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Balık Unu Kalitesine Balık Tazeliğinin Etkisi; Hamsi Unu

Year 2021, Volume: 6 Issue: 1, 57 - 65, 31.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.824885

Abstract

Balık unu av sezonunda fazla avlanan veya ekonomik değeri olmayan balıklar ile balık artıklarından üretilmektedir. Karadeniz’den 2007-2008 balıkçılık av sezonunda avlanan hamsi balıklarından (Engraulis engrasicholus, L) üretilen balık unu araştırılmıştır. Sinop ilinde farklı üretim teknikleri uygulayan 3 balık unu fabrikasında (A, B ve C fabrikaları) 8 saat arayla hammaddeden numuneler alındı. TVB- N ve TBA analizleri yapılarak ve T1, T2, T3 ve T4 tazelik grubu oluşturuldu. A, B ve C fabrikalarından T1, T2, T3 ve T4 tazelik gruplarında meydana gelen kalite değişimlerini belirlemek amacıyla ham protein, ham yağ, ham kül, nem, aminoasit, yağ asit kompozisyonu ve renk değişimleri incelendi. Elde edilen istatistiki değerlendirmeler neticesinde tazelik gruplarında hammadde bayatladıkça balık ununda ham protein, esansiyel aminoasit, esansiyel olmayan aminoasit, doymuş yağ asitleri, çoklu doymamış yağ asitleri, EPA, DHA, omega3, omega6 ile omega3/omega6 oranının azaldığı belirlenmiştir. Balık ununda ham yağ ve nem oranının hammadde bayatladıkça arttığı tespit edilmiştir. Görülen farkların istatistiki olarak önemli olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır (p<0.05). sonuç olarak, balık tazeliği ve işleme sürecinin balık unu besin kompozisyonunu etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. Yüksek kaliteli balık unu üretmek için hammaddelerin taze olarak işlenmesi ve fabrikalara evaporatör sistemi kurulması gerekmektedir.

