Research Article
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Specialization of law enforcement for tourism security: the case of Turkish Gendarmerie

Year 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, 81 - 92, 31.07.2023
https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2023-8-1-81

Abstract

This research was conducted to reveal how the Turkish Gendarmerie should specialize in ensuring the security of touristic destinations. From October 2020 to February 2021, the opinions of 135 participants with high authority in the field of tourism and security were received in five different provinces through an interview form created for this study. Content analysis was used in the analysis of the data. The findings obtained with this analysis were interpreted under seven themes: general security policy, uniform, equipment, awareness, duty, qualification, and training. According to the findings of the research, the Turkish Gendarmerie should serve visibly in touristic destinations with a different security concept. In the light of the findings obtained with this study, various recommendations were presented to practitioners and researchers in tourism and security field.



References

  • Aksu, M., Aktaş, A. R., Oku, O., & Şentürk, F. K. (2013). Yabancı turistlerin güvenlik algılarının analizi: Alanya örneği. In paper for The International Conference on Eurasian Economies, 17-18 September St. Petersburg-Russia.
  • Albuquerque, K. De, & McElroy, J. (1999). Tourism and crime in the Caribbean. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 968-984.
  • Aras, H. (2017). Türkiye’de turizm güvenliği sorunu. Hitit University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 10(1), 585-610. http://dx.doi.org/10.17218/hititsosbil.330893
  • Bahar, O., & Bilen, K. (2020). Turizmde güvenlik algısının Türkiye ekonomisine etkisi. The Journal of Security Sciences, Special Issue of International Security Congress, 185-206.
  • Bayhan, İ., & Ünlüönen, K. (2016). Turist tercihlerinde güvenliğe ilişkin tutumlarının etkisi: bir alan araştırması. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 15(56), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.17240
  • Bras, M. (2015). Tourism and crime-why tourists become victims. In paper for The Security and Tourism: Local Policies and Practices Conference, 25 June, Paris.
  • Dündar, Y., & Özgür, E. (2020). Turizm Kolluğu. In Y. Dündar & O. Bahar (Eds.), Turizm Güvenliği (pp. 305-342). Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi.
  • Gendarmerie General Command. (2020). Jandarma sorumluluk alanları ve korunan tesisler [online]. Available from: https://www.jandarma.gov.tr/jandarma-tarafindan-korunan-tesisler (Accessed 31 December 2020).
  • George, R., & Booyens, I. (2014). Township tourism demand: tourists’ perceptions of safety and security. Urban Forum, 25(4), 449-467. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12132-014-9228-2
  • Ghaderi, Z., Saboori, B., & Khoshkam, M. (2016). Does security matter in tourism demand?. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(6), 552-565. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2016.1161603
  • Henninger, D. (2001). What impact will tourist oriented policing have on small sized police departments by the year 2006?. A Project Presented to California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training, Sacramento, California.
  • Kara, E. (2016). Devlet-kolluk ilişkisi kapsamında Jandarma ve Türk Jandarması. (Unpublished Master Thesis). Ankara University, Türkiye.
  • Karaman, S., & Polat, T. (2020). Turizm ve güvenlik ilişkisi (Doğu ve Güney Doğu Anadolu Bölgelerini ziyaret eden yerli turistlere yönelik araştırma). Kafkas University Journal of the Institute of Social Sciences, 25, 369-397. DOI: 10.9775/kausbed.2020.021
  • Kekovic, Z., & Markovic, S. (2009). Security as a factor of competitive advantage in tourism. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 15(2), 291-303. https://doi.org/10.20867/thm.15.2.12
  • Kiliclar, A., Usakli, A., & Tayfun, A. (2018). Terrorism prevention in tourism destinations: Security forces vs. civil authority perspectives. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 8, 232-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2017.04.006
  • Korstanje, M. E. (2017). Introduction to Tourism Security: Tourism in The Age of Terrorism. In P. Vasant & M. Kalaivanthan (Eds.), Risk, Terrorism, and Tourism Consumption: The End of Tourism (pp. 208-226). USA: IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-1054-3.ch012
