Year 2020, Volume 2 , Issue 1, Pages 5 - 23 2020-07-20

Do Green Building Standards Meet the Biophilic Design Strategies?

Beyza ŞAT GÜNGÖR [1]

Energy efficiency in buildings, comprises many things as mitigation effect of global warming and climate change, decreasing heat island effect in the built environment and also conservation of natural resources. Besides as a new phenomenon we should add biophilic design criteria to the green building tools to increase human productivity by considering human wellbeing. Biophilic design, which inspired by nature, is a new juvenile design concept that gains importance day by day because of its positive effects on human wellbeing mood and relatedly human productivity. Here some conflicts can be occurred between energy saving and human wellbeing; as natural ventilation and energy saving. Biophilic design comprises inherent human inclination to affiliate with nature. All sensations which help to be in contact with natural components as daylight, plants or some animal species like birds; plants occupy an important place in its definition. Biophilic design seeks to create good habitat for people as a biological organism in the modern built environment that promotes people’s health, fitness and wellbeing. Scientific studies reveal that contact with nature has significant effects on people’s physical and mental health, performance and wellbeing. This phenomenon has, an increasing importance more than ever before, especially in daily life. The need for beneficial contact with nature continues in today’s built environment. This paper aims to determine whether the biophilic design strategies are match with green building tools that mostly targeting energy saving in built environment. Also paper handling whether the 14 biophilic design patterns are match with 3 main mind-body systems that are; stress reduction, cognitive performance and emotion mood preference.
biophilic design, natural systems, energy saving, green building tools, mind-body systems
  • Alexander, C. (2002). The Nature of Order. Center for Environmental Structure. Berkeley, California. Beatley, T. (2016). Handbook of Biophilic City Planning and Design. Island Press, Washington D.C.
  • Alvarsson, J., S. Wiens & M. Nilsson (2010). Stress Recovery during Exposure to Nature Sound and Environmental Noise. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7 (3), 1036-1046.
  • Ambrey, C., Fleming, C. (2014). Public greenspace and life satisfaction in urban Australia. Urban Stud. 51, 1290e1321.
  • Arens, E., H. Zhang, & C. Huizenga (2006). Partial- and Whole-body Thermal Sensation and Comfort, Part II: Non-uniform Environmental Conditions. Journal of Thermal Biology, 31, 60-66.
  • Aries, M.B.C., Aarts, M.P.J., van Hoof, J. (2015). Daylight and health: a review of the evidence and consequences for the built environment. Light. Res. Technol. 47, 6e27.
  • Barton, J., Pretty, J. (2010). What is the best dose of nature and green exercise for improving mental health? A multi-study analysis. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 3947e3955.
  • Beaumadier, J. (2006). [photograph]. Palais du Luxemburg, Paris. Retrieved from
  • Beatley, T. (2011). Biophilic Cities: Integrating Nature into Urban Design and Planning. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  • Beatley, T. (2000). Green Urbanism: Learning from European Cities. Island Press, Washington DC.
  • Beatley, T. (2012). Singapore: how to grow a high-rise city in a garden. Site Lines 8, 14e17.
  • Beauchamp, M.S., K.E. Lee, J.V. Haxby,& A. Martin (2003). FMRI Responses To Video and Point-Light Displays of Moving Humans and Manipulable Objects. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15 (7), 991-1001.
  • Beckett, M. & L.C. Roden (2009). Mechanisms by which circadian rhythm disruption may lead to cancer. South African Journal of Science 105, November/December 2009.
  • Biederman, I. & E. Vessel (2006). Perceptual Pleasure & the Brain. American Scientist, 94(1), 249-255.
  • Biederman, I. (2011). University of Southern California, Department of Psychology. Personal communication with the authors.
  • Blood, A., & R.J. Zatorre (2001). Intensely Pleasurable Responses to Music Correlate with Activity in Brain Regions. Proceedings from the National Academy of Sciences, 98 (20), 11818-11823.
  • Brown, D.K., J.L. Barton, & V.F. Gladwell (2013). Viewing Nature Scenes Positively Affects Recovery of Autonomic Function Following Acute-Mental Stress. Environmental Science & Technology, 47, 5562-5569.
  • Browning , W.D., Ryan, C.O., Clancy, J.O. (2014). 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design. New York: Terrapin Bright Green llc.
  • Browning, W., Ryan, C., Clancy, J. (2014). 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design, Improving Health & Well-being in the Built Environment. Terrapin Bright Green LLC, New York, p. 62.
