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OTTOMAN LEXİCAL OBSOLESCENCE İN THE ARABİC DİALECTS OF THE GALİLEE REGİON

Year 2009, Volume 0, Issue 15, 49 - 88, 30.11.2011

Abstract

The author of this article has focused over the last fifteen years on various research projects among Arabic-speaking communities in the Galilee and on other dialects and languages of the Arab world and the Middle East. The linguistic fieldwork that has been conducted, described and analyzed in this article seeks to find the patterns of obsolescence of Ottoman-Turkish lexica in this region, where the Ottomans ruled for approximately 400 years. The Ottomans ruled the Holy Land approximately 400 years, from the time of the Sultan Selim-I between the years 1516-1517 until the arrival of the British troops in 1917 in the Negev in the southern parts of the land. Yet, in the northern parts, the Ottoman rule lasted an additional year, as Haifa was occupied on the 23rd of September, 1918. Undoubtedly, this period is sufficiently long to leave lexical remnants in the Arabic speech of the population. Yet, since Turkish belongs to the Altaic language family and simultaneously also is an agglutinative language, while Arabic is Semitic, it was not easy for the Arab population to pick up this language. Additionally, only a minority of the local Arab population had a thorough command of OttomanTurkish (Osmanlıca) 1

References

  • Aytaç, Bedrettin, Arap Lehçelerindeki Tűrkçe Kelimeler. Istanbul: Tűrk Dűnyası Araştırmaları Vakfı, 1994.
  • Barhélemy. A., Dictionnaire Arabe-Français. Dialects de Syrie: Alep, Damas, Liban, Jérusalem. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1935.
  • Bauer, Leonhard, Das Palästinische Arabisch: Die Dialekte des Städters und des Fellachen. Leipzig: Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1935.
  • Bayerle, Gustav, Pashas, Begs and Effendis. Istanbul: The Isis Press, 1997.
  • Behnstedt, Peter Sprachatlas von Syrien. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 1997.
  • --------Sprachatlas von Syrien: Beiheft. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 1998.
  • --------Sprachatlas von Syrien. II: Volkskundliche Texte. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 1998.
  • Bergsträßer, G., Sprachatlas von Syrien und Palästina. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1915.
  • Blanc, Haim, Studies in North Palestinian Arabic. Jerusalem: Central Press, 1953.
  • Brenzinger, Matthias, Language Death. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992.
  • Christie, W., "Der Dialekt der Landbevőlkerung des mittleren Galiläa". In: Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 24, 69-112, 1901.
  • Crystal, David, Language Death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Dalman, G., Arbeit und Sitte in Palästina. Hildesheim; Zűrich; New York: Georg Olms Verlag, 1928. rep. 1987.
  • Denizeau, Cl., Dictionnaire des Parlers Arabes de Syrie, Liban et Palestine. Paris: Éditions G.-P. Maisonneuve, 1960.
  • Elihai, Johanan, Dictionnaire de l'Arabe Parlé Palestinien: Français-Arabe. Jérusalem: Imprimerie Yanetz, 1973.
  • --------The Olive Tree Dictionary. Minerve: Jerusalem, 2005.
  • Fischer, Wolfdietrich and Jastrow, Otto , Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1980.
  • Geva Kleinberger, Aharon, Die arabischen Stadtdialekte von Haifa in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderets. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2004a
  • --------"Memories of the Sea of Galilee: A Text in the Arabic Dialect of the
  • Jews of Tiberias, with a Short Sketch of the Dialect". In: Jerusalem
  • Studies in Arabic and Islam (JSAI) 29, 145 – 165 Studies in honor of
  • Moshe Piamenta, 2004b
  • --------"Last Informants of the Jewish-Arabic Dialect of the Ancient
  • Community of Pqi$in". In Wiener Zeitschrift fuer die Kunde des
  • Morgenlandes (WZKM), 95, pp. 45-61, 2004c
  • --------Autochthonous Texts in the Dialect of the Jews of Tiberias. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz Verlag, 2009.
  • Havelová, Andrea, Arabic Dialect of Nazareth: A Dialectological and Sociolinguistic Description. Dissertation, Haifa: University of Haifa, 2000.
  • Jastrow, Otto, Die mesopotamisch-Arabischen Q±ltu-Dialekte. Band II:
  • Volkskundliche Texte in elf Dialekten. Wiesbaden: Deutsche
  • Morgenlaendliche Gesellschaft, 1981.
  • Johnes, Mari C. and Singh, Iahtla, Exploring Language Change. London: Routledge, 2003.
  • Kerestedjian, Bedros, Dictionnaire Ėtymologique de la Langue Turque. Londres: Son Neveu Haig, M.R.A.S, 1912.
  • Lőhr, Max, Der vulgarische Dialekt von Jerusalem. Gieszten: n.p., 1905.
  • al-Mar$ashli A., Hashem, A.H. and Sayegh, Anis, al-Mawsū$a al-Filas* īniyya. Damascus: Hay'at al-Mawsū$a al-Filas* īniyya, 1984.
  • Palva, Heikki, Lower Galilean Arabic (Academic Dissertation). Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Kirjapaino Oy, 1965.
  • Prokosch, Erich Osmanisches Wortgut im Ägyptisch-Arabischen. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag, 1983.
  • Redhouse, James. W., A Turkish and English Lexicon. Constantinople : H. Matteosian, 1921.
  • --------Türkçe-İnglizce Redhouse Sözlüğü. İstanbul: Redhouse Yayınevi, 1968.
  • Serhan, Nimir, Encyclopaedia of Palestinian Folklore (in Arabic). 2nd printing.
  • Amman: al-Bayādir, 1989.
  • Smith, J. Payne, A Compendious Syriac Dictionary. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1957.
  • Stachowski, Stanisław, Studien über die arabischen Lehnwörter im Osmanisch- Türkischen. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy Imientia Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk. Teil I., 1977.
  • Suleiman, Yasir (Ed.), Arabic Sociolinguistics: Issues & Perspectives. Richmond: Curzon Press, 1994.
  • Toledo, S. and NAmer Y., İbranice-Türkçe Sözlük. Kudüs: Vaad Adat Asefaradim, 1978.
  • Von Műlinen, E. Graf , Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Karmels. Leipzig: In Kommission bei K. Baedeker, 1908.
  • Wehr, Hans, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Beirut: Librairie du Liban,
  • and London: Macdonald & Evans Ltd, rep. 1974.

