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R1234yf and R744 as alternatives to R134a at mobile air conditioners

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 4, 284 - 295, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.30521/jes.949753

Abstract

R1234yf is a synthetic HFO refrigerant co-developed as a replacement refrigerant for R134a in automotive air conditioning applications. Thus, in this study, alternatives to the R134a refrigerant that were removed from the newly produced devices were examined. The performance of the cooling processes of R1234yf and R744 refrigerant gases was compared with that of R134a. A simulation model was first developed. This simulation model was validated with experimental results. Analysis was conducted for both cooling and heating modes. In the case of cooling, evaporation temperature was 5 °C–7.5 °C, condenser, or gas cooler outlet temperature was 35 °C–50 °C and the cooling load was 10 kW. In heating mode, evaporation temperature was −4 °C–12 °C, condenser, or gas cooler outlet temperature was 45 °C–50 °C and the heating load was 13.5 kW. The results were analyzed in terms of the coefficient of performance (COP), compressor power consumption, and compressor discharge temperature. In terms of COP and compressor power consumption, R134a gave the best results in all cases. R1234yf gave the closest results to R134a. In terms of compressor discharge temperature, which affects the lifetime and lubrication quality of the compressor, R1234yf gave the lowest temperatures in all cases.

References

  • [1] European Commission. Directive 2006/40/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 relating to emissions from air-conditioning systems in motor vehicles and amending Council Directive 70/156/EEC. 2006. p. 12–8
  • [2] Calm, JM, Hourahan, GC. Physical, Safety, and Environmental Data for Current and Alternative Refrigerants. Refrigeration for Sustainable Development. In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Refrigeration, 2011.08.21-26, International Institute of Refrigeration, Czech Republic.
  • [3] Chen, J, Zhao, Y, Qi, Z. New developments in mobile air conditioning systems in China. Frontiers of Energy and Power Engineering in China 2011; 5(1): 53–8. DOI: 10.1007/s11708-010-0137-3
  • [4] Zhao, Y, Qi, Z, Chen, J, Xu, B, He, B. Experimental analysis of the low-GWP refrigerant R1234yf as a drop-in replacement for R134a in a typical mobile air conditioning system. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 2012; 226(11): 2713–25. DOI: 10.1177/0954406211435583
  • [5] Navarro-Esbrí, J, Mendoza-Miranda, JM, Mota-Babiloni, A, Barragán-Cervera, A, Belman-Flores, JM. Experimental analysis of R1234yf as a drop-in replacement for R134a in a vapor compression system. International Journal of Refrigeration 2013; 36(3): 870–80. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2012.12.014
  • [6] Cho, H, Lee, H, Park, C. Performance characteristics of an automobile air conditioning system with internal heat exchanger using refrigerant R1234yf. Applied Thermal Engineering 2013; 61(2): 563–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2013.08.030
  • [7] Aral, MC, Suhermanto, M, Hosoz, M. Performance evaluation of an automotive air conditioning and heat pump system using R1234yf and R134a. Science and Technology for the Built Environment 2021; 27(1): 44–60. DOI: 10.1080/23744731.2020.1776067
  • [8] Lee, Y, Jung, D. A brief performance comparison of R1234yf and R134a in a bench tester for automobile applications. Applied Thermal Engineering 2012; 35(1): 240–2. DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.09.004
  • [9] Li, W, Liu, R, Liu, Y, Wang, D, Shi, J, Chen, J. Performance evaluation of R1234yf heat pump system for an electric vehicle in cold climate. International Journal of Refrigeration 2020; 115: 117–25. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2020.02.021