Supporting Institution

TUBİTAK

References

  • Aksnes, A & Mundheim, H. (1997). The impact of raw material freshness and processing temperature for fish meal on growth, feed efficiency and chemical composition of Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Aquaculture 149, 87-106.
  • Anderson, J.S., Lall, S.P., Anderson, D.M. & McNiven, M.A. (1993). Evaluation of protein quality in fish meals by chemical and biological assays. Aquaculture, 115, 3057325.
  • AOAC (1993). Analysis of Histamine. Journal of AOAC International Vol. 76, No.3
  • AOAC. (1990). Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, Edited Patrica Cunniff. Chapter 35, Fish and other marine products, AOAC official methods of analysis 938.08. Chapter 35, Chapter Editor James M. Hungerford. Published AOAC International, ISBN 0-935584-54-4 and ISSN 1080- 0344
  • Ariyawansa, S. (2000). The evaluation of functional properties of fish meal. Fisheries Training Programme. Final Project.p.25.
  • Arruda, L.F., Borghesı, R., Brum, A., Regitano, M. & Oetterer, M. (2006). Nutritional aspects of nıle tılapıa (Oreochromis Niloticus) sılage. Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 26(4): 749- 753,
  • Barlow, S.M. & Pike, I.E. (1977). The role of fat in fish meal in pig and poultry nutrition. Technical Bulletin No: 4, International Association of Fish Meal Manufacturers. Potters Bar, UK.
  • Bayraklı B. & Duyar, H.A. (2019)a. Karadeniz’de Hamsi Ununa Alternatif Olarak Üretilen Çaça Ununun Besin Bileşenlerinin Karşılaştırılması. Anadolu Çev. ve Hay. Dergisi, 4(3), 545-550.
  • Bayraklı, B., & Duyar, H. A. (2019)b. The Effect of Raw Material Freshness on Fish Oil Quality Produced in Fish Meal & Oil Plant. Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences, 4(3), 473-479.
  • Bayrakli, B., & Özdemir, S. & Duyar, H. A. (2019). Karadeniz’de Hamsi (Engraulis encrasicolus) ve Çaça (Sprattus sprattus) Balıklarının Avcılığı ile Balık Unu-yağı İşleme Teknolojisi Üzerine Bir Araştırma.Menba Kastamonu Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(2), 9-16.
  • Bling, E.G & Dyer, W.J. (1959). A rapid methods of total lipid exraction and purification, Can. J. Biochem. Phiys, 37, 911-917.
  • Botta, J.R., Lauder, J.T. & Jewer, M.A. (1984). Effect of methodology on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) determination as an index of quality of fresh Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua). Journal of Food Science, 49: 734-736,
  • Chamberlain, G.W. (1993). Aquaculture trends and feed projections. World Aquaculture, 24(1):19-29.
  • Cho, H.O., Byun, M.W., Kwon, J.H. & Lee, J.W. (1987). Effect of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on the quality of dried marine products (shrimp, anchovy). Kor. J. Food Hygiene 2 (1), 21-27.
  • De Koning, A.J. (2005). Properties of South African fish meal: A review. South African Journal of Science, 101(1-2), 21-25.
  • De Silva, S. S. & Anderson, T. A. (1994). Fish nutrition in aquaculture. Chapman and Hall Aquaculture series 1. London, 319 p.
  • Dimova, N. (2003). RP-HPLC analysis of amino acids with UV-detection. Comptes Rendus De l'Academie Bulgare Des Sciences, 56(12), 12-75.
  • Duyar, H. A., & Bayraklı, B. (2005). Sinop ilinde bulunan su ürünleri işleme tesislerinin durumu, sorunları ve çözüm önerileri. Su Ürünleri Mühendisleri Dergisi (SUMDER), 24(4), 53-56.
  • FAO (1986). The production of fish meal and oil. FAO Fisheries technical paper-142. FAO Fisheries Departman, Roma, İtaly.
  • Fox, J.M., Lawrence, A.L. and Smith, F. (2004). Development of a fishmeal substitute- feed for growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei. Proceedings of Avances en Nutrición Acuícola VII, November 16-19, Hermosillo, Mexico.
  • Gooch, J. A., Hale, M. B., Brown, T. Bonnet, C. J., Brand, C.G., & Regier, L.W. (1987). Proximate and Fatty Acit Composition of 40 Southeastern U.S. Finfish Species. NOAA Technical Repord NMFS 54.
  • Huss, H.H. (1993). Assurance of seafood quality. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No.334. Rome, FAO. 169 pp
  • JEFO (2009). Kilka fishmeal. http://www.jefo.ca/fiches_anglais/fishmeal.html, 06.06.2009
  • Opstvedt, J., Mundheim, H., Nygard, E., Aase, H. & Pike, I.H. (2000). Reduced growth and feed consumption of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed fish meal made from stale fish is not due to increased content of biogenic amines. Aquaculture 188, 323–337.
  • Opstvedt, J., Aksnes, A., Hope, B. & Pike, I.H. (2003). Efficiency of feed utilisation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed diets with increasing substitution of fish meal with vegetable proteins. Aquaculture 221, 365–379.
  • Özdemir, S. (2010). Karadeniz’de sürdürülebilir hamsi (Engraulius encrasicolus, L.) avcılığında ortasu trolünün önemi. I. Ulusal Hamsi Çalıştayı, Sürdürülebilir Balıkçılık, Bildiriler Kitabı, (17-18 Haziran 2010) Trabzon, 129-135s
  • Özdemir, S., Erdem Y., Satılmış, H.H. & BirinciÖzdemir, Z. (2006). Karadeniz’de ortasu trolü ile gece süresince avlanan hamsi (Engraulis encrasicolus, L. 1758)’nin av verimi ve boy kompozisyonunun belirlenmesi. Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 23,(3-4), 417-421.
  • Pike, I.H., Andorsdo´ttir, G. & Mundheim, H. (1990). The role of fish meal in diets for salmonids. IAFMM Technical Bulletin No. 24, 2 College Yard, Lower Dagnall Street, St. Albans, Herts. AL3 4PA, UK, pp. 1–35.
  • Rezaei, M., Sahari, M. A. & Moeini, S. (2007). Quality assessment of lipid in anchovy kilka ( Clupeonella engrauliformis) during frozen storage at different temperature rates. J. Sci. & Technol. Agric. & Natur. Resour., Vol. 10, No. 4 (B).
  • Ricque, D.M., La Para, M.I.A., Cruz-Suarez,L.E., Cuzon,G., Cousin,M. & Pike, I.H. (1998). Raw material freshness, a quality criterion for fish meal fed to shrimp. Aquaculture 165_1998.95–109
  • Saldamlı, İ., 1998. Gıda Kimyası. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Basımevi, Ankara, 528s.
  • Schubring, R. & Meyer, C. (2002). Quality factors of terrestrial snail products as affected by the species. Journal of food science, 67. 31483151
  • Sifuentes, C.G., Aguilar, R.P., Sánchez, M.L., Sánchez, G.G., Suarez, J.C.R. & Carreño,G. (2009). Properties of recovered solids from stick-water treated by centrifugation and pH shift. Food Chemistry 114, 197–203
  • Simopoulos, A.P. (2008). The importance of the omega6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 233(6), 674-688.
  • Simopoulos, A.P., Leaf, A. & Salem, N.Jr. (2000). Statement on the essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 63, 119- 21.
  • Solar, M.C.L., Zeng N.X., Essert, T.K., Truong, T.D., Pina, C., Cullor, J.S., Smith, W.L. & Larrain, R. (2005). Disinfection of fishmeal with radiofrequency heating for improved quality and energy efficiency. J Sci Food Agric, 85:2273–2280
  • Stansby, M.E., 1969. Nutritional properties of fish oils. World Rew. of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol.11, New-York, pp.46-105.
  • Suzuki H, Okazaki K, Hayakawa S, Wada, S & Tamura S. (1986). Influence of commercial dietary fatty acids on polyunsaturated fatty acids of cultured freshwater fish and comparison with those of wild fish of the same species. J Agric Food Chem 34:58–60.
  • Tapia-Salazar, M., Cruz-Suarez, L.E., Ricque, M.D., Pike, I.H., Smith, T.K., Haris, A., Nygard, E., & Opstvedt, J. (2004). Effect of fishmeal made from stale versus fresh herring and of added crystalline biogenic amines on growth and survival of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris fed practical diets. Aquaculture 242 (2004) 437–453
  • Titgemeyer, E.C., Merchen, R.N & Berger, L.L. (1989). Evaluation of soybean meal, corn gluten meal, blood meal and fish meal as sources of nitrogen and amino acids disappearıng from the small intestıne of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 67:262-275
  • Webster, C. D., Tiu, L. G., Margan, A. M. & Gannam, A. (1999). Effect of partial and total replacement of fishmeal on growth and body composition of sunshine bass, Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis, fed practical diets. J. World Aquaculture Soc. 30, 443-453.
  • Windsor, M.L. (2001). Fish meal. Department of trade and industry torry research statıon. Torry Advisory note No. 49

