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Competition Skills and Challenge Level Scale (CCS) in gifted and talented education: development, validity and reliability

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 75 - 84, 30.03.2022

Abstract

Competitiveness is an important factor for giving gifted students a chance to test their abilities and motivates them to bring out the best in their selves. I can say that measuring and assessing competition skills and challenging levels of their potential is very important in gifted and talented education. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to introduce competition skills and challenge level scale (CCS) which is developed for Gifted and Talented secondary school grade students. A draft structure consisting of 31 items was created in the light of expert opinions of the measurement tool to be developed. Explanatory factor analysis was applied for the construct validity of the scale. As a result of the explanatory factor analysis, it was determined that the factor load weights of 3 items were overlapping and low, and it was decided to exclude items 11, 21 and 29 from the scale. As a result of the varimax analysis, it was determined that the scale consisted of two factors. These factors were named as “Perception of Competition” and “Level of Difficulty”, respectively. These two factors explain 62.06% of the variance in all scale scores. The internal consistency reliability of the entire scale was calculated as 0.95. In the light of all the analysis results, it can be said that this scale, which aims to evaluate the perceptions of gifted students' level of competition and striving, has reliable results in terms of validity and reliability tests. As such, the scale can be used to evaluate competitive environments in gifted individuals. Thus, measures can be taken to ensure that gifted students do not fail due to the educational atmosphere below their potential.

References

  • Baum, S. M., Renzulli, J. S., Ve Hébert, T. P. (1995). Reversing underachievement: creative productivity as a systematic intervention. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39(4), 224-235.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2002). Faktör analizi: Temel kavramlar ve ölçek geliştirmede kullanımı. Eğitim Yönetimi, 32, 470-483.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2005). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi El Kitabı. 5. Baskı, Ankara: PegemA Yayıncılık.
  • Chan, D., W., (2000). Exploring Identification Procedures of Gifted Students by Teacher Ratings: Parent Ratings and Students Self-Reports in Hong Kong. High Ability Studies, 11 (1), 69-82.
  • Ceyhan, E., Namlu, A. G. (2000). Bilgisayar kaygı ölçeği (BKÖ): Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Anadolu Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 10 (2), 77-93.
  • Comrey, A. L., Lee, H. B. (1992). A First Course in Factor Analysis. Second Edition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Hillsdale.
  • Field, A. (2002). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Feldhusen, J. F. (2005). Conceptions of giftedness, in Giftedness, talent, expertise, and creative achievement, R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), (pp. 64–79). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ford, D. Y. (2003). Two other wrongs don’t make a right: Sacrificing the needs of diverse students does not solve gifted education’s unresolved problems. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 26, 283-291.
  • Kazdin, AE. (2000). "Motivation: an overview". Encyclopedia of Psychology. American Psychological Association. ISBN 978-1-55798-187-5.
  • Leana-Taşcılar, M. Z., Kanlı, E. (2014). Investigation Of perfectionism and self-esteem scores of gifted and average students. Ankara University, Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences, 47(2), 1-20.
  • Little, R. J. A., Rubin D. R. (1987). Statistical Analysis with Missing Data. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Patton, M.Q. (1980). Qualitative Evaluation Methods. United Kingdom: Beverly Hills, Sage Publications.
  • Peterson, J., Colangelo, N. (1995). Gifted achievers and underachievers: a comparison of patterns found in school records. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74(4), 399-407.
  • Reis, S. M., McCoach, D. B. (2000). The underachievement of gifted students: What do we know and where do we go? Gifted Child Quarterly, 44(3), 152–170. https://doi.org/10.1177/001698620004400302
  • Renzulli, J. S. (1986). The three-ring conception of giftedness: A developmental model for creative productivity. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of giftedness (pp. 53–92). New York, NY: Cambridge University.
  • Renzulli, J. S., Reis, S. M. (1994). Research related to the schoolwide enrichment model. Gifted Child Quarterly, 38(1), 2–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Renzulli, J. S. (1999). What is this thing called giftedness, and how do we develop it? A twenty five year perspective. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 23(1), 3-54.
  • Renzulli, J. S., Park, S. (2002). Giftedness and high school dropouts: personal, family, and school-related factors, University of Connecticut, The National Research Center on The Gifted and Talented Publications.
  • Riley, T. L. (2011). Teaching gifted students in the inclusive classroom. The practical Strategies in Gifted Education. Texas: Prufrock Press.
  • Rimm, S. (2002). Peer pressure and the social acceptance of gifted students. In M. Niehart, S. M. Reis, N. M. Robinson, S. M. Moon (Eds.) The social and emotional development of gifted children (13-18). Washington, D.C.: Prufrock Press.
  • Rizza, M., Reis, S. (2001). Comparing and Contrasting: Stories of Competition. Gifted Child Quarterly, 45. 54-62. 10.1177/001698620104500108.
  • Ryckman, R. M., Thornton, B., & Butler, J. C. (1994). Personality correlates of the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale: Validity tests of Horney's theory of neurosis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 62(1), 84–94. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6201_8
  • Sak, U. (2012). Üstün Zekalılar Özellikleri Tanılamaları Eğitimleri. Ankara: Maya Akademi Publications.
  • Siegle, D., Schuler, P. A. (2000). Perfectionism differences in gifted middle school students. Roeper Review, 23(1), 39-44.
  • Siegle, D. (2000). Parenting achievement oriented children. Parenting For High Potential, 6, 29–30.
  • Tavşancıl, E. (2002). Tutumların Ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile Veri Analizi. Ankara: Nobel Yayınları.
  • Udvari, S. J. & Schneider, B. H. (2000). Competition and the adjustment of gifted children: a matter of motivation. Roeper Review, 22(4), 212-216.
  • Yılmaz, S., Tortop, H.S. (2018) The Underachıevement of Gifted Students, Journal of Gifted Education and Creativity, 5(2), 1-9
  • Zeller, R. A. (1988). Validity. Education Research, Methodology, and Measurement an International Handbook (Ed: Keeves, J.P.). 1th Edition, Oxford: Pergamon Press PLC, Headington Hill.