OTTOMAN LEXİCAL OBSOLESCENCE İN THE ARABİC DİALECTS OF THE GALİLEE REGİON

Year 2009, Volume 0, Issue 15, 49 - 88, 30.11.2011

Abstract

The author of this article has focused over the last fifteen years on various research projects among Arabic-speaking communities in the Galilee and on other dialects and languages of the Arab world and the Middle East. The linguistic fieldwork that has been conducted, described and analyzed in this article seeks to find the patterns of obsolescence of Ottoman-Turkish lexica in this region, where the Ottomans ruled for approximately 400 years. The Ottomans ruled the Holy Land approximately 400 years, from the time of the Sultan Selim-I between the years 1516-1517 until the arrival of the British troops in 1917 in the Negev in the southern parts of the land. Yet, in the northern parts, the Ottoman rule lasted an additional year, as Haifa was occupied on the 23rd of September, 1918. Undoubtedly, this period is sufficiently long to leave lexical remnants in the Arabic speech of the population. Yet, since Turkish belongs to the Altaic language family and simultaneously also is an agglutinative language, while Arabic is Semitic, it was not easy for the Arab population to pick up this language. Additionally, only a minority of the local Arab population had a thorough command of OttomanTurkish (Osmanlıca) 1

References

  • Aytaç, Bedrettin, Arap Lehçelerindeki Tűrkçe Kelimeler. Istanbul: Tűrk Dűnyası Araştırmaları Vakfı, 1994.
  • Barhélemy. A., Dictionnaire Arabe-Français. Dialects de Syrie: Alep, Damas, Liban, Jérusalem. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1935.
  • Bauer, Leonhard, Das Palästinische Arabisch: Die Dialekte des Städters und des Fellachen. Leipzig: Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1935.
  • Bayerle, Gustav, Pashas, Begs and Effendis. Istanbul: The Isis Press, 1997.
  • Behnstedt, Peter Sprachatlas von Syrien. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 1997.
  • --------Sprachatlas von Syrien: Beiheft. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 1998.
  • --------Sprachatlas von Syrien. II: Volkskundliche Texte. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 1998.
  • Bergsträßer, G., Sprachatlas von Syrien und Palästina. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1915.
  • Blanc, Haim, Studies in North Palestinian Arabic. Jerusalem: Central Press, 1953.
  • Brenzinger, Matthias, Language Death. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992.
  • Christie, W., "Der Dialekt der Landbevőlkerung des mittleren Galiläa". In: Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 24, 69-112, 1901.
  • Crystal, David, Language Death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Dalman, G., Arbeit und Sitte in Palästina. Hildesheim; Zűrich; New York: Georg Olms Verlag, 1928. rep. 1987.
  • Denizeau, Cl., Dictionnaire des Parlers Arabes de Syrie, Liban et Palestine. Paris: Éditions G.-P. Maisonneuve, 1960.
  • Elihai, Johanan, Dictionnaire de l'Arabe Parlé Palestinien: Français-Arabe. Jérusalem: Imprimerie Yanetz, 1973.
  • --------The Olive Tree Dictionary. Minerve: Jerusalem, 2005.
  • Fischer, Wolfdietrich and Jastrow, Otto , Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1980.