  • Kovari, I., & Zimanyi, K. (2011). Safety and security in the age of global tourism: the changing role and conception of safety and security in tourism. Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce, 5(3-4), 59-61. https://doi.org/10.19041/APSTRACT/2011/3-4/10
  • Mawby, R. I. (2014). Crime and Disorder, Security and The Tourism Industry. In M. Gill (Eds.), The Handbook of Security (pp. 383-403). Newyork: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-67284-4_18
  • Mawby, R. I., Boakye, K., & Jones, C. (2015). Policing tourism: the emergence of specialist units. Policing and Society, 25(4), 378-392. https://doi.org/10.1080/10439463.2013.870174
  • Muehsam, M. J., & Tarlow, P. E. (1995). Involving the police in tourism. Tourism Management, 16(1), 9-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-5177(94)00002-R
  • Öztürk, Y., & Şimşek, E. (2013). Politik istikrarsızlıkların turistlerin destinasyon seçimine etkisi üzerine bir araştırma. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies, 1(2), 15-25.
  • Patton, M. Q. (1987). How to Use Qualitative Methods in Evaluation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Payam, M. M. (2015). Tourism Oriented Policing and Protection Services (TOPPS). In M. A. Çukurçayır, A. Başoda, Ş. Ünüvar, M. Sağır, M. Çiçekdağı & S. Büyükipekçi (Eds.), I. Avrasya Uluslararası Turizm Kongresi Güncel Konular, Eğilimler ve Göstergeler (pp. 1-7). Konya: Aybil Yayınevi.
  • Payam, M. M. (2016). Tourists’ security: the need for tourism police in Bosnia and Herzegovina. British Journal of Economics Management and Trade, 12(1), 1-9. DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/23135
  • Pizam, A., Tarlow, P., & Bloom, J. (1997). Making tourists feel safe: whose responsibility is it?. Journal of Travel Research, Summer, 23-28.
  • Santos, C., Silva, D., & Amorim, E. (2018). The impact of tourism security on the image of the destination-the case of Portugal. In paper for 7th international conference on tourism and hospitality management, 06-09 June Tomar-Portugal.
  • Sayan, İ. Ö., & Özgür, E. (2019). Kolluk Etiği. In T. Avaner & O. Zengin (Eds.), Türkiye’de Iç Güvenlik Yönetimi (pp. 379-410). Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi.
  • Seçilmiş, C. (2009). Turistlerin kişisel değişkenlerinin güvenlik algılamalarındaki rolü. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 8(30), 152-166.
  • Seçilmiş, C., & Ünlüönen, K. (2009). İstanbul’u ziyaret eden turistlerin güvenlik algılamaları üzerine bir araştırma. Journal of Business Research-Turk, 1(1), 65-84.
  • Şengül, S., Bayhan, İ., Genç, K., & Torun, M. K. (2017). Turizm destinasyonu seçiminde güvenlik algısı: Yozgat örneği. In paper for II. International Bozok Symposium, 04-06 May Yozgat-Türkiye.
  • Stewart, C. J., & Cash, W. B. (1985). Interviewing: Principles and Practices. Dubuque, IOWA: W. C. Brown Co.
  • Tarlow, P. E. (2000). Letter from America: A short history of tourism oriented policing services. Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 2(1), 55-58.
  • Tarlow, P. E. (2005). The impact of community policing on tourism and tourism oriented policing/protection services (TOPs). eReview of Tourism Research (eRTR), 3(1), 1-10.
  • Tarlow, P. E. (2009). Tourism Safety and Security. In T. Jamal & M. Robinson (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Studies (pp. 465-480). London: SAGE Publications. https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9780857021076.n26
  • Tarlow, P. E. (2012). How can your guests be sure they are safe?. Tourism Tidbits, Hotel Online News for the Hospitality Executive, May.
  • Tarlow, P. E. (2014a). Tourism Security: Strategies for Effectively Managing Travel Risk and Safety. Britain: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  • Tarlow, P. E. (2014b). Reflective epilogue: concerns in tourism safety. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 2(1), 68-70. https://doi.org/10.21427/D7R726
  • Tataroğlu, M., & Subaşı, E. (2009). Kolluk güçlerinde modernleşme: Muğla örneğinde turizm jandarması yapılanması. Journal of Management and Economics, 16(2), 73-93.
  • United Nations World Tourism Organization [UNWTO]. (1996). Tourist Safety and Security: Practical Measures for Destinations. Madrid: UNWTO-Pub.
  • Ünlüönen, K., Tayfun, A., & Kılıçlar, A. (2011). Turizm Ekonomisi. Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık.
  • Wilks, J. (2011). Policing in tourism. Travel Law Quarterly, 3(1), 30-34.
  • Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2013). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Year 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, 81 - 92, 31.07.2023
https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2023-8-1-81