Effect of Freshness on Fish Meal Quality; Anchovy Meal

Year 2021, Volume: 6 Issue: 1, 57 - 65, 31.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.824885

Abstract

Fish meal is produced from fish that are caught too much during the fishing season or have no economic value, and fish waste. Fish meal produced from anchovy fish (Engraulis engrasicholus, L) fishing in the Black Sea during the 2007-2008 fishing season was investigated. Fish samples were taken at 8-hour intervals in 3 fish meal factories (A, B and C factories), which apply different production techniques in the province of Sinop. T1, T2, T3 and T4 freshness groups were created by performing TVB-N and TBA analyzes. Crude protein, crude oil, crude ash, moisture, amino acid, fatty acid composition and color changes were examined in order to determine the quality changes in T1, T2, T3 and T4 freshness groups from A, B and C factories. As a result of the statistical evaluations obtained, it was determined that the raw protein, essential amino acid, non-essential amino acid, saturated fatty acids, EPA, DHA, omega3, omega6 and omega3 / omega6 ratio decreased in fish meal as the fish became stale in the freshness groups. It has been determined that the crude oil and moisture content of fish meal increases as the raw material gets stale. It was concluded that the observed differences were statistically significant (p <0.05). As a result, it was determined that fish freshness and processing process affect the nutritional composition of fish meal. In order to produce high quality fish meal, raw materials must be freshly processed and an evaporator system must be installed in the factories.