  • Geva Kleinberger, Aharon, Die arabischen Stadtdialekte von Haifa in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderets. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2004a
  • --------"Memories of the Sea of Galilee: A Text in the Arabic Dialect of the
  • Jews of Tiberias, with a Short Sketch of the Dialect". In: Jerusalem
  • Studies in Arabic and Islam (JSAI) 29, 145 – 165 Studies in honor of
  • Moshe Piamenta, 2004b
  • --------"Last Informants of the Jewish-Arabic Dialect of the Ancient
  • Community of Pqi$in". In Wiener Zeitschrift fuer die Kunde des
  • Morgenlandes (WZKM), 95, pp. 45-61, 2004c
  • --------Autochthonous Texts in the Dialect of the Jews of Tiberias. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz Verlag, 2009.
  • Havelová, Andrea, Arabic Dialect of Nazareth: A Dialectological and Sociolinguistic Description. Dissertation, Haifa: University of Haifa, 2000.
  • Jastrow, Otto, Die mesopotamisch-Arabischen Q±ltu-Dialekte. Band II:
  • Volkskundliche Texte in elf Dialekten. Wiesbaden: Deutsche
  • Morgenlaendliche Gesellschaft, 1981.
  • Johnes, Mari C. and Singh, Iahtla, Exploring Language Change. London: Routledge, 2003.
  • Kerestedjian, Bedros, Dictionnaire Ėtymologique de la Langue Turque. Londres: Son Neveu Haig, M.R.A.S, 1912.
  • Lőhr, Max, Der vulgarische Dialekt von Jerusalem. Gieszten: n.p., 1905.
  • al-Mar$ashli A., Hashem, A.H. and Sayegh, Anis, al-Mawsū$a al-Filas* īniyya. Damascus: Hay'at al-Mawsū$a al-Filas* īniyya, 1984.
  • Palva, Heikki, Lower Galilean Arabic (Academic Dissertation). Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Kirjapaino Oy, 1965.
  • Prokosch, Erich Osmanisches Wortgut im Ägyptisch-Arabischen. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag, 1983.
  • Redhouse, James. W., A Turkish and English Lexicon. Constantinople : H. Matteosian, 1921.
  • --------Türkçe-İnglizce Redhouse Sözlüğü. İstanbul: Redhouse Yayınevi, 1968.
  • Serhan, Nimir, Encyclopaedia of Palestinian Folklore (in Arabic). 2nd printing.
  • Amman: al-Bayādir, 1989.
  • Smith, J. Payne, A Compendious Syriac Dictionary. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1957.
  • Stachowski, Stanisław, Studien über die arabischen Lehnwörter im Osmanisch- Türkischen. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy Imientia Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk. Teil I., 1977.
  • Suleiman, Yasir (Ed.), Arabic Sociolinguistics: Issues & Perspectives. Richmond: Curzon Press, 1994.
  • Toledo, S. and NAmer Y., İbranice-Türkçe Sözlük. Kudüs: Vaad Adat Asefaradim, 1978.
  • Von Műlinen, E. Graf , Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Karmels. Leipzig: In Kommission bei K. Baedeker, 1908.
  • Wehr, Hans, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Beirut: Librairie du Liban,
  • and London: Macdonald & Evans Ltd, rep. 1974.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Aharon KLEİNBERGER This is me

Publication Date November 30, 2011
Published in Issue Year 2009, Volume 0, Issue 15

Cite

Chicago Kleinberger, A. "OTTOMAN LEXİCAL OBSOLESCENCE İN THE ARABİC DİALECTS OF THE GALİLEE REGİON". Şarkiyat Mecmuası 0 (2011 ): 49-88