Year 2021, Volume 18 , Issue 1, Pages 157 - 168 2020-12-30

Determination of Colour and Kinetic Parameter Differences Between Aflatoxin Contaminated and Uncontaminated Pistachio Nuts Using Machine Vision
Determination of Colour and Kinetic Parameter Differences Between Aflatoxin Contaminated and Uncontaminated Pistachio Nuts Using Machine Vision

Ömer Barış ÖZLÜOYMAK [1] , Emin GÜZEL [2]


Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus species have a great important in the food industry, especially in dried nuts and fruits. Agricultural products are prone to the aflatoxins during the stages like harvesting, drying and storage. Rapid identification of aflatoxin contaminated products is of great interest to the food industry. The food companies start using screening technologies instead of human labour to become more profitable and accurate. Moreover, economical losses and diseases resulting from aflatoxin contamination are a significant problem. The objective of this study was to develop an image processing based aflatoxin contaminated in-shell pistachio nut identification system in order to separate aflatoxin contaminated pistachio nuts from the healthies one. Bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF), which indicates possible aflatoxin contamination, was investigated as a discriminating factor for identification of contaminated pistachio nuts. A total of 100 pistachio nut samples (50 BGYF+ and 50 BGYF-) were evaluated. In the study, imaging algorithms were developed in order to classify the pistachio nut samples as BGYF+ and BGYF-. The colour (L*, a* and b*) and kinetic (chroma, hue angle and browning index) parameters of each pistachio nut sample were analysed and differences between them were determined statistically. Colour and kinetic parameters were also grouped and associated each other by using factor analysis method to simplify the image processing algorithm. Statistically significant differences were found for all colour and kinetic parameters between two groups. According to the factor analysis results; chroma, a* and browning index values were substantially loaded on Factor 1, while hue angle and b* were substantially loaded on Factor 2. The remaining variable L* was substantially loaded on Factor 3. In future studies, an optimized (more effective and convenient) image processing algorithm for developing a new real-time determination and separation system will be enhanced based on the statistical analysis results. The results obtained from this study will form a basis for further investigations.

Aspergillus türleri tarafından üretilen aflatoksinler, gıda endüstrisinde, özellikle kuru fındık ve meyvelerde büyük önem taşımaktadır. Tarım ürünleri hasat, kurutma ve depolama gibi aşamalarda aflatoksinlere daha yatkındır. Aflatoksinli ürünlerin hızlı bir şekilde tanımlanması, gıda endüstrisi için büyük önem taşımaktadır. Gıda endüstrisi, daha karlı ve doğru sonuçlar elde etmek için insan gücü yerine görüntüleme teknolojilerini kullanmaya başladılar. Ayrıca aflatoksin kontaminasyonundan kaynaklanan ekonomik kayıplar ve hastalıklar da önemli bir sorun teşkil etmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, aflatoksinli antep fıstıklarını sağlıklı olanlardan ayırmak için görüntü işleme tabanlı bir aflatoksinli antep fıstığı tanımlama sistemi geliştirmektir. Olası aflatoksin kontaminasyonunu gösteren parlak yeşilimsi sarı floresan (BGYF), kontamine antep fıstıklarının tanımlanması için ayırt edici bir faktör olarak araştırılmıştır. Toplam 100 adet antep fıstığı örneği (50 BGYF+ ve 50 BGYF-) değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışmada, antep fıstığı örneklerini BGYF+ ve BGYF- olarak sınıflandırmak amacıyla görüntüleme algoritmaları geliştirilmiştir. Her bir antep fıstığı örneğinin renk (L*, a* ve b*) ile kinetik (kroma, renk tonu açısı ve kahverengileşme indeksi) parametreleri analiz edilmiş ve aralarındaki farklar istatistiksel olarak belirlenmiştir. Renk ve kinetik parametreler de gruplandırılmış, görüntü işleme algoritmasını basitleştirmek amacıyla faktör analizi yöntemi kullanılarak birbirleriyle ilişkilendirilmiştir. İki grup arasındaki tüm renk ve kinetik parametreler için istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılıklar bulunmuştur. Faktör analizi sonuçlarına göre; kroma, a* ve kahverengileşme indeksi değerleri büyük ölçüde Faktör 1'de yer alırken, renk ton açısı ve b* değerleri ise Faktör 2'de yer almıştır. Geriye kalan L* değeri ise Faktör 3'de yer almıştır. Gelecek çalışmalarda, yeni bir eş zamanlı tespit etme ve ayırma sistemi geliştirmek amacıyla optimize edilmiş (daha etkili ve kullanışlı) bir görüntü işleme algoritması, istatistiksel analiz sonuçlarına dayalı olarak geliştirilecektir. Bu çalışmadan elde edilen sonuçlar daha ileri araştırmalar için de bir temel oluşturacaktır.

