Year 2020, Volume 4 , Issue 3, Pages 96 - 120 2020-09-30

Electric vehicle operation modes with reactive power support using SMC in distribution generation

Mendem PREMCHAND [1] , Satish Kumar GUDEY [2]


In this work, a single phase 120 V rms, 60 Hz on-board Electric Vehicle (EV) battery charger with capacity 100 Ah for operation in Grid to Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) with Reactive Power Support using Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) is presented. The controller is chosen for its robustness and steady tracking precision. State space models of G2V and V2G of EV are derived and good stability margins are obtained using frequency response characteristics. SMC is found to be good in tracking the dc voltage in G2V and grid current in V2G with less steady state error. THD in grid current is 0.645 % during G2V and 1.95 % in V2G which are comparatively less than in Proportional plus Integral (PI) and Proportional plus Resonant (PR) controllers. Dynamic nature of SMC is found to be robust during grid frequency variations. It delivers less steady state error of 1.52 % and settling time of 0.1 s during charging and discharging operations. Phase planes are presented to understand finite convergence of SMC. Reactive power support to the grid operation is presented without affecting the state of charge (SOC) of the battery. Solar based charging circuit is discussed for EV charging. The SOC depicts changeover state from normal to solar charging reaching 100% within short period. SMC was designed to be robust against bounded perturbations and also guarantee stability and finite convergence. PSCAD v4.6 software is used.
Battery, Charger, Electric vehicle, Grid to vehicle, Reactive power, State of charge, Vehicle to grid
  • [1] Ehsani, M., Gao, Y., Gay, Sebastien, E, Emadi, A. modern electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles fundamentals, theory, and design, 2nd edition. Boca Raton, London, New York, Washington D.C: CRC PRESS, 2005.
  • [2] Yilmaz, M., Krein, P.T., Review of battery charger topologies,charging power levels and infrastructure for plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 2013, 28(5), 2151–2169, DOI:10.1109/TPEL.2012.2212917.
  • [3] Zhou, X., Lukic, S., Bhattacharya, S., Huang, A., Design and control of grid-connected converter in Bi-directional battery charger for plugin hybrid electric vehicle application, Proc. IEEE Veh. Power and Propulsion Conf.( 7-10 Sept. 2009, Dearborn, MI, USA), 2009, 1716–1721, DOI:10.1109/VPPC.2009.5289691.
  • [4] Roshini, S., Ashok, Y., Shtessel, B., Malek, G., Sliding Mode Control of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Ultra capacitor Based Electric Power System: Electric Vehicle Application, IFAC-Papers OnLine, 2017, 50 (1), 14794-14799, ELSEVIER, DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2017.08.2552.
  • [5] Song, Z., Hou, J., Hofmann, H., Jianqiu, L., Ouyang, M., Sliding-mode and Lyapunov function-based control for battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system used in electric vehicles, Energy, 2017, 122, 601-612, ELSEVIER, DOI: 122. 10.1016/j.energy.2017.01.098.
  • [6] Wang, B., Xu, J., Xu, D. Yan, Z., Implementation of an estimator-based adaptive sliding mode control strategy for a boost converter based battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicles, Energy Conversion and management, 2017, 151, 562-572, ELSEVIER, DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2017.09.007.
  • [7] Komurcugil, H., Ozdemir, S., Sefa, I., Altin, N., Kukrer, O., Sliding-Mode Control for Single-Phase Grid-Connected LCL-Filtered VSI With Double-Band Hysteresis Scheme, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2016, 63(2), 864-873, DOI:10.1109/TIE.2015.2477486.
  • [8] Gudey, S.K., Rajesh Gupta, R., Sliding mode control in voltage source inverter-based higher-order circuits. International Journal of Electronics, 2015, 102(4), 668-689, https://doi.org/10.1080/00207217.2014.936523
  • [9] Kumar, S., Usman, A., A review of converter topologies for battery applications in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS), (23-27 Sept. 2018: Portland, OR, USA), 2018, 1-9, DOI: 10.1109/IAS.2018.8544609.
  • [10] Monteiro, V., Pinto, J.G., Afonso, J.L., Operation modes for the electric vehicle in smart grids and smart homes: Present and proposed modes. IEEE Trans.Veh. Technol., 2016, 65(3), 1007-1020, DOI:10.1109/TVT.2015.2481005
  • [11] Zhou, X., Wang, G., Lukic, S., Bhattacharya, S., Huang, A., Multi- function bi-directional battery charger for plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle application, IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (25-27 Sept. 2009: San Jose, CA, USA), 2009, 3930–3936. DOI:10.1109/ECCE.2009.5316226
  • [12] Kisacikoglu, M,C, Ozpineci, B, Tolbert, L.M., EV/PHEV bidirectional charger assessment for V2G reactive power operation, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 2013, 28(12), 5717–5727, DOI:10.1109/TPEL.2013.2251007.
  • [13] Monteiro, V., Pinto, J.G., Exposto, B., Henrique Goncalves, Ferreira, Joao C, Carlos Couto, Afonso Joao L., Assessment of a battery charger for Electric Vehicles with reactive power control, IECON-38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society(25-28 Oct. 2012, Montreal, Canada, QC), 5142-5147, DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2012.6389554
  • [14] Liu, N., Chen, Q., Lu, X., Liu, J., Zhang, J., A charging strategy for PV-based battery switch station considering service availability and self-consumption of PV energy, IEEE Trans. Ind Electronics., 2015, 62(8), 4878-4889, DOI:10.1109/TIE.2015.2404316.
  • [15] Chaudhari, K., Ukil, A., Kumar, K.N., Manandhar, U., Kollimalla, S.K., Hybrid optimization for economic deployment of ESS in PV-integrated EV charging stations, IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat., 2018, 14(1), 106-116, DOI: 10.1109/TII.2017.2713481.
  • [16] Singh, B., Verma, A., Chandra, A., Al-Haddad, K., Implementation of solar PV- battery and diesel generator based electric vehicle charging station, IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES, 18-21 Dec. 2018, Chennai, India), 2018, 1-6, DOI:10.1109/PEDES.2018.8707673
  • [17] Nguyen, H., N.T., Zhang, C., Zhang, J., Dynamic demand control of electric vehicles to support power grid with high penetration level of renewable energy, IEEE Trans. Transportation Electrification, 2016, 2(1), 66-75, DOI:10.1109/TTE.2016.2519821.
  • [18] Ma, T., Mohammed, O.A., Optimal charging of plug-in electric vehicles for a car-park infrastructure, IEEE Trans. Industry Applications, 2014, 50(4), 2323-2330, DOI: 10.1109/IAS.2012.6374035.
  • [19] Sah, B., Kumar, G.V.E.S., A comparative study of different MPPT techniques using different dc-dc converters in a standalone PV system, IEEE TENCON (22-25 Nov 2016, Singapore), 2016, 1690-1695, DOI: 10.1109/TENCON.2016.7848306.
  • [20] Sabancı, K., Balcı, S., Aslan, M.F., Estimation of switching losses in DC-DC boost converters by various machine learning methods, Journal of Energy Systems, 2020, 4(1), 1-11, https://doi.org/10.30521/jes.635582
  • [21] Madzharov, N.D., Tonchev, A.T., Inductive high-power transfer technologies for electric vehicles, Journal of Electrical Engineering, 2014, 65(2), 125-128, DOI: 10.2478/jee-2014-0019.
  • [22] Tabti, K., Bourahla M., Mostefai, L., Hybrid control of electric vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization, Journal of Electrical Engineering, 2013, 64, 50–54, DOI: 10.2478/jee-2013-0007.
  • [23] Paudyal, S., Ceylan, O., Battarai, B. P., Meyers K.S., Optimal coordinated EV charging with reactive power support in constrained distribution grids, IEEE Power and Energy Society General meeting (16-20 July 2017, Chicago, USA), 2017, 1-6, DOI: 10.1109/PESGM.2017.8274266.
Primary Language en
Subjects Engineering, Electrical and Electronic
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-8537-0689
Author: Mendem PREMCHAND
Institution: Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering, (Autonomous)
Country: India