  • Chang, C.-Y., Chen, P.-K. (2005). human response to window views and indoor plants in the workplace. In: HortScience, vol. 40, pp. 1354e1359.
  • Clearwater, Y.A., & R.G. Coss (1991). Functional Esthetics to Enhance Wellbeing. In Harrison, Clearwater & McKay (Eds.). From Antarctica to Outer Space. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp410.
  • de Dear, R. & G. Brager (2002). Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings. Energy and Buildings, 34, 549-561.
  • Elzeyadi, I.M.K. (2012). Quantifying the Impacts of Green Schools on People and Planet. Research presented at the USGBC Greenbuild Conference & Expo, San Francisco, November 2012, 48-60.
  • Figueiro, M.G., J.A. Brons, B. Plitnick, B. Donlan, R.P. Leslie, & M.S. Rea (2011). Measuring circadian light and its impact on adolescents. Light Res Technol. 43 (2): 201-215.
  • Fromm, E. (1964). The Heart of Man. Harper & Row
  • Gonzalez, M.T., Kirkevold, M. (2014). Benefits of sensory garden and horticultural activities in dementia care: a modified scoping review. J. Clin. Nurs. 23, 2698e2715.
  • Gou, Z., Prasad, D., Lau, S.S.-Y. (2014). Impacts of green certifications, ventilation and office types on occupant satisfaction with indoor environmental quality. Architect. Sci. Rev. 57, 196e206.
  • Grahn, P. & U.K. Stigsdotter (2010). The Relation Between Perceived Sensory Dimensions of Urban Green Space and Stress Restoration. Landscape and Urban Planning 94, 264-275.
  • Hartig, T., M. Mang, & G. W. Evans (1991). Restorative Effects of Natural Environment Experience. Environment and Behavior, 23, 3–26.
  • Hartig, T., G.W. Evans, L.D. Jamner, D.S. Davis, & T. Gärling (2003). Tracking Restoration in Natural and Urban Field Settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 109–123.
  • Heerwagen, J.H. (2006). Investing In People: The Social Benefits of Sustainable Design. Rethinking Sustainable Construction. Sarasota, FL. September 19-22, 2006.
  • Heerwagen, J.H. & G.H. Orians (1993). Humans, Habitats and Aesthetics. In: S.R. Kellert & R.S. Wilson (Eds.). The Biophilia Hypothesis (138-172). Washington: Island Press. pp484.
  • Heschong, L. (1979). Thermal Delight in Architecture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Herzog, T.R. & A.G. Bryce (2007). Mystery and Preference in Within-Forest Settings. Environment and Behavior, 39 (6), 779-796.
  • Hägerhäll, C.M., T. Laike, R. P. Taylor, M. Küller, R. Küller, & T. P. Martin (2008). Investigations of Human EEG Response to Viewing Fractal Patterns. Perception, 37, 1488-1494.
  • Hägerhäll, C.M., T. Purcella, & R. Taylor (2004). Fractal Dimension of Landscape Silhouette Outlines as a Predictor of Landscape Preference. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 24, 247-255.
  • Hraska, J. (2015). Chronobiological aspects of green buildings daylighting. Renew.Energy 73,109e114.
  • Hunter, M.D., Eickhoff, S.B., Pheasant, R.J., Douglas, M.J., Watts, G.R., Farrow, T.F.D., Hyland, D., Kang, J., Wilkinson, I.D., Horoshenkov, K.V., Woodruff, P.W.R. (2010). The state of tranquility: subjective perception is shaped by contextual modulation of auditory connectivity. Neuro Image 53, 611e618.
  • Hwang, Y.H., Yue, Z.E.J. (2015). Observation of biodiversity on minimally managed green roofs in a tropical city. J. Living Archit. 2, 9e26.
  • Hwang, B.G., Shan, M., Tan, E.K. (2016). Investigating reworks in green building construction projects: magnitude, influential factors, and solutions. Int. J. Environ. Res. 10 (4), 499–510.
  • Ignatius, M., Wong, N.H., Jusuf, S.K. (2015). Urban microclimate analysis with consideration of local ambient temperature, external heat gain, urban ventilation, and outdoor thermal comfort in the tropics. Sustain. Cities Soc. 19, 121e135.
  • Ikemi, M. (2005). The Effects of Mystery on Preference for Residential Facades. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25, 167–173.
  • International well building institude (2019, October, 21). Retrieved from
  • Jahncke, H., S. Hygge, N. Halin, A.M. Green, & K. Dimberg (2011). Open-Plan Office Noise: Cognitive Performance and Restoration. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31, 373-382.