Abstract

References

  • Aksu, M., Aktaş, A. R., Oku, O., & Şentürk, F. K. (2013). Yabancı turistlerin güvenlik algılarının analizi: Alanya örneği. In paper for The International Conference on Eurasian Economies, 17-18 September St. Petersburg-Russia.
  • Albuquerque, K. De, & McElroy, J. (1999). Tourism and crime in the Caribbean. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 968-984.
  • Aras, H. (2017). Türkiye’de turizm güvenliği sorunu. Hitit University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 10(1), 585-610. http://dx.doi.org/10.17218/hititsosbil.330893
  • Bahar, O., & Bilen, K. (2020). Turizmde güvenlik algısının Türkiye ekonomisine etkisi. The Journal of Security Sciences, Special Issue of International Security Congress, 185-206.
  • Bayhan, İ., & Ünlüönen, K. (2016). Turist tercihlerinde güvenliğe ilişkin tutumlarının etkisi: bir alan araştırması. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 15(56), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.17240
  • Bras, M. (2015). Tourism and crime-why tourists become victims. In paper for The Security and Tourism: Local Policies and Practices Conference, 25 June, Paris.
  • Dündar, Y., & Özgür, E. (2020). Turizm Kolluğu. In Y. Dündar & O. Bahar (Eds.), Turizm Güvenliği (pp. 305-342). Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi.
  • Gendarmerie General Command. (2020). Jandarma sorumluluk alanları ve korunan tesisler [online]. Available from: https://www.jandarma.gov.tr/jandarma-tarafindan-korunan-tesisler (Accessed 31 December 2020).
  • George, R., & Booyens, I. (2014). Township tourism demand: tourists’ perceptions of safety and security. Urban Forum, 25(4), 449-467. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12132-014-9228-2
  • Ghaderi, Z., Saboori, B., & Khoshkam, M. (2016). Does security matter in tourism demand?. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(6), 552-565. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2016.1161603
  • Henninger, D. (2001). What impact will tourist oriented policing have on small sized police departments by the year 2006?. A Project Presented to California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training, Sacramento, California.
  • Kara, E. (2016). Devlet-kolluk ilişkisi kapsamında Jandarma ve Türk Jandarması. (Unpublished Master Thesis). Ankara University, Türkiye.
  • Karaman, S., & Polat, T. (2020). Turizm ve güvenlik ilişkisi (Doğu ve Güney Doğu Anadolu Bölgelerini ziyaret eden yerli turistlere yönelik araştırma). Kafkas University Journal of the Institute of Social Sciences, 25, 369-397. DOI: 10.9775/kausbed.2020.021
  • Kekovic, Z., & Markovic, S. (2009). Security as a factor of competitive advantage in tourism. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 15(2), 291-303. https://doi.org/10.20867/thm.15.2.12
  • Kiliclar, A., Usakli, A., & Tayfun, A. (2018). Terrorism prevention in tourism destinations: Security forces vs. civil authority perspectives. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 8, 232-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2017.04.006
  • Korstanje, M. E. (2017). Introduction to Tourism Security: Tourism in The Age of Terrorism. In P. Vasant & M. Kalaivanthan (Eds.), Risk, Terrorism, and Tourism Consumption: The End of Tourism (pp. 208-226). USA: IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-1054-3.ch012
  • Kovari, I., & Zimanyi, K. (2011). Safety and security in the age of global tourism: the changing role and conception of safety and security in tourism. Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce, 5(3-4), 59-61. https://doi.org/10.19041/APSTRACT/2011/3-4/10
  • Mawby, R. I. (2014). Crime and Disorder, Security and The Tourism Industry. In M. Gill (Eds.), The Handbook of Security (pp. 383-403). Newyork: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-67284-4_18
  • Mawby, R. I., Boakye, K., & Jones, C. (2015). Policing tourism: the emergence of specialist units. Policing and Society, 25(4), 378-392. https://doi.org/10.1080/10439463.2013.870174
  • Muehsam, M. J., & Tarlow, P. E. (1995). Involving the police in tourism. Tourism Management, 16(1), 9-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-5177(94)00002-R
  • Öztürk, Y., & Şimşek, E. (2013). Politik istikrarsızlıkların turistlerin destinasyon seçimine etkisi üzerine bir araştırma. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies, 1(2), 15-25.
