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Konteyner Yük Taşımacılığı, Liman Alt Yapı Yatırımları ve Ekonomik Büyüme Arasındaki İlişkinin Analizi: OECD Ülkeleri Örneği

Year 2022, Volume 4, Issue 1, 102 - 118, 30.06.2022

Abstract

Ülkelerin ekonomik anlamda gelişmişlik düzeylerini belirleyen birçok gösterge vardır. Bunlardan biri de dış ticaret hacimleridir. Ticareti yapılan malların ülkeler arasında dolanımı hem bu malların diğer ülkeler için arz tarafında çeşitli sektörlerde üretime dönüşmesi hem de talep tarafında tüketiciler tarafından kullanımı söz konusudur. Bu yönüyle ekonomik açıdan ülke gelirini doğrudan etkilemektedir. Dış taşımaların özellikle deniz yolu ile yapılması son yıllarda konteyner taşımacılığını ön plana çıkarmış olup hem daha kolay hem de bir kerede çok daha fazla yükün taşınabilmesi sebebiyle sıkça tercih edilen bir taşıma türü haline gelmiştir. Bu bağlamda konteyner taşımaları ve yapıldığı yerler olan limanlara yönelik akademik çalışmalar da çoğalmaktadır. Fakat yine de literatürde birçok eksiklikler bulunmaktadır. Bu makalede OECD (Ekonomik Kalkınma ve İşbirliği Örgütü) üyesi ülkeler için konteyner yük taşımacılığı miktarı ve liman alt yapı yatırımlarının ülkelerin ekonomik büyümesiyle ilişkisi araştırılmıştır. Bu nedenle konteyner yük taşımacılığı ve liman alt yapı yatırımlarının GSYH (Gayri Safi Yurtiçi Hasıla) büyümesi arasındaki ilişki Panel Eşbütünleşme Analizi ile incelenmiştir. Konteyner yük taşımacılığı ve liman alt yapı yatırımlarının ekonomik büyüme üzerinde pozitif etki yaptığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.

