Research Article
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Class size and its effects on the education relationship of trust, understanding and authority: A South African perspective

Year 2023, Volume: 11 Issue: 4 - December 2023, 507 - 519, 30.12.2023

Abstract

Quality teaching and learning success depends on the educational relationship between the teacher and the learner. Van Rensburg and Landman agree that the education relationship has its basis in the mutual relationship of trust, understanding and authority between the teachers and the learners. The class size influences the educational relationship between teachers and learners of trust, understanding and authority. In recent years, learner enrolment has rapidly grown in all South African public schools. The increased class size challenged teachers to form authentic mutual relationships of trust, understanding and authority. This study aimed to investigate the effects of large class size on the relationship of trust, understanding and authority in primary schools in the lower South Coast of Durban – Port Shepstone region. The researcher used a quantitative descriptive study which included 150 primary school teachers. These teachers completed a Likert Scale questionnaire on the effects of class size (teacher-learner ratio) on the relationship of trust, understanding and authority. Data was analysed using descriptive analysis through percentages and averages. The findings revealed that the large classes negatively impacted on the education relationship. Teachers found it difficult to understand their learner's needs and could not support them. Furthermore, there needed to be more trust between teachers and learners since learners were seen as strangers to teachers. Moreover, teachers needed help to exercise authority to discipline learners. The study recommended that the Department of Education revisit its teacher-learner ratio guidelines; provide appropriate training and development for teachers to manage large class sizes.

Supporting Institution

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Thanks

I want to express my sincere thanks and appreciation to the University of Zululand and Prof MS Vos under whose guidance I have completed this study as part of the Doctorates in Education