References

  • Aksnes, A & Mundheim, H. (1997). The impact of raw material freshness and processing temperature for fish meal on growth, feed efficiency and chemical composition of Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Aquaculture 149, 87-106.
  • Anderson, J.S., Lall, S.P., Anderson, D.M. & McNiven, M.A. (1993). Evaluation of protein quality in fish meals by chemical and biological assays. Aquaculture, 115, 3057325.
  • AOAC (1993). Analysis of Histamine. Journal of AOAC International Vol. 76, No.3
  • AOAC. (1990). Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, Edited Patrica Cunniff. Chapter 35, Fish and other marine products, AOAC official methods of analysis 938.08. Chapter 35, Chapter Editor James M. Hungerford. Published AOAC International, ISBN 0-935584-54-4 and ISSN 1080- 0344
  • Ariyawansa, S. (2000). The evaluation of functional properties of fish meal. Fisheries Training Programme. Final Project.p.25.
  • Arruda, L.F., Borghesı, R., Brum, A., Regitano, M. & Oetterer, M. (2006). Nutritional aspects of nıle tılapıa (Oreochromis Niloticus) sılage. Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 26(4): 749- 753,
  • Barlow, S.M. & Pike, I.E. (1977). The role of fat in fish meal in pig and poultry nutrition. Technical Bulletin No: 4, International Association of Fish Meal Manufacturers. Potters Bar, UK.
  • Bayraklı B. & Duyar, H.A. (2019)a. Karadeniz’de Hamsi Ununa Alternatif Olarak Üretilen Çaça Ununun Besin Bileşenlerinin Karşılaştırılması. Anadolu Çev. ve Hay. Dergisi, 4(3), 545-550.
  • Bayraklı, B., & Duyar, H. A. (2019)b. The Effect of Raw Material Freshness on Fish Oil Quality Produced in Fish Meal & Oil Plant. Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences, 4(3), 473-479.
  • Bayrakli, B., & Özdemir, S. & Duyar, H. A. (2019). Karadeniz’de Hamsi (Engraulis encrasicolus) ve Çaça (Sprattus sprattus) Balıklarının Avcılığı ile Balık Unu-yağı İşleme Teknolojisi Üzerine Bir Araştırma.Menba Kastamonu Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(2), 9-16.
  • Bling, E.G & Dyer, W.J. (1959). A rapid methods of total lipid exraction and purification, Can. J. Biochem. Phiys, 37, 911-917.
  • Botta, J.R., Lauder, J.T. & Jewer, M.A. (1984). Effect of methodology on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) determination as an index of quality of fresh Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua). Journal of Food Science, 49: 734-736,
  • Chamberlain, G.W. (1993). Aquaculture trends and feed projections. World Aquaculture, 24(1):19-29.
  • Cho, H.O., Byun, M.W., Kwon, J.H. & Lee, J.W. (1987). Effect of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on the quality of dried marine products (shrimp, anchovy). Kor. J. Food Hygiene 2 (1), 21-27.
  • De Koning, A.J. (2005). Properties of South African fish meal: A review. South African Journal of Science, 101(1-2), 21-25.
  • De Silva, S. S. & Anderson, T. A. (1994). Fish nutrition in aquaculture. Chapman and Hall Aquaculture series 1. London, 319 p.
  • Dimova, N. (2003). RP-HPLC analysis of amino acids with UV-detection. Comptes Rendus De l'Academie Bulgare Des Sciences, 56(12), 12-75.
  • Duyar, H. A., & Bayraklı, B. (2005). Sinop ilinde bulunan su ürünleri işleme tesislerinin durumu, sorunları ve çözüm önerileri. Su Ürünleri Mühendisleri Dergisi (SUMDER), 24(4), 53-56.
  • FAO (1986). The production of fish meal and oil. FAO Fisheries technical paper-142. FAO Fisheries Departman, Roma, İtaly.
  • Fox, J.M., Lawrence, A.L. and Smith, F. (2004). Development of a fishmeal substitute- feed for growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei. Proceedings of Avances en Nutrición Acuícola VII, November 16-19, Hermosillo, Mexico.
  • Gooch, J. A., Hale, M. B., Brown, T. Bonnet, C. J., Brand, C.G., & Regier, L.W. (1987). Proximate and Fatty Acit Composition of 40 Southeastern U.S. Finfish Species. NOAA Technical Repord NMFS 54.
  • Huss, H.H. (1993). Assurance of seafood quality. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No.334. Rome, FAO. 169 pp
  • JEFO (2009). Kilka fishmeal. http://www.jefo.ca/fiches_anglais/fishmeal.html, 06.06.2009
  • Opstvedt, J., Mundheim, H., Nygard, E., Aase, H. & Pike, I.H. (2000). Reduced growth and feed consumption of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed fish meal made from stale fish is not due to increased content of biogenic amines. Aquaculture 188, 323–337.