Orcid: 0000-0003-2444-7467
Author: Satish Kumar GUDEY (Primary Author)
Institution: Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering (Autonomous)
Country: India


Dates

Publication Date : September 30, 2020

Bibtex @research article { jes731845, journal = {Journal of Energy Systems}, issn = {}, eissn = {2602-2052}, address = {}, publisher = {Erol KURT}, year = {2020}, volume = {4}, pages = {96 - 120}, doi = {10.30521/jes.731845}, title = {Electric vehicle operation modes with reactive power support using SMC in distribution generation}, key = {cite}, author = {Premchand, Mendem and Gudey, Satish Kumar} }
APA Premchand, M , Gudey, S . (2020). Electric vehicle operation modes with reactive power support using SMC in distribution generation . Journal of Energy Systems , 4 (3) , 96-120 . DOI: 10.30521/jes.731845
MLA Premchand, M , Gudey, S . "Electric vehicle operation modes with reactive power support using SMC in distribution generation" . Journal of Energy Systems 4 (2020 ): 96-120 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jes/issue/56821/731845>
Chicago Premchand, M , Gudey, S . "Electric vehicle operation modes with reactive power support using SMC in distribution generation". Journal of Energy Systems 4 (2020 ): 96-120
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Electric vehicle operation modes with reactive power support using SMC in distribution generation AU - Mendem Premchand , Satish Kumar Gudey Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.30521/jes.731845 DO - 10.30521/jes.731845 T2 - Journal of Energy Systems JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 96 EP - 120 VL - 4 IS - 3 SN - -2602-2052 M3 - doi: 10.30521/jes.731845 UR - https://doi.org/10.30521/jes.731845 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Energy Systems Electric vehicle operation modes with reactive power support using SMC in distribution generation %A Mendem Premchand , Satish Kumar Gudey %T Electric vehicle operation modes with reactive power support using SMC in distribution generation %D 2020 %J Journal of Energy Systems %P -2602-2052 %V 4 %N 3 %R doi: 10.30521/jes.731845 %U 10.30521/jes.731845
ISNAD Premchand, Mendem , Gudey, Satish Kumar . "Electric vehicle operation modes with reactive power support using SMC in distribution generation". Journal of Energy Systems 4 / 3 (September 2020): 96-120 . https://doi.org/10.30521/jes.731845
AMA Premchand M , Gudey S . Electric vehicle operation modes with reactive power support using SMC in distribution generation. JES. 2020; 4(3): 96-120.
Vancouver Premchand M , Gudey S . Electric vehicle operation modes with reactive power support using SMC in distribution generation. Journal of Energy Systems. 2020; 4(3): 96-120.