References

  • Aggarwal, R & Ranganathan, R. (2019). Study Designs Part 2 – Descriptive studies. Perspective on Clinical Research, 10(1): 34–36. doi 10.4103/picr.PICR_154_18
  • Ann Ordu, U.B. (2021). The role of teaching and learning aids/methods in a changing world. New Challenges to Education: Lessons from Around the World BCES Conference Book, 2021, 19. Sofia: Bulgarian Comparative Education Society. ISSN 2534-8426
  • Ayeni, O.G. & Olowe, M.O. (2016). The implication of large class size in the teaching and learning of Business Education in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(34). ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper)
  • Blatchford, P. & Russel, A. (2016). Class size, grouping practices and classroom management. International Journal of Education Research, 96(2019): 154 – 163. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2018.09.004.
  • Brady, L. (2011). "Teacher Values and Relationship: Factors in Values Education," Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(2): Article 5. Available at: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/vol36/iss2/5
  • Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2018). Research Methods in Education (8th ed.). New York: Routledge. Coristine, S., Russo, S., Fitzmorris, R., Beninato, P., & Rivolta, G. (2022, April 1). The importance of student-teacher relationships. Classroom Practice in 2022. https://ecampusontario.pressbooks.pub/educ5202/chapter/the-importance-of-student-teacher-relationships/
  • Creswell, J.W. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches (4th ed.). California: Sage.
  • da Luz, Fredson Soares dos Reis. (2015). The Relationship between Teachers and Students in the Classroom: Communicative Language Teaching Approach and Cooperative Learning Strategy to Improve Learning. In BSU Master’s Theses and Projects. Item 22. Available at http://vc.bridgew.edu/theses/22
  • Davids, N. & Waghid, Y. (2020). Gender under-representation in teaching: a casualty of the feminization of teaching. South African Journal of Higher Education., 34(3). http://dx.doi.org/1-.20853/34-3-4045
  • Denzin, N. K., Lincoln, Y. & MacLure, M. (2017). Critical Qualitative Methodologies: Reconceptualizations and Emergent Construction. International Review of Qualitative Research, 10(4), 482-498
  • Department of Basic Education. (2011). Integrated Strategic Planning Framework for Teacher Education and Development in South Africa. Pretoria. Government Printers.
  • Department of Education. (1996). Section 2: South African Schools Act 84 of 1996. Pretoria. Government Printers.
  • Egan, P. (2019). Authority and Obedience in the Classroom: Reading Charlotte Mason’s Philosophy of Education. Educational Renaissance. https://educationalrenaissance.com/2019/02/12/authority-and-obedience-in-the-classroom-reading-charlotte-masons-philosophy-of-education/
  • Egley, R., (2003). Invitational leadership. Does it make a difference? Journal of Invitational Education, 9:57-70.
  • Egunlusi, O.A. (2020). Teachers’ authority: strategies for instilling discipline in a post-corporal punishment era. Unpublish M.Ed dissertation. University of Western Cape
  • Eloff, I. (2011). Understanding, trust and authority in education. Journal of Humanities. Online version ISSN 2224-7912
  • Esmaeili, Z., Mohamadrezai, H & Mohamadrezai, A. (2015). The role of teacher’s authority in students learning. Journal of Education and Practice. 6(19): 2015. ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)
  • Fortes, P. (2010). Dealing with large classes: A Real Challenge. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 8:272-280. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.037
  • Garrett, T. (2008). Student-Centred and Teacher-Centred Classroom Management: A case study of three elementary teachers. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 43(1): 34–47. ISSN 0749-4025.
  • Gerges, S. (2022). Lesson Preparation and Planning. Applied Linguistic Russia, 1-8 2022. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/360688235_Lesson_Preparation_and_Planning
  • Howell, W., West, M., & Peterson, P. (2007). What Americans Think about Their Schools. EducationNext, 7(4):12-27. Retrieved from https://www.educationnext.org/what-americans-think-about-their-schools/
  • Kohler, T. (2020). Class size and learner outcomes in South African schools: The role of school socioeconomic status. Development Southern Africa, 39 (2): 126–150. https://doi.org/10.1080/0376835X.2020.1845614
  • Laitsch, D., Nguyen, H. & Younghusband, C.H. (2021). Class size and teacher work: Research provided to the BCTF in their struggle to negotiate teacher working conditions. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 196: 83 – 101
  • Maree, J.G. (Ed.). (2020). First Steps of Research. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