References

  • Afonso A. and Furcerı, D. (2010). Government size, composition, volatility and economic growth. European Journal of Political Economy, 26(4): 517-532.
  • Akram, V. and Rath, B.N. (2020). Optimum government size and economic growth in case of Indian states: Evidence from panel threshold model. Economic Modelling, 88: 151-162.
  • Altunç, O.F. and Aydın, C. (2013). The relationship between optimal size of government and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 92: 66-75.
  • Amadi, C., Nyekachi, N.N. and Nyenke, C. (2013). Public spending on transport infrastructure and economic growth in Nigeria: 1981-2010. Journal of Sociological Research, 4(2): 438-446.
  • Amdaoud, M., Ducruet, C and Faure, M.A. (2021). Port-city linkages and multi-level hinterlands: The case of France, EconomiX Working Papers (229), University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX:1-23.
  • Aschauer, D.A. (1989). Is public expenditure productive? Journal of Monetary Economics, 23(2): 177-200.
  • Ashraf, B.N. (2020). Economic impact of government interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic: International evidence from financial markets. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, 27: 100371.
  • Asimakopoulos, S. and Karavias, Y. (2016). The impact of government size on economic growth: A threshold analysis. Economic Letters, 139: 65-68.
  • Barro, R.J. (1990). Government spending in a simple model of endogenous growth. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5): 103–125.
  • Bottasso A., Conti M., Ferrari C. and Tei A. (2014). Ports and Regional development: A spatial analysis on a panel of European regions. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 65: 44–55.
  • Boopen, S. (2006). Transport infrastructure and economic growth: Evidence from Africa using dynamic panel estimates. The Empirical Economics Letters, 5(1): 37-52.
  • Bose, N., Haque, M.E. and Osborn, D.R. (2007). Public expenditure and economic growth: A disaggregated analysis for developing countries. The Manchester School 75(5): 533–556.
  • Breusch, T. and Pagan A.R. (1980). The lagrange multiplier test and its applications to modelspecification tests in econometrics. Review of Economic Studies, 47: 239-253.
  • Bryan, J., Munday, M., Pickernell, D. and Roberts, A. (2006). Assessing the economic significance of port activity: Evidence from ABP operations in industrial South Wales. Maritime Policy Management, 33(4): 371-386.
  • Chang Y-T., Shin S-H. and Lee PT-W (2014). Economic impact of port sectors on South African economy: An input–output analysis. Transport Policy, 35: 333–340.
  • Chudik, A. and Peseran, M.H. (2015). Common corrlated effects estimation of heterogeneous dynamic panel data models with weakly exogenous regressors. Journal of Econometrics. 188: 393-420.
  • Clrksons Research (2020). Annual report 2020 (Smart decisins. Powered by intelligence). Retrieved from https://www.clarksons.com/media/1244445/annual_report_2020.pdf
  • Deng, P., Lu, S. and H. Xiao. H. (2013). Evaluation of the relevance measure between ports and regional economy using structural equation modeling. Transport Policy, 27: 123–33.
  • DTO (2021). Deniz Ticaret Odası Sektör Raporu: 183. Erişim adresi: https://www.denizticaretodasi.org.tr/tr/yayinlarimiz/sektorraporu
  • Eberhardt, M. and Resbitero, A. (2015). Public debt and growth: heterogeneity and non- linearity. Journal of International Economics, 97(1): 45-58.
  • Fratila, A., Gavril, I.A., Nita, S.C. and Hrebenciuc, A. (2021). The importance of maritime transport for eeconomic growth in the European union: A panel data analysis. Sustainability, 13(14): 7961.
  • Gengenbach, C., Urbain, J. and Westerlund, I. (2016). Error correction testing in panels with common sthocastic trends. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 31: 982-1004.
  • George van Gastel, (National Bank of Belgium) (2016). Economic importance of the Belgian ports: Flemish maritime ports, liege port complex and the port of Brussels - Report 2014 (Working Paper Research: 299). Retrieved from http://aei.pitt.edu/97442/
  • Gherghina, Ş.C., Onofrei, M., Vintilă, G. and Armeanu, D.Ş. (2018). Empirical evidence from EU-28 countries on resilient transport infrastructure systems and sustainable economic growth. Sustainability, 10(8): 2900.
  • Guerrero, D., Etrouıt, L. and Pais-Montes, C. (2022). The container transport system during Covid-19: An analysis through the prism of complex networks. Transport Policy, 115: 113-125.
  • Hyuksoo, C. and Sangkyum, K. (2015). Examining container port resources and environments to enhance competitiveness: A cross-country study from resource-based and institutional perspectives. Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics, 31(3): 341-362.
  • Hummels, D. (2007). Transportation costs and international trade in the second era of globalization. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(3): 131-154.
  • Kabaklarlı, E., Mangır, F. ve Ayhan, F. (2018). Ulaştırma altyapı yatırımlarının ekonomik büyümeye katkısı: Seçilmiş ülkeler için panel eşbütünleşme analizi. Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 6(ICEESS’ 18): 303-309.