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 75 - 84, 30.03.2022

Abstract

References

  • Baum, S. M., Renzulli, J. S., Ve Hébert, T. P. (1995). Reversing underachievement: creative productivity as a systematic intervention. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39(4), 224-235.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2002). Faktör analizi: Temel kavramlar ve ölçek geliştirmede kullanımı. Eğitim Yönetimi, 32, 470-483.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2005). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi El Kitabı. 5. Baskı, Ankara: PegemA Yayıncılık.
  • Chan, D., W., (2000). Exploring Identification Procedures of Gifted Students by Teacher Ratings: Parent Ratings and Students Self-Reports in Hong Kong. High Ability Studies, 11 (1), 69-82.
  • Ceyhan, E., Namlu, A. G. (2000). Bilgisayar kaygı ölçeği (BKÖ): Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Anadolu Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 10 (2), 77-93.
  • Comrey, A. L., Lee, H. B. (1992). A First Course in Factor Analysis. Second Edition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Hillsdale.
  • Field, A. (2002). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Feldhusen, J. F. (2005). Conceptions of giftedness, in Giftedness, talent, expertise, and creative achievement, R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), (pp. 64–79). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ford, D. Y. (2003). Two other wrongs don’t make a right: Sacrificing the needs of diverse students does not solve gifted education’s unresolved problems. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 26, 283-291.
  • Kazdin, AE. (2000). "Motivation: an overview". Encyclopedia of Psychology. American Psychological Association. ISBN 978-1-55798-187-5.
  • Leana-Taşcılar, M. Z., Kanlı, E. (2014). Investigation Of perfectionism and self-esteem scores of gifted and average students. Ankara University, Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences, 47(2), 1-20.
  • Little, R. J. A., Rubin D. R. (1987). Statistical Analysis with Missing Data. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Patton, M.Q. (1980). Qualitative Evaluation Methods. United Kingdom: Beverly Hills, Sage Publications.
  • Peterson, J., Colangelo, N. (1995). Gifted achievers and underachievers: a comparison of patterns found in school records. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74(4), 399-407.
  • Reis, S. M., McCoach, D. B. (2000). The underachievement of gifted students: What do we know and where do we go? Gifted Child Quarterly, 44(3), 152–170. https://doi.org/10.1177/001698620004400302
  • Renzulli, J. S. (1986). The three-ring conception of giftedness: A developmental model for creative productivity. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of giftedness (pp. 53–92). New York, NY: Cambridge University.
  • Renzulli, J. S., Reis, S. M. (1994). Research related to the schoolwide enrichment model. Gifted Child Quarterly, 38(1), 2–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Renzulli, J. S. (1999). What is this thing called giftedness, and how do we develop it? A twenty five year perspective. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 23(1), 3-54.
  • Renzulli, J. S., Park, S. (2002). Giftedness and high school dropouts: personal, family, and school-related factors, University of Connecticut, The National Research Center on The Gifted and Talented Publications.
  • Riley, T. L. (2011). Teaching gifted students in the inclusive classroom. The practical Strategies in Gifted Education. Texas: Prufrock Press.
  • Rimm, S. (2002). Peer pressure and the social acceptance of gifted students. In M. Niehart, S. M. Reis, N. M. Robinson, S. M. Moon (Eds.) The social and emotional development of gifted children (13-18). Washington, D.C.: Prufrock Press.
  • Rizza, M., Reis, S. (2001). Comparing and Contrasting: Stories of Competition. Gifted Child Quarterly, 45. 54-62. 10.1177/001698620104500108.
  • Ryckman, R. M., Thornton, B., & Butler, J. C. (1994). Personality correlates of the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale: Validity tests of Horney's theory of neurosis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 62(1), 84–94. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6201_8
  • Sak, U. (2012). Üstün Zekalılar Özellikleri Tanılamaları Eğitimleri. Ankara: Maya Akademi Publications.
  • Siegle, D., Schuler, P. A. (2000). Perfectionism differences in gifted middle school students. Roeper Review, 23(1), 39-44.
  • Siegle, D. (2000). Parenting achievement oriented children. Parenting For High Potential, 6, 29–30.
  • Tavşancıl, E. (2002). Tutumların Ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile Veri Analizi. Ankara: Nobel Yayınları.
  • Udvari, S. J. & Schneider, B. H. (2000). Competition and the adjustment of gifted children: a matter of motivation. Roeper Review, 22(4), 212-216.
  • Yılmaz, S., Tortop, H.S. (2018) The Underachıevement of Gifted Students, Journal of Gifted Education and Creativity, 5(2), 1-9
  • Zeller, R. A. (1988). Validity. Education Research, Methodology, and Measurement an International Handbook (Ed: Keeves, J.P.). 1th Edition, Oxford: Pergamon Press PLC, Headington Hill.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education, Special
Published Date March 2022
Journal Section Thinking Skills at Gifted Education
Authors

Abdullah EKER (Primary Author)
KILIS 7 ARALIK UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-6409-7732
Türkiye

Publication Date March 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1

Cite

APA Eker, A. (2022). Competition Skills and Challenge Level Scale (CCS) in gifted and talented education: development, validity and reliability . Journal of Gifted Education and Creativity , 9 (1) , 75-84 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jgedc/issue/68496/1080304

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