B., & Walia, A. Liver Function Tests and their Interpretation. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. (2007;74, 1-9.
  • 21. Hasan, F. A., & Owyed, S. Interpretation of liver chemistry tests. Bulletin of the Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. 2003;2, 27-31.
  • 22. Korhonen, P. E. How to Assess Kidney Function in Outpatient Clinics. The International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2014;69(2), 156–161.
  • 23. Gowda, S., Desai, P. B., Kulkarni, S. S., Hull, V. V., Math, A. A., & Vernekar, S. N. Markers of Renal Function Tests. North American Journal of Medical Sciences. 2010;2(4), 170-173. Retrieved from www.najms.org
  • 24. Etim, N. N., Williams, M. E., Akpabio, U., & Offiong, E. E. Haematological Parameters and Factors Affecting Their Values. Science and Education Centre of North America. 2014;1(2), 37-47. doi:10.12735/as.v2i1p37

Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1, 45 - 51, 04.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.53811/ijtcmr.1060996

Abstract

References

  • 1. Akerele, O., Heywood, V., & synge, H. Conservation of medicinal plants. United States of Amarica Cambridge University Press, New York. 2009. Retrieved from www.cambridge.org/9780521112024
  • 2. Azwanida, N. N. A Review on the Extraction Methods Use in Medicinal Plants, Principle,Strength and Limitation. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 2015;6. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2167-0412.1000196
  • 3. Qureshi, R., Ghazanfar, S. A., Obied, H., Vasileva, V., & Tariq, M. A. Ethnobotany: A Living Science for Alleviating Human Suffering. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016;1-3. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9641692
  • 4. Buwa-Komoreng, L. V., Mayekiso, B., Mhinana, Z., & Adeniran, A. L. An Ethnobotanical and Ethnomedicinal Survey of Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants in Seymour, South Africa: An Attempt toward Digitization and Preservation of Ethnic Knowledge. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2019;15(60), 115-123.
  • 5. Edebi, N. V., & Gideon, O. A. Evaluation of pharmacognostical parameters and heavy metals in some locally manufactured herbal drugs. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research.2011;3(2), 10. Retrieved from www.jocpr.com
  • 6. Mubarak, S. H., Hassan, E., Ahmed, S., Eltayeb, F., & Reem, H. A. A Review on the Taxonomy, Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Guriea senegalensis J.F.Gmel. (Combretaceae). Medicinal & Aromatic Plants. 2017;5. doi:10.4172/2167-0412.1000296
  • 7. Aimé, A. S., Kirti, P., Drissa, D., Lassine, S., Jean, C. C., Gilles, F., . . . Pierre, C. An ethnobotanical and phytochemical study of the African medicinal plant Guiera senegalensis J. F. Gmel. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2011;5(9), 1-13. Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/JMPR
  • 8. Fiot, J., Ollivier, E., Timon-David, P., & Balansard, G. Guiera senegalensis J.F Gmel. (combrataceae) (S. G. Pandalai, Ed.) Trivandrum India: Research Signpost. 2004;2
  • 9. Zakawa, N. N., Akesa, T. M., Timon, D., Yusuf, C. S., Magga, B., & Jacob, G. F. Ethnobotanical survey and phytochemical studies of guiera senegalensis lam. in mubi local government of adamawa state. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018;7(14), 12. doi:10.20959/wjpr201814-12885
  • 10. Alshafei, N. K., Ahmed, S., & A. Nour. Preliminary Observations on the Uses of Guiera Senegalensis as a Traditional Medicinal Plants in Western Kordufan, Sudan. International Journal of Applied and Pure Science and Agriculture. 2016;2, 42-48.
  • 11. Diatta, W., Fall, A. D., Dieye, A. M., Faty, S., Bassene, E., & Faye, B. Experimental Evidence of Against Cough Activity of Total Alkaloids from Guiera Senegalensis Lam. in Guinea Pig. Darkar Medical. 2007;52(2), 130-134.
  • 12. Abdullahi, R. A., & Mainul, H. preparation of medicinal plants. Basic extraction and fractionation procedures for experimental purposes. Journal of Pharmacy and BioAllied Sciences. 2020; 12(1), 1-16. doi:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS17519
  • 13. Sofowora, E. A. Medicinal plants and traditional use in Africa. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum books Ltd. 2006
  • 14. Banu, K. S., & Catherine, L. General Techniques Involved in Phytochemical Analysis. International Journal of Advanced Research in Chemical Science. 2015;2(4), 25-32. Retrieved from www.arcjournals.org
  • 15. Chinedu, E., Arome, D., & Ameh, F. S. A New Method for Determining Acute Toxicity in Animal Models. Toxicology International. 2013;20(3), 1-6. doi:10.4103/0971-6580.121674
  • 16. Dacie, J. V., & Lewis, S. M. practical haematology (12th ed.). (C. Livingston, Ed.) London: Elsilvier. 2016
  • 17. Chopra, S., & Griffin, p. H. Laboratory Test and Diagnostic Procedures in Evaluation of Liver Disease. The American Journal of Medicine. 1985;79(2), 221-230. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(85)90012-0
  • 18. Vasudevan, D., & Vaidyanathan, K. Kidney Function Test. Indian Council of Medical Research. 2017;1-14. doi:10.5005/jp/books/13014_26
  • 19. Akhila, J. S., Deepa, S., & Alwar, M. C. Acute Toxicity Studies and Determination of Median Lethal Dose. Current Science. 2007;93(7), 917-920.
  • 20. Thapa, B., & Walia, A. Liver Function Tests and their Interpretation. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. (2007;74, 1-9.
  • 21. Hasan, F. A., & Owyed, S. Interpretation of liver chemistry tests. Bulletin of the Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. 2003;2, 27-31.
  • 22. Korhonen, P. E. How to Assess Kidney Function in Outpatient Clinics. The International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2014;69(2), 156–161.
  • 23. Gowda, S., Desai, P. B., Kulkarni, S. S., Hull, V. V., Math, A. A., & Vernekar, S. N. Markers of Renal Function Tests. North American Journal of Medical Sciences. 2010;2(4), 170-173. Retrieved from www.najms.org
  • 24. Etim, N. N., Williams, M. E., Akpabio, U., & Offiong, E. E. Haematological Parameters and Factors Affecting Their Values. Science and Education Centre of North America. 2014;1(2), 37-47. doi:10.12735/as.v2i1p37

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Integrative and Complemantary Medicine
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Maryam Usman AHMED This is me
Adamawa State University, Mubi
0000-0002-4061-0183
Nigeria


Diowato TİTUS> (Primary Author)
Adamawa State University, Mubi
0000-0003-4835-1742
Nigeria


Isaac John UMARU>
Federal University, Wukari, Taraba
0000-0002-2800-0024
Nigeria

Publication Date April 4, 2022
Application Date January 29, 2022
Acceptance Date March 11, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1

Cite

APA Ahmed, M. U. , Titus, D. & Umaru, I. J. (2022). Toxicological Evaluation of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Guiera senegalensis on Wistar Rats . International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research , 3 (1) , 45-51 . DOI: 10.53811/ijtcmr.1060996

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