  • Karimah, I.D. and Yudhistira, M.H. (2020). Does small-scale port investment affect local economic activity? Evidence. Economics of Transportation, 23: 100180.
  • Kar, M. ve Taban, S. (2003). Kamu harcama çeşitlerinin ekonomik büyüme üzerine etkileri. Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 58(3): 145-169.
  • Long-Ze, C., Zhang, D., Wang, M., Xu, H. and Li, L. (2020). The role of ports in the economic development of ports cities: Panel evidence from China. Tranport Policy, 90: 13-21.
  • Maddala G.S. and Wu, S.A (1999). Comparative study of unit root tests with panel data and a new simple test. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 61(51): 631-652.
  • Moura, T., Chen,G. Z., Z., and Garcia-Alonso, L. (2019). Spatial interaction effects on inland distribution of maritime flows. Transportation Research Part A. Policy and Practice, 128: 1–10.
  • Munim, Z.H. and Schramm, H.J. (2018). The impacts of port infrastructure and logistics performance on economic growth: The mediating role of seaborne trade. Journal of Shipping and Trade, 3(1): 1-19.
  • Musaba, E.C., Chilonda, P. and Matchaya, G. (2013). The sectoral impact of government expenditure on economic growth in Malawi. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 4(2): 71-78.
  • Notteboom, T., Pallis, T. and Rodrigue, J.P. (2021). Disruptions and Resilience in global container shipping and ports: The COVID 19 pandemic versus the 2008–2009 fnancial crisis. Maritime Economics and Logistics, 23: 179–210.
  • Olaoye, O.O., Eluwole, O.O., Ayesha, A. and Afolabi, O.O. (2020). Government spending and economic growth in ECOWAS: Anasymmetric analysis. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 22: 1-15.
  • Özer, M., Canbay, Ş. and Kırca, M. (2021). The impact of container transport on economic growth in Turkey: An ARDL bounds testing approach. Research in Transportation Economics, 88: 101002.
  • Perez, I., Gonzalez M.M. and Trujıllo, L. (2020). Do specialisation and port size affect port efficiency? Evidence from cargo handling service in Spanish ports. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 138: 234-249.
  • Pesaran, M.H. (2004). General Diagnostic tests for cross section dependence in panels (Cambridge Working Papers in Economics, CWEP 0435). Retrieved from https://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research-files/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe0435.pdf
  • Romero-Avila, D. and Strauch, R. (2008). Public finances and long-term growth in Europe: Evidence from a panel data analysis. European Journal of Political Economy, 24: 172-191.
  • Shan J, Yu M, and Lee C-Y (2014). An empirical ınvestigation of the seaport’s economic impact: Evidence from major ports in China. Transport Research Part E: Logistics and Tranportation Review, Elsevier, 69: 41–53.
  • Song, Z., Tang, W. and Zhao, R. (2018). Cooperation mode for a liner company with teterogeneous ports: Business cooperation vs. port investment. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 118: 513-533.
  • Talley, W.K. (2013). Maritime transportation research: Topics and methodologies. Maritime Policy and Management, 40: 709-725.
  • Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. (1997). Corruption; public investment and growth (IMF Working Paper, WP/97/39). Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/wp97139.pdf 41-60.
  • Türklim (2021). Dünya limancılık sektöründeki gelişmeler. Türkiye Limancılık Sektörü 2021: 68. Erişim adresi: https://www.turklim.org/turklim-sektor-raporu-2021/
  • UNCTAD (2021). United nations conference on trade and development. Review of Maritime Trasport 2021. Retrieved from https://unctad.org/system/files/official-document/rmt2021summary_en.pdf
  • UTİKAD. (t.y.) Bir Kuşak Bir Yol (One Belt One Road) Projesinde Türkiye’nin Önemi. Erişim adresi: https://www.utikad.org.tr/Detay/Sektor-Haberleri/14489/bir-kusak-bir-yol-one-belt-one-road-projesinde-turkiye-nin-onemi
  • Xia, Y., Wang, H., Zhou, Y., Luo, Y., and Wei, Y. (2022). A daily container-to-train assignment model based on the passenger transportation-like organisation strategy for railway container transportation. Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, Online first publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/23249935.2021.2019852
  • Yang, Z., He, Y., Zhu, H. and Notteboom, T. (2020). China’s investment in African ports: Spatial distribution, entry modes and investor profile. Research in Transportation Business and Management, 37: 100571.
  • Yerdelen Tatoğlu, F. (2016a). Panel Veri Ekonometrisi (3. Baskı). İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayın.
  • Yerdelen Tatoğlu F. (2018)(b), Panel Zaman Serileri Analizi (2. Baskı). İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayın.
  • Yerdelen Tatoğlu, F. (2018)(c), İleri Panel Veri Analizi (3. Baskı). İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayın.
  • Zhao, Q., Xu, H. and Wall, R.S. (2017). Building a bridge between port and city: Improving the urban competitiveness of port cities. Journal of Transport Geography. 59: 120-133.