  • Opstvedt, J., Aksnes, A., Hope, B. & Pike, I.H. (2003). Efficiency of feed utilisation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed diets with increasing substitution of fish meal with vegetable proteins. Aquaculture 221, 365–379.
  • Özdemir, S. (2010). Karadeniz’de sürdürülebilir hamsi (Engraulius encrasicolus, L.) avcılığında ortasu trolünün önemi. I. Ulusal Hamsi Çalıştayı, Sürdürülebilir Balıkçılık, Bildiriler Kitabı, (17-18 Haziran 2010) Trabzon, 129-135s
  • Özdemir, S., Erdem Y., Satılmış, H.H. & BirinciÖzdemir, Z. (2006). Karadeniz’de ortasu trolü ile gece süresince avlanan hamsi (Engraulis encrasicolus, L. 1758)’nin av verimi ve boy kompozisyonunun belirlenmesi. Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 23,(3-4), 417-421.
  • Pike, I.H., Andorsdo´ttir, G. & Mundheim, H. (1990). The role of fish meal in diets for salmonids. IAFMM Technical Bulletin No. 24, 2 College Yard, Lower Dagnall Street, St. Albans, Herts. AL3 4PA, UK, pp. 1–35.
  • Rezaei, M., Sahari, M. A. & Moeini, S. (2007). Quality assessment of lipid in anchovy kilka ( Clupeonella engrauliformis) during frozen storage at different temperature rates. J. Sci. & Technol. Agric. & Natur. Resour., Vol. 10, No. 4 (B).
  • Ricque, D.M., La Para, M.I.A., Cruz-Suarez,L.E., Cuzon,G., Cousin,M. & Pike, I.H. (1998). Raw material freshness, a quality criterion for fish meal fed to shrimp. Aquaculture 165_1998.95–109
  • Saldamlı, İ., 1998. Gıda Kimyası. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Basımevi, Ankara, 528s.
  • Schubring, R. & Meyer, C. (2002). Quality factors of terrestrial snail products as affected by the species. Journal of food science, 67. 31483151
  • Sifuentes, C.G., Aguilar, R.P., Sánchez, M.L., Sánchez, G.G., Suarez, J.C.R. & Carreño,G. (2009). Properties of recovered solids from stick-water treated by centrifugation and pH shift. Food Chemistry 114, 197–203
  • Simopoulos, A.P. (2008). The importance of the omega6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 233(6), 674-688.
  • Simopoulos, A.P., Leaf, A. & Salem, N.Jr. (2000). Statement on the essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 63, 119- 21.
  • Solar, M.C.L., Zeng N.X., Essert, T.K., Truong, T.D., Pina, C., Cullor, J.S., Smith, W.L. & Larrain, R. (2005). Disinfection of fishmeal with radiofrequency heating for improved quality and energy efficiency. J Sci Food Agric, 85:2273–2280
  • Stansby, M.E., 1969. Nutritional properties of fish oils. World Rew. of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol.11, New-York, pp.46-105.
  • Suzuki H, Okazaki K, Hayakawa S, Wada, S & Tamura S. (1986). Influence of commercial dietary fatty acids on polyunsaturated fatty acids of cultured freshwater fish and comparison with those of wild fish of the same species. J Agric Food Chem 34:58–60.
  • Tapia-Salazar, M., Cruz-Suarez, L.E., Ricque, M.D., Pike, I.H., Smith, T.K., Haris, A., Nygard, E., & Opstvedt, J. (2004). Effect of fishmeal made from stale versus fresh herring and of added crystalline biogenic amines on growth and survival of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris fed practical diets. Aquaculture 242 (2004) 437–453
  • Titgemeyer, E.C., Merchen, R.N & Berger, L.L. (1989). Evaluation of soybean meal, corn gluten meal, blood meal and fish meal as sources of nitrogen and amino acids disappearıng from the small intestıne of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 67:262-275
  • Webster, C. D., Tiu, L. G., Margan, A. M. & Gannam, A. (1999). Effect of partial and total replacement of fishmeal on growth and body composition of sunshine bass, Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis, fed practical diets. J. World Aquaculture Soc. 30, 443-453.
  • Windsor, M.L. (2001). Fish meal. Department of trade and industry torry research statıon. Torry Advisory note No. 49

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Barış BAYRAKLI 0000-0002-1812-3266

Hünkar Avni DUYAR 0000-0002-2560-5407

Project Number 108o0087
Publication Date March 31, 2021
Submission Date November 12, 2020
Acceptance Date January 28, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021 Volume: 6 Issue: 1

Cite

APA BAYRAKLI, B., & DUYAR, H. A. (2021). Balık Unu Kalitesine Balık Tazeliğinin Etkisi; Hamsi Unu. Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences, 6(1), 57-65. https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.824885

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