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Primary Language en
Subjects Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-6721-0964
Author: Ömer Barış ÖZLÜOYMAK (Primary Author)
Institution: CUKUROVA UNIVERSITY
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-1827-9674
Author: Emin GÜZEL
Institution: CUKUROVA UNIVERSITY
Country: Turkey


Dates

Application Date : June 15, 2020
Acceptance Date : November 12, 2020
Publication Date : December 30, 2020

Bibtex @research article { jotaf753185, journal = {Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1302-7050}, eissn = {2146-5894}, address = {}, publisher = {Namik Kemal University}, year = {2020}, volume = {18}, pages = {157 - 168}, doi = {10.33462/jotaf.753185}, title = {Determination of Colour and Kinetic Parameter Differences Between Aflatoxin Contaminated and Uncontaminated Pistachio Nuts Using Machine Vision}, key = {cite}, author = {Özlüoymak, Ömer Barış and Güzel, Emin} }
APA Özlüoymak, Ö , Güzel, E . (2020). Determination of Colour and Kinetic Parameter Differences Between Aflatoxin Contaminated and Uncontaminated Pistachio Nuts Using Machine Vision . Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi , 18 (1) , 157-168 . DOI: 10.33462/jotaf.753185
MLA Özlüoymak, Ö , Güzel, E . "Determination of Colour and Kinetic Parameter Differences Between Aflatoxin Contaminated and Uncontaminated Pistachio Nuts Using Machine Vision" . Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 (2020 ): 157-168 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jotaf/issue/59022/753185>
Chicago Özlüoymak, Ö , Güzel, E . "Determination of Colour and Kinetic Parameter Differences Between Aflatoxin Contaminated and Uncontaminated Pistachio Nuts Using Machine Vision". Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 (2020 ): 157-168
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Determination of Colour and Kinetic Parameter Differences Between Aflatoxin Contaminated and Uncontaminated Pistachio Nuts Using Machine Vision AU - Ömer Barış Özlüoymak , Emin Güzel Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.33462/jotaf.753185 DO - 10.33462/jotaf.753185 T2 - Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 157 EP - 168 VL - 18 IS - 1 SN - 1302-7050-2146-5894 M3 - doi: 10.33462/jotaf.753185 UR - https://doi.org/10.33462/jotaf.753185 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi Determination of Colour and Kinetic Parameter Differences Between Aflatoxin Contaminated and Uncontaminated Pistachio Nuts Using Machine Vision %A Ömer Barış Özlüoymak , Emin Güzel %T Determination of Colour and Kinetic Parameter Differences Between Aflatoxin Contaminated and Uncontaminated Pistachio Nuts Using Machine Vision %D 2020 %J Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1302-7050-2146-5894 %V 18 %N 1 %R doi: 10.33462/jotaf.753185 %U 10.33462/jotaf.753185
ISNAD Özlüoymak, Ömer Barış , Güzel, Emin . "Determination of Colour and Kinetic Parameter Differences Between Aflatoxin Contaminated and Uncontaminated Pistachio Nuts Using Machine Vision". Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 / 1 (December 2020): 157-168 . https://doi.org/10.33462/jotaf.753185
AMA Özlüoymak Ö , Güzel E . Determination of Colour and Kinetic Parameter Differences Between Aflatoxin Contaminated and Uncontaminated Pistachio Nuts Using Machine Vision. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi. 2020; 18(1): 157-168.
Vancouver Özlüoymak Ö , Güzel E . Determination of Colour and Kinetic Parameter Differences Between Aflatoxin Contaminated and Uncontaminated Pistachio Nuts Using Machine Vision. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi. 2020; 18(1): 157-168.
IEEE Ö. Özlüoymak and E. Güzel , "Determination of Colour and Kinetic Parameter Differences Between Aflatoxin Contaminated and Uncontaminated Pistachio Nuts Using Machine Vision", Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 157-168, Dec. 2021, doi:10.33462/jotaf.753185