Analysis of The Relationship Between Container Freight Transportation, Port Infrastructure and Economic Growth: The Example of OECD Countries

Year 2022, Volume 4, Issue 1, 102 - 118, 30.06.2022

Abstract

There are many indicators that determine the level of economic development of countries. One of them is foreign trade volumes. The circulation of merchandises between countries involves the transformation of these goods into production in various sectors on the supply side for other countries, and their use by consumers on the demand side. In this respect, it directly affects the country's revenue economically. In recent years, international transportation, especially by sea, has highlighted container transportation. Container transportation is become has become a frequently preferred type of transportation because it is easier and more cargo can be transported at once. In this context, academic studies on container shipments and ports are also increasing. However, there are many deficiencies in the literature. In this article, the relationship between the amount of container transportation and port infrastructure investments with the economic growth of countries is investigated for (OECD)The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) member countries is examined by Panel Cointegration Analysis. It is concluded that container transportation and port infrastructure investments have a positive effect on economic growth.

References

  • Afonso A. and Furcerı, D. (2010). Government size, composition, volatility and economic growth. European Journal of Political Economy, 26(4): 517-532.
  • Akram, V. and Rath, B.N. (2020). Optimum government size and economic growth in case of Indian states: Evidence from panel threshold model. Economic Modelling, 88: 151-162.
  • Altunç, O.F. and Aydın, C. (2013). The relationship between optimal size of government and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 92: 66-75.
  • Amadi, C., Nyekachi, N.N. and Nyenke, C. (2013). Public spending on transport infrastructure and economic growth in Nigeria: 1981-2010. Journal of Sociological Research, 4(2): 438-446.
  • Amdaoud, M., Ducruet, C and Faure, M.A. (2021). Port-city linkages and multi-level hinterlands: The case of France, EconomiX Working Papers (229), University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX:1-23.
  • Aschauer, D.A. (1989). Is public expenditure productive? Journal of Monetary Economics, 23(2): 177-200.
  • Ashraf, B.N. (2020). Economic impact of government interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic: International evidence from financial markets. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, 27: 100371.
  • Asimakopoulos, S. and Karavias, Y. (2016). The impact of government size on economic growth: A threshold analysis. Economic Letters, 139: 65-68.
  • Barro, R.J. (1990). Government spending in a simple model of endogenous growth. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5): 103–125.
  • Bottasso A., Conti M., Ferrari C. and Tei A. (2014). Ports and Regional development: A spatial analysis on a panel of European regions. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 65: 44–55.
  • Boopen, S. (2006). Transport infrastructure and economic growth: Evidence from Africa using dynamic panel estimates. The Empirical Economics Letters, 5(1): 37-52.
  • Bose, N., Haque, M.E. and Osborn, D.R. (2007). Public expenditure and economic growth: A disaggregated analysis for developing countries. The Manchester School 75(5): 533–556.
  • Breusch, T. and Pagan A.R. (1980). The lagrange multiplier test and its applications to modelspecification tests in econometrics. Review of Economic Studies, 47: 239-253.
  • Bryan, J., Munday, M., Pickernell, D. and Roberts, A. (2006). Assessing the economic significance of port activity: Evidence from ABP operations in industrial South Wales. Maritime Policy Management, 33(4): 371-386.
  • Chang Y-T., Shin S-H. and Lee PT-W (2014). Economic impact of port sectors on South African economy: An input–output analysis. Transport Policy, 35: 333–340.