  • Patton, M. Q. (1987). How to Use Qualitative Methods in Evaluation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Payam, M. M. (2015). Tourism Oriented Policing and Protection Services (TOPPS). In M. A. Çukurçayır, A. Başoda, Ş. Ünüvar, M. Sağır, M. Çiçekdağı & S. Büyükipekçi (Eds.), I. Avrasya Uluslararası Turizm Kongresi Güncel Konular, Eğilimler ve Göstergeler (pp. 1-7). Konya: Aybil Yayınevi.
  • Payam, M. M. (2016). Tourists’ security: the need for tourism police in Bosnia and Herzegovina. British Journal of Economics Management and Trade, 12(1), 1-9. DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/23135
  • Pizam, A., Tarlow, P., & Bloom, J. (1997). Making tourists feel safe: whose responsibility is it?. Journal of Travel Research, Summer, 23-28.
  • Santos, C., Silva, D., & Amorim, E. (2018). The impact of tourism security on the image of the destination-the case of Portugal. In paper for 7th international conference on tourism and hospitality management, 06-09 June Tomar-Portugal.
  • Sayan, İ. Ö., & Özgür, E. (2019). Kolluk Etiği. In T. Avaner & O. Zengin (Eds.), Türkiye’de Iç Güvenlik Yönetimi (pp. 379-410). Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi.
  • Seçilmiş, C. (2009). Turistlerin kişisel değişkenlerinin güvenlik algılamalarındaki rolü. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 8(30), 152-166.
  • Seçilmiş, C., & Ünlüönen, K. (2009). İstanbul’u ziyaret eden turistlerin güvenlik algılamaları üzerine bir araştırma. Journal of Business Research-Turk, 1(1), 65-84.
  • Şengül, S., Bayhan, İ., Genç, K., & Torun, M. K. (2017). Turizm destinasyonu seçiminde güvenlik algısı: Yozgat örneği. In paper for II. International Bozok Symposium, 04-06 May Yozgat-Türkiye.
  • Stewart, C. J., & Cash, W. B. (1985). Interviewing: Principles and Practices. Dubuque, IOWA: W. C. Brown Co.
  • Tarlow, P. E. (2000). Letter from America: A short history of tourism oriented policing services. Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 2(1), 55-58.
  • Tarlow, P. E. (2005). The impact of community policing on tourism and tourism oriented policing/protection services (TOPs). eReview of Tourism Research (eRTR), 3(1), 1-10.
  • Tarlow, P. E. (2009). Tourism Safety and Security. In T. Jamal & M. Robinson (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Studies (pp. 465-480). London: SAGE Publications. https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9780857021076.n26
  • Tarlow, P. E. (2012). How can your guests be sure they are safe?. Tourism Tidbits, Hotel Online News for the Hospitality Executive, May.
  • Tarlow, P. E. (2014a). Tourism Security: Strategies for Effectively Managing Travel Risk and Safety. Britain: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  • Tarlow, P. E. (2014b). Reflective epilogue: concerns in tourism safety. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 2(1), 68-70. https://doi.org/10.21427/D7R726
  • Tataroğlu, M., & Subaşı, E. (2009). Kolluk güçlerinde modernleşme: Muğla örneğinde turizm jandarması yapılanması. Journal of Management and Economics, 16(2), 73-93.
  • United Nations World Tourism Organization [UNWTO]. (1996). Tourist Safety and Security: Practical Measures for Destinations. Madrid: UNWTO-Pub.
  • Ünlüönen, K., Tayfun, A., & Kılıçlar, A. (2011). Turizm Ekonomisi. Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık.
  • Wilks, J. (2011). Policing in tourism. Travel Law Quarterly, 3(1), 30-34.
  • Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2013). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Hospitality Leisure Sport and Tourism
Published Date July 2023 (First Published Online 30-12-2022)
Journal Section Contents
Authors

Yusuf DÜNDAR>
AKSARAY UNIVERSITY, AKSARAY SOCIAL SCIENCES VOCATIONAL SCHOOL
0000-0002-4405-7557
Türkiye


Cemal Ersin SİLİK> (Primary Author)
Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli Üniversitesi
0000-0001-8662-4188
Türkiye


Erdem ÖZGÜR>
GENDARMERIE AND COAST GUARD ACADEMY
0000-0002-1403-4442
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu (TÜBİTAK)
Project Number 219K227
Thanks Bu eser 219K227 numaralı proje ile TÜBİTAK tarafından desteklenmiştir. Desteklerinden dolayı TÜBİTAK’a teşekkür ederiz. This research was supported by TUBITAK with the project number 219K227. We thank TÜBİTAK for their support.
Publication Date July 31, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1

Cite

APA Dündar, Y. , Silik, C. E. & Özgür, E. (2023). Specialization of law enforcement for tourism security: the case of Turkish Gendarmerie . Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Tourism , 8 (1) , 81-92 . DOI: 10.31822/jomat.2023-8-1-81



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