  • [10] Bolaji, BO. Theoretical analysis of the energy performance of three low global warming potential hydro-fluorocarbon refrigerants as R134a alternatives in refrigeration systems. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy 2014; 228(1): 56–63. DOI: 10.1177/0957650913507252
  • [11] Vaghela, JK. Comparative Evaluation of an Automobile Air - Conditioning System Using R134a and Its Alternative Refrigerants. Energy Procedia 2017; 109: 153–60. DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.083
  • [12] Wang, D, Yu, B, Shi, J, Chen, J. Experimental and theoretical study on the cooling performance of a CO₂ mobile air conditioning system. Energies 2018; 11(8): 1927. DOI: 10.3390/en11081927
  • [13] Zheng, S, Wei, M, Song, P, Hu, C, Tian, R. Thermodynamics and flow unsteadiness analysis of trans-critical CO₂ in a scroll compressor for mobile heat pump air-conditioning system. Applied Thermal Engineering 2020; 175: 115368. DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2020.115368
  • [14] Yuan, Z, Ou, X, Peng, T, Yan, X. Development and application of a life cycle greenhouse gas emission analysis model for mobile air conditioning systems. Applied Energy 2018; 221: 161–79. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.03.073
  • [15] Zhiyi, Y, Tianduo, P, Xunmin, O. Scenario Analysis on CO2-equivalent Emissions from Alternative Mobile Air Conditioning Refrigerants in China. Energy Procedia 2017; 142: 2617–23. DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.201
  • [16] Golzari, S, Kasaeian, A, Daviran, S, Mahian, O, Wongwises, S, Sahin, AZ. Second law analysis of an automotive air conditioning system using HFO-1234yf, an environmentally friendly refrigerant. International Journal of Refrigeration 2017; 73: 134–43. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2016.09.009
  • [17] de Paula, CH, Duarte, WM, Rocha, TTM, de Oliveira, RN, Maia, AAT. Optimal design and environmental, energy and exergy analysis of a vapor compression refrigeration system using R290, R1234yf, and R744 as alternatives to replace R134a. International Journal of Refrigeration 2020; 113: 10–20. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2020.01.012
  • [18] Kauf, F. Determination of the optimum high pressure for transcritical CO₂-refrigeration cycles. International Journal of Thermal Sciences 1999; 38(4): 325–30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1290-0729(99)80098-2
  • [19] Liao, SM, Zhao, TS, Jakobsen, A. A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles. Applied Thermal Engineering 2000; 20(9): 831–41. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-4311(99)00070-8
  • [20] Jarall, S. Study of refrigeration system with HFO-1234yf as a working fluid. International Journal of Refrigeration 2012; 35(6): 1668–77. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2012.03.007
  • [21] Klöcker, K, Schmidt, EL, Steimle, F. Carbon dioxide as a working fluid in drying heat pumps. International Journal of Refrigeration 2001; 24(1): 100–7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-7007(00)00067-0
  • [22] Klöcker, K, Schmidt, EL, Steimle, F. A DRYING HEAT PUMP USING CARBON DIOXIDE AS WORKING FLUID. Drying Technology 2002; 20(8): 1659–71. DOI: 10.1081/DRT-120014057
  • [23] Sarkar, J, Bhattacharyya, S, Gopal, MR. Transcritical CO₂ Heat Pump Dryer: Part 2. Validation and Simulation Results. Drying Technology 2006; 24(12): 1593–600. DOI: 10.1080/07373930601030945
  • [24] Erdem, S, Heperkan, H. Numerical Investigation on the Effect of using CO₂ as the Refrigerant in a Heat Pump Tumble Dryer System. Drying Technology 2014; 32(16): 1923–30. DOI: 10.1080/07373937.2014.924524
  • [25] Erdem, S. The Effects of Fin-and-Tube Evaporator Geometry on Heat Pump Performance under Dehumidifying Conditions. International Journal of Refrigeration 2015; 57: 35–45. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2015.06.002