  • Meador, D. (2019). Strategies for teachers to develop positive Effective planning and positive attitudes towards their subject will earn the respect of learners. ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/develop-positive-relationships-with-students-3194339
  • Montecinos, C. and L. E. Nielsen. 1997. Gender and cohort differences in university students' decisions to become elementary teacher education major. Journal of Teacher Education, 48(1): 47-54.
  • Murati, R. (2015). The role of the teacher in the education process. The online Journal of New Horizons in Education, 5(2): 75–78. https://www.tojned.net/journals/tojned/articles/v05i02/v05i02-09.pdf
  • Niedlick, S., Kallfab, A., Pohle, S. & Bornmann, I. (2021). A comprehensive view of trust in education: Conclusions from a systematic literature review. Review of Education, 9(1): 124-158
  • Nkosi, B. (2022). There is no learner-teacher ratio policy: Motshekga. IOL. https://www.iol.co.za/the-star/news/theres-no-learner-teacher-ratio-policy-motshekga-71d99032-a5a2-48bc-a371-c9d345ec1e8c
  • OECD. (2009). Creating effective teaching and learning environments. First results from Talis. https://www.oecd.org/education/school/43023606.pdf
  • Platz, M. (2021). Trust between teacher and student in academic education at school. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 55(4-5): 688–697. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9752.12560
  • Purkey, W. & Aspy, D. (2003). Overcoming tough challenges: An invitational theory of practice for humanistic psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 43:146-155.
  • Purkey W.W & Novak J.M. (2015). An Introduction to Invitational Theory. An introduction to invitational theory. Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 1(1):.5-15.
  • Purkey, W. & Novak, J. (1984). Inviting school success. California: Wadsworth, Inc. Purkey, W. (1999). Creating safe schools through invitational education. North Carolina: ERIC Digest.
  • Smart, L. (2019). Teachers' experiences creating an invitational learning environment in a culturally diverse foundation phase class. Unpublished M.Ed dissertation. The University of Pretoria.
  • Smith, K. & Hunter, M. (2007). Inviting school success: Invitational Education and the Art Class. Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 13:8-15.
  • Soldat, L. (2019). More than a teacher: Understanding the teacher-Learner Relationship in Public High-Schools in South Africa. Journal of Education and Developmental Psychology, April 26, 19. http://doi.org/10.5539/jedp.v9n1p77
  • South African Council of Educators. (n.d.). Handbook for Teachers' Rights, Responsibilities and Safety. LeadAfrica Consulting Pty, Ltd South Africa. https://www.sace.org.za/assets/documents/uploads/sace_90707-2020-01-10-Teachers%20Handbook%20Draft.pdf
  • Stauffer, B. (2022). How to prevent cheating in Schools. 11 Ways to prevent cheating in schools. https://www.aeseducation.com/blog/ways-to-prevent-cheating-in-schools.
  • Van Rensburg, C.J.J & Landman, W.A. (1988). Fundamental Pedagogical Concept Statements. Cape Town. NGK Bookshop [Links]
  • Venketsamy, R. Baxen, E & Zijing. H. 2023. Student-on-teacher violence in South Africa’s Tshwane South District of Gauteng Province: Voices of the victims. African Journal of Teacher Education (AJOTE), 12(1):49-69. ISSN 1916-7822
  • Venketsamy, R., Sing, N. & Smart, L. (2020). Teachers’ perceptions in creating an invitational learning environment in culturally diverse foundation phase classroom. Perspectives in Education, 38(2): 118-137
  • Vogel-Scibilia, S.E., McNulty, K.C., Baxter, B., Miller, S., Dine, M. & Frese, F.J. (2009). Community Mental Health Journal, 45(6): 405-414
  • Wadesango, N. (2021). Challenges of teaching large classes. African Perspectives of Research in Teaching and Learning, 5(2): 127;135. https://www.ul.ac.za/aportal/application/downloads/Article%2010_5_2_nov_2021.pdf
  • Wessels, F. (2015). The critical role of relationships in education. HTS Theological Studies, 71(3). http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v71i3.2702
  • Wilsman, A. (2013). Teaching large classes. Centre for teaching. https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/teaching-large-classes/
  • Young, M. (2023). Five Ways schools can embrace religious diversity in their classrooms. American Civic Life. May 26, 2023. https://www.interfaithamerica.org/religious-diversity-in-classrooms/
  • Zenda, R. (2019. Impact of the learner-educator ratio policy on learner academic achievement in rural secondary schools: A South African case study. African Education Review, 3. 37–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/18146627.2019.1588748
Year 2023, Volume: 11 Issue: 4 - December 2023, 507 - 519, 30.12.2023