  • Chudik, A. and Peseran, M.H. (2015). Common corrlated effects estimation of heterogeneous dynamic panel data models with weakly exogenous regressors. Journal of Econometrics. 188: 393-420.
  • Clrksons Research (2020). Annual report 2020 (Smart decisins. Powered by intelligence). Retrieved from https://www.clarksons.com/media/1244445/annual_report_2020.pdf
  • Deng, P., Lu, S. and H. Xiao. H. (2013). Evaluation of the relevance measure between ports and regional economy using structural equation modeling. Transport Policy, 27: 123–33.
  • DTO (2021). Deniz Ticaret Odası Sektör Raporu: 183. Erişim adresi: https://www.denizticaretodasi.org.tr/tr/yayinlarimiz/sektorraporu
  • Eberhardt, M. and Resbitero, A. (2015). Public debt and growth: heterogeneity and non- linearity. Journal of International Economics, 97(1): 45-58.
  • Fratila, A., Gavril, I.A., Nita, S.C. and Hrebenciuc, A. (2021). The importance of maritime transport for eeconomic growth in the European union: A panel data analysis. Sustainability, 13(14): 7961.
  • Gengenbach, C., Urbain, J. and Westerlund, I. (2016). Error correction testing in panels with common sthocastic trends. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 31: 982-1004.
  • George van Gastel, (National Bank of Belgium) (2016). Economic importance of the Belgian ports: Flemish maritime ports, liege port complex and the port of Brussels - Report 2014 (Working Paper Research: 299). Retrieved from http://aei.pitt.edu/97442/
  • Gherghina, Ş.C., Onofrei, M., Vintilă, G. and Armeanu, D.Ş. (2018). Empirical evidence from EU-28 countries on resilient transport infrastructure systems and sustainable economic growth. Sustainability, 10(8): 2900.
  • Guerrero, D., Etrouıt, L. and Pais-Montes, C. (2022). The container transport system during Covid-19: An analysis through the prism of complex networks. Transport Policy, 115: 113-125.
  • Hyuksoo, C. and Sangkyum, K. (2015). Examining container port resources and environments to enhance competitiveness: A cross-country study from resource-based and institutional perspectives. Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics, 31(3): 341-362.
  • Hummels, D. (2007). Transportation costs and international trade in the second era of globalization. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(3): 131-154.
  • Kabaklarlı, E., Mangır, F. ve Ayhan, F. (2018). Ulaştırma altyapı yatırımlarının ekonomik büyümeye katkısı: Seçilmiş ülkeler için panel eşbütünleşme analizi. Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 6(ICEESS’ 18): 303-309.
  • Karimah, I.D. and Yudhistira, M.H. (2020). Does small-scale port investment affect local economic activity? Evidence. Economics of Transportation, 23: 100180.
  • Kar, M. ve Taban, S. (2003). Kamu harcama çeşitlerinin ekonomik büyüme üzerine etkileri. Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 58(3): 145-169.
  • Long-Ze, C., Zhang, D., Wang, M., Xu, H. and Li, L. (2020). The role of ports in the economic development of ports cities: Panel evidence from China. Tranport Policy, 90: 13-21.
  • Maddala G.S. and Wu, S.A (1999). Comparative study of unit root tests with panel data and a new simple test. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 61(51): 631-652.
  • Moura, T., Chen,G. Z., Z., and Garcia-Alonso, L. (2019). Spatial interaction effects on inland distribution of maritime flows. Transportation Research Part A. Policy and Practice, 128: 1–10.
  • Munim, Z.H. and Schramm, H.J. (2018). The impacts of port infrastructure and logistics performance on economic growth: The mediating role of seaborne trade. Journal of Shipping and Trade, 3(1): 1-19.
  • Musaba, E.C., Chilonda, P. and Matchaya, G. (2013). The sectoral impact of government expenditure on economic growth in Malawi. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 4(2): 71-78.
  • Notteboom, T., Pallis, T. and Rodrigue, J.P. (2021). Disruptions and Resilience in global container shipping and ports: The COVID 19 pandemic versus the 2008–2009 fnancial crisis. Maritime Economics and Logistics, 23: 179–210.
  • Olaoye, O.O., Eluwole, O.O., Ayesha, A. and Afolabi, O.O. (2020). Government spending and economic growth in ECOWAS: Anasymmetric analysis. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 22: 1-15.