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 4, 284 - 295, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.30521/jes.949753

Abstract

References

  • [1] European Commission. Directive 2006/40/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 relating to emissions from air-conditioning systems in motor vehicles and amending Council Directive 70/156/EEC. 2006. p. 12–8
  • [2] Calm, JM, Hourahan, GC. Physical, Safety, and Environmental Data for Current and Alternative Refrigerants. Refrigeration for Sustainable Development. In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Refrigeration, 2011.08.21-26, International Institute of Refrigeration, Czech Republic.
  • [3] Chen, J, Zhao, Y, Qi, Z. New developments in mobile air conditioning systems in China. Frontiers of Energy and Power Engineering in China 2011; 5(1): 53–8. DOI: 10.1007/s11708-010-0137-3
  • [4] Zhao, Y, Qi, Z, Chen, J, Xu, B, He, B. Experimental analysis of the low-GWP refrigerant R1234yf as a drop-in replacement for R134a in a typical mobile air conditioning system. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 2012; 226(11): 2713–25. DOI: 10.1177/0954406211435583
  • [5] Navarro-Esbrí, J, Mendoza-Miranda, JM, Mota-Babiloni, A, Barragán-Cervera, A, Belman-Flores, JM. Experimental analysis of R1234yf as a drop-in replacement for R134a in a vapor compression system. International Journal of Refrigeration 2013; 36(3): 870–80. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2012.12.014
  • [6] Cho, H, Lee, H, Park, C. Performance characteristics of an automobile air conditioning system with internal heat exchanger using refrigerant R1234yf. Applied Thermal Engineering 2013; 61(2): 563–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2013.08.030
  • [7] Aral, MC, Suhermanto, M, Hosoz, M. Performance evaluation of an automotive air conditioning and heat pump system using R1234yf and R134a. Science and Technology for the Built Environment 2021; 27(1): 44–60. DOI: 10.1080/23744731.2020.1776067
  • [8] Lee, Y, Jung, D. A brief performance comparison of R1234yf and R134a in a bench tester for automobile applications. Applied Thermal Engineering 2012; 35(1): 240–2. DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.09.004
  • [9] Li, W, Liu, R, Liu, Y, Wang, D, Shi, J, Chen, J. Performance evaluation of R1234yf heat pump system for an electric vehicle in cold climate. International Journal of Refrigeration 2020; 115: 117–25. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2020.02.021
  • [10] Bolaji, BO. Theoretical analysis of the energy performance of three low global warming potential hydro-fluorocarbon refrigerants as R134a alternatives in refrigeration systems. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy 2014; 228(1): 56–63. DOI: 10.1177/0957650913507252
  • [11] Vaghela, JK. Comparative Evaluation of an Automobile Air - Conditioning System Using R134a and Its Alternative Refrigerants. Energy Procedia 2017; 109: 153–60. DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.083
  • [12] Wang, D, Yu, B, Shi, J, Chen, J. Experimental and theoretical study on the cooling performance of a CO₂ mobile air conditioning system. Energies 2018; 11(8): 1927. DOI: 10.3390/en11081927
  • [13] Zheng, S, Wei, M, Song, P, Hu, C, Tian, R. Thermodynamics and flow unsteadiness analysis of trans-critical CO₂ in a scroll compressor for mobile heat pump air-conditioning system. Applied Thermal Engineering 2020; 175: 115368. DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2020.115368
  • [14] Yuan, Z, Ou, X, Peng, T, Yan, X. Development and application of a life cycle greenhouse gas emission analysis model for mobile air conditioning systems. Applied Energy 2018; 221: 161–79. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.03.073
  • [15] Zhiyi, Y, Tianduo, P, Xunmin, O. Scenario Analysis on CO2-equivalent Emissions from Alternative Mobile Air Conditioning Refrigerants in China. Energy Procedia 2017; 142: 2617–23. DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.201
  • [16] Golzari, S, Kasaeian, A, Daviran, S, Mahian, O, Wongwises, S, Sahin, AZ. Second law analysis of an automotive air conditioning system using HFO-1234yf, an environmentally friendly refrigerant. International Journal of Refrigeration 2017; 73: 134–43. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2016.09.009
  • [17] de Paula, CH, Duarte, WM, Rocha, TTM, de Oliveira, RN, Maia, AAT. Optimal design and environmental, energy and exergy analysis of a vapor compression refrigeration system using R290, R1234yf, and R744 as alternatives to replace R134a. International Journal of Refrigeration 2020; 113: 10–20. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2020.01.012
  • [18] Kauf, F. Determination of the optimum high pressure for transcritical CO₂-refrigeration cycles. International Journal of Thermal Sciences 1999; 38(4): 325–30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1290-0729(99)80098-2
  • [19] Liao, SM, Zhao, TS, Jakobsen, A. A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles. Applied Thermal Engineering 2000; 20(9): 831–41. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-4311(99)00070-8
  • [20] Jarall, S. Study of refrigeration system with HFO-1234yf as a working fluid. International Journal of Refrigeration 2012; 35(6): 1668–77. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2012.03.007
  • [21] Klöcker, K, Schmidt, EL, Steimle, F. Carbon dioxide as a working fluid in drying heat pumps. International Journal of Refrigeration 2001; 24(1): 100–7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-7007(00)00067-0
  • [22] Klöcker, K, Schmidt, EL, Steimle, F. A DRYING HEAT PUMP USING CARBON DIOXIDE AS WORKING FLUID. Drying Technology 2002; 20(8): 1659–71. DOI: 10.1081/DRT-120014057
  • [23] Sarkar, J, Bhattacharyya, S, Gopal, MR. Transcritical CO₂ Heat Pump Dryer: Part 2. Validation and Simulation Results. Drying Technology 2006; 24(12): 1593–600. DOI: 10.1080/07373930601030945
  • [24] Erdem, S, Heperkan, H. Numerical Investigation on the Effect of using CO₂ as the Refrigerant in a Heat Pump Tumble Dryer System. Drying Technology 2014; 32(16): 1923–30. DOI: 10.1080/07373937.2014.924524
  • [25] Erdem, S. The Effects of Fin-and-Tube Evaporator Geometry on Heat Pump Performance under Dehumidifying Conditions. International Journal of Refrigeration 2015; 57: 35–45. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2015.06.002

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Engineering, Mechanical
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Cenk ONAN This is me
YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-8640-7220
Türkiye


Serkan ERDEM (Primary Author)
YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-9553-6769
Türkiye

Publication Date December 31, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 4

Cite

Vancouver Onan C. , Erdem S. R1234yf and R744 as alternatives to R134a at mobile air conditioners. Journal of Energy Systems. 2021; 5(4): 284-295.

Journal of Energy Systems is the official journal of 

European Conference on Renewable Energy Systems (ECRES8756 and


Electrical and Computer Engineering Research Group (ECERG)  8753


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