Abstract

References

  • Aggarwal, R & Ranganathan, R. (2019). Study Designs Part 2 – Descriptive studies. Perspective on Clinical Research, 10(1): 34–36. doi 10.4103/picr.PICR_154_18
  • Ann Ordu, U.B. (2021). The role of teaching and learning aids/methods in a changing world. New Challenges to Education: Lessons from Around the World BCES Conference Book, 2021, 19. Sofia: Bulgarian Comparative Education Society. ISSN 2534-8426
  • Ayeni, O.G. & Olowe, M.O. (2016). The implication of large class size in the teaching and learning of Business Education in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(34). ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper)
  • Blatchford, P. & Russel, A. (2016). Class size, grouping practices and classroom management. International Journal of Education Research, 96(2019): 154 – 163. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2018.09.004.
  • Brady, L. (2011). "Teacher Values and Relationship: Factors in Values Education," Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(2): Article 5. Available at: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/vol36/iss2/5
  • Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2018). Research Methods in Education (8th ed.). New York: Routledge. Coristine, S., Russo, S., Fitzmorris, R., Beninato, P., & Rivolta, G. (2022, April 1). The importance of student-teacher relationships. Classroom Practice in 2022. https://ecampusontario.pressbooks.pub/educ5202/chapter/the-importance-of-student-teacher-relationships/
  • Creswell, J.W. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches (4th ed.). California: Sage.
  • da Luz, Fredson Soares dos Reis. (2015). The Relationship between Teachers and Students in the Classroom: Communicative Language Teaching Approach and Cooperative Learning Strategy to Improve Learning. In BSU Master’s Theses and Projects. Item 22. Available at http://vc.bridgew.edu/theses/22
  • Davids, N. & Waghid, Y. (2020). Gender under-representation in teaching: a casualty of the feminization of teaching. South African Journal of Higher Education., 34(3). http://dx.doi.org/1-.20853/34-3-4045
  • Denzin, N. K., Lincoln, Y. & MacLure, M. (2017). Critical Qualitative Methodologies: Reconceptualizations and Emergent Construction. International Review of Qualitative Research, 10(4), 482-498
  • Department of Basic Education. (2011). Integrated Strategic Planning Framework for Teacher Education and Development in South Africa. Pretoria. Government Printers.
  • Department of Education. (1996). Section 2: South African Schools Act 84 of 1996. Pretoria. Government Printers.
  • Egan, P. (2019). Authority and Obedience in the Classroom: Reading Charlotte Mason’s Philosophy of Education. Educational Renaissance. https://educationalrenaissance.com/2019/02/12/authority-and-obedience-in-the-classroom-reading-charlotte-masons-philosophy-of-education/
  • Egley, R., (2003). Invitational leadership. Does it make a difference? Journal of Invitational Education, 9:57-70.
  • Egunlusi, O.A. (2020). Teachers’ authority: strategies for instilling discipline in a post-corporal punishment era. Unpublish M.Ed dissertation. University of Western Cape
  • Eloff, I. (2011). Understanding, trust and authority in education. Journal of Humanities. Online version ISSN 2224-7912
  • Esmaeili, Z., Mohamadrezai, H & Mohamadrezai, A. (2015). The role of teacher’s authority in students learning. Journal of Education and Practice. 6(19): 2015. ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)
  • Fortes, P. (2010). Dealing with large classes: A Real Challenge. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 8:272-280. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.037
  • Garrett, T. (2008). Student-Centred and Teacher-Centred Classroom Management: A case study of three elementary teachers. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 43(1): 34–47. ISSN 0749-4025.
  • Gerges, S. (2022). Lesson Preparation and Planning. Applied Linguistic Russia, 1-8 2022. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/360688235_Lesson_Preparation_and_Planning
  • Howell, W., West, M., & Peterson, P. (2007). What Americans Think about Their Schools. EducationNext, 7(4):12-27. Retrieved from https://www.educationnext.org/what-americans-think-about-their-schools/
  • Kohler, T. (2020). Class size and learner outcomes in South African schools: The role of school socioeconomic status. Development Southern Africa, 39 (2): 126–150. https://doi.org/10.1080/0376835X.2020.1845614
  • Laitsch, D., Nguyen, H. & Younghusband, C.H. (2021). Class size and teacher work: Research provided to the BCTF in their struggle to negotiate teacher working conditions. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 196: 83 – 101
  • Maree, J.G. (Ed.). (2020). First Steps of Research. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
  • Meador, D. (2019). Strategies for teachers to develop positive Effective planning and positive attitudes towards their subject will earn the respect of learners. ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/develop-positive-relationships-with-students-3194339
  • Montecinos, C. and L. E. Nielsen. 1997. Gender and cohort differences in university students' decisions to become elementary teacher education major. Journal of Teacher Education, 48(1): 47-54.
  • Murati, R. (2015). The role of the teacher in the education process. The online Journal of New Horizons in Education, 5(2): 75–78. https://www.tojned.net/journals/tojned/articles/v05i02/v05i02-09.pdf
  • Niedlick, S., Kallfab, A., Pohle, S. & Bornmann, I. (2021). A comprehensive view of trust in education: Conclusions from a systematic literature review. Review of Education, 9(1): 124-158
  • Nkosi, B. (2022). There is no learner-teacher ratio policy: Motshekga. IOL. https://www.iol.co.za/the-star/news/theres-no-learner-teacher-ratio-policy-motshekga-71d99032-a5a2-48bc-a371-c9d345ec1e8c
  • OECD. (2009). Creating effective teaching and learning environments. First results from Talis. https://www.oecd.org/education/school/43023606.pdf
  • Platz, M. (2021). Trust between teacher and student in academic education at school. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 55(4-5): 688–697. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9752.12560
  • Purkey, W. & Aspy, D. (2003). Overcoming tough challenges: An invitational theory of practice for humanistic psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 43:146-155.
  • Purkey W.W & Novak J.M. (2015). An Introduction to Invitational Theory. An introduction to invitational theory. Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 1(1):.5-15.
  • Purkey, W. & Novak, J. (1984). Inviting school success. California: Wadsworth, Inc. Purkey, W. (1999). Creating safe schools through invitational education. North Carolina: ERIC Digest.
  • Smart, L. (2019). Teachers' experiences creating an invitational learning environment in a culturally diverse foundation phase class. Unpublished M.Ed dissertation. The University of Pretoria.
  • Smith, K. & Hunter, M. (2007). Inviting school success: Invitational Education and the Art Class. Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 13:8-15.
  • Soldat, L. (2019). More than a teacher: Understanding the teacher-Learner Relationship in Public High-Schools in South Africa. Journal of Education and Developmental Psychology, April 26, 19. http://doi.org/10.5539/jedp.v9n1p77
  • South African Council of Educators. (n.d.). Handbook for Teachers' Rights, Responsibilities and Safety. LeadAfrica Consulting Pty, Ltd South Africa. https://www.sace.org.za/assets/documents/uploads/sace_90707-2020-01-10-Teachers%20Handbook%20Draft.pdf
  • Stauffer, B. (2022). How to prevent cheating in Schools. 11 Ways to prevent cheating in schools. https://www.aeseducation.com/blog/ways-to-prevent-cheating-in-schools.
  • Van Rensburg, C.J.J & Landman, W.A. (1988). Fundamental Pedagogical Concept Statements. Cape Town. NGK Bookshop [Links]
  • Venketsamy, R. Baxen, E & Zijing. H. 2023. Student-on-teacher violence in South Africa’s Tshwane South District of Gauteng Province: Voices of the victims. African Journal of Teacher Education (AJOTE), 12(1):49-69. ISSN 1916-7822
  • Venketsamy, R., Sing, N. & Smart, L. (2020). Teachers’ perceptions in creating an invitational learning environment in culturally diverse foundation phase classroom. Perspectives in Education, 38(2): 118-137
  • Vogel-Scibilia, S.E., McNulty, K.C., Baxter, B., Miller, S., Dine, M. & Frese, F.J. (2009). Community Mental Health Journal, 45(6): 405-414
  • Wadesango, N. (2021). Challenges of teaching large classes. African Perspectives of Research in Teaching and Learning, 5(2): 127;135. https://www.ul.ac.za/aportal/application/downloads/Article%2010_5_2_nov_2021.pdf
  • Wessels, F. (2015). The critical role of relationships in education. HTS Theological Studies, 71(3). http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v71i3.2702
  • Wilsman, A. (2013). Teaching large classes. Centre for teaching. https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/teaching-large-classes/
  • Young, M. (2023). Five Ways schools can embrace religious diversity in their classrooms. American Civic Life. May 26, 2023. https://www.interfaithamerica.org/religious-diversity-in-classrooms/
  • Zenda, R. (2019. Impact of the learner-educator ratio policy on learner academic achievement in rural secondary schools: A South African case study. African Education Review, 3. 37–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/18146627.2019.1588748