  • Özer, M., Canbay, Ş. and Kırca, M. (2021). The impact of container transport on economic growth in Turkey: An ARDL bounds testing approach. Research in Transportation Economics, 88: 101002.
  • Perez, I., Gonzalez M.M. and Trujıllo, L. (2020). Do specialisation and port size affect port efficiency? Evidence from cargo handling service in Spanish ports. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 138: 234-249.
  • Pesaran, M.H. (2004). General Diagnostic tests for cross section dependence in panels (Cambridge Working Papers in Economics, CWEP 0435). Retrieved from https://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/research-files/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe0435.pdf
  • Romero-Avila, D. and Strauch, R. (2008). Public finances and long-term growth in Europe: Evidence from a panel data analysis. European Journal of Political Economy, 24: 172-191.
  • Shan J, Yu M, and Lee C-Y (2014). An empirical ınvestigation of the seaport’s economic impact: Evidence from major ports in China. Transport Research Part E: Logistics and Tranportation Review, Elsevier, 69: 41–53.
  • Song, Z., Tang, W. and Zhao, R. (2018). Cooperation mode for a liner company with teterogeneous ports: Business cooperation vs. port investment. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 118: 513-533.
  • Talley, W.K. (2013). Maritime transportation research: Topics and methodologies. Maritime Policy and Management, 40: 709-725.
  • Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. (1997). Corruption; public investment and growth (IMF Working Paper, WP/97/39). Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/wp97139.pdf 41-60.
  • Türklim (2021). Dünya limancılık sektöründeki gelişmeler. Türkiye Limancılık Sektörü 2021: 68. Erişim adresi: https://www.turklim.org/turklim-sektor-raporu-2021/
  • UNCTAD (2021). United nations conference on trade and development. Review of Maritime Trasport 2021. Retrieved from https://unctad.org/system/files/official-document/rmt2021summary_en.pdf
  • UTİKAD. (t.y.) Bir Kuşak Bir Yol (One Belt One Road) Projesinde Türkiye’nin Önemi. Erişim adresi: https://www.utikad.org.tr/Detay/Sektor-Haberleri/14489/bir-kusak-bir-yol-one-belt-one-road-projesinde-turkiye-nin-onemi
  • Xia, Y., Wang, H., Zhou, Y., Luo, Y., and Wei, Y. (2022). A daily container-to-train assignment model based on the passenger transportation-like organisation strategy for railway container transportation. Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, Online first publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/23249935.2021.2019852
  • Yang, Z., He, Y., Zhu, H. and Notteboom, T. (2020). China’s investment in African ports: Spatial distribution, entry modes and investor profile. Research in Transportation Business and Management, 37: 100571.
  • Yerdelen Tatoğlu, F. (2016a). Panel Veri Ekonometrisi (3. Baskı). İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayın.
  • Yerdelen Tatoğlu F. (2018)(b), Panel Zaman Serileri Analizi (2. Baskı). İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayın.
  • Yerdelen Tatoğlu, F. (2018)(c), İleri Panel Veri Analizi (3. Baskı). İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayın.
  • Zhao, Q., Xu, H. and Wall, R.S. (2017). Building a bridge between port and city: Improving the urban competitiveness of port cities. Journal of Transport Geography. 59: 120-133.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Economics, Management
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Halil TUNALI>
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSAT FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-7900-536X
Türkiye


Nermin AKARÇAY> (Primary Author)
NAMIK KEMAL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-4827-6837
Türkiye

Publication Date June 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 4, Issue 1

Cite

APA Tunalı, H. & Akarçay, N. (2022). Konteyner Yük Taşımacılığı, Liman Alt Yapı Yatırımları ve Ekonomik Büyüme Arasındaki İlişkinin Analizi: OECD Ülkeleri Örneği . Ekonomi ve Finansal Araştırmalar Dergisi , 4 (1) , 102-118 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jefr/issue/70978/1124203