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Child Development Education
Journal Section Curriculum Development
Authors

Roy VENKETSAMY 0000-0002-3594-527X

Early Pub Date October 6, 2023
Publication Date December 30, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 - December 2023

Cite

APA VENKETSAMY, R. (2023). Class size and its effects on the education relationship of trust, understanding and authority: A South African perspective. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 11(4), 507-519.
AMA VENKETSAMY R. Class size and its effects on the education relationship of trust, understanding and authority: A South African perspective. JEGYS. December 2023;11(4):507-519.
Chicago VENKETSAMY, Roy. “Class Size and Its Effects on the Education Relationship of Trust, Understanding and Authority: A South African Perspective”. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists 11, no. 4 (December 2023): 507-19.
EndNote VENKETSAMY R (December 1, 2023) Class size and its effects on the education relationship of trust, understanding and authority: A South African perspective. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists 11 4 507–519.
IEEE R. VENKETSAMY, “Class size and its effects on the education relationship of trust, understanding and authority: A South African perspective”, JEGYS, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 507–519, 2023.
ISNAD VENKETSAMY, Roy. “Class Size and Its Effects on the Education Relationship of Trust, Understanding and Authority: A South African Perspective”. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists 11/4 (December 2023), 507-519.
JAMA VENKETSAMY R. Class size and its effects on the education relationship of trust, understanding and authority: A South African perspective. JEGYS. 2023;11:507–519.
MLA VENKETSAMY, Roy. “Class Size and Its Effects on the Education Relationship of Trust, Understanding and Authority: A South African Perspective”. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, vol. 11, no. 4, 2023, pp. 507-19.
Vancouver VENKETSAMY R. Class size and its effects on the education relationship of trust, understanding and authority: A South African perspective. JEGYS. 2023;11(4):507-19.