  • Joye, Y. (2007). Architectural Lessons From Environmental Psychology: The Case of Biophilic Architecture. Review of General Psychology, 11 (4), 305-328.
  • Kahn, Jr. P.H., B. Friedman, B. Gill, J. Hagman, R.L. Severson, N.G. Freier, E.N. Feldman, S. Carrere, & A. Stolyar (2008). A Plasma Display Window? The Shifting Baseline Problem in a Technology Mediated Natural World. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28 (1), 192-199.
  • Kaplan, R. & S. Kaplan (1989). The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kaplan, S. (1988). Perception and Landscape: Conceptions and Misconceptions. In J. Nasar (Ed.), Environmental Aesthetics: Theory, Research, and Applications (pp. 45– 55). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  • Karmanov, D. & Hamel, R. (2008). Assessing the restorative potential of contemporary urban environment(s). Landscape and Urban Planning 86, 115-125.
  • Kellert, S.R. (2008). Biophilia A2- Jorgensen sven erik . In: Fath B.D. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Ecology. Academic Press, Oxford, pp: 462-466. Kellert, S.R., Heerwagen, J., Mador, M. (2011). Biophilic Design: The theory, science and proctice of bringing buildings to life, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N.J.
  • Kellert, S.R., Heerwagen, J., Mador, M. (2008). Biophilic Design: the Theory, Science and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life. Wiley, Hoboken, N.J., p. 385
  • Kim, S.Y. & J.J. Kim (2007). Effect of fluctuating illuminance on visual sensation in a small office. Indoor and Built Environment 16 (4): 331–343.
  • Kim, J.T., C.J. Ren, G.A. Fielding, A. Pitti, T. Kasumi, M. Wajda, A. Lebovits, & A. Bekker (2007). Treatment with Lavender Aromatherapy in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit Reduces Opioid Requirements of Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding. Obesity Surgery, 17 (7), 920-925.
  • Kohno, M., D.G. Ghahremani, A.M. Morales, C.L. Robertson, K. Ishibashi, A.T. Morgan, M.A. Mandelkern & E.D. London (2013) Risk-Taking Behavior: Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors, Feedback, and Frontolimbic Activity. Cerebral Cortex, bht218. First published online: August 21, 2013
  • Lee, S.H. (2019). Effects of biophilic design on consumer responses in the lodging industry. International Journal of Hospitality Mnagement 83: 141-150.
  • Li, Q., M. Kobayashi, H. Inagaki, Y. Wakayama, M. Katsumata, Y. Hirata, Y. Li, K. Hirata, T. Shimizu, A. Nakadai, & T. Kawada (2012). Effect of Phytoncides from Forest Environments on Immune Function. In Q. Li (Ed.). Forest Medicine (157-167). ebook: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Lichtenfeld, S., Elliot, A.J., Maier, M.A., Pekrun, R. (2012). Fertile Green: Green Facilitates Creative Performance, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 38, pp. 784e797.
  • Malnar, J.M., Vodvarka, F. (2004). Sensory Design. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
  • Maes, J., Liquete, C., Teller, A., Erhard, M., Paracchini, M.L., Barredo, J.I., Grizzetti, B., Cardoso, A., Somma, F., Petersen, J.-E., Meiner, A., Gelabert, E.R., Zal, N., Kristensen, P., Bastrup-Birk, A., Biala, K., Piroddi, C., Egoh, B., Degeorges, P.,Fiorina, C., Santos-Martín, F., Naru_sevi_cius, V., Verboven, J., Pereira, H.M., Bengtsson, J., Gocheva, K., Marta-Pedroso, C., Sn€all, T., Estreguil, C., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., P_erez-Soba, M., Gr^et-Regamey, A., Lillebø, A.I., Malak, D.A., Cond_e, S., Moen, J., Czúcz, B., Drakou, E.G., Zulian, G., Lavalle, C. (2016). An indicator framework for assessing ecosystem services in support of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Ecosyst. Serv. 17, 14e23.
  • Morton, J. (2015). Support occupant health with the WELL building standard. Buildings 109 (9), 19–19,21.
  • Oldfield, E.E., Felson, A.J., Auyeung, D.S.N., Crowther, T.W., Sonti, N.F., Harada, Y., Maynard, D.S., Sokol, N.W., Ashton, M.S., Warren, R.J., Hallett, R.A., Bradford, M.A. (2015). Growing the urban forest: tree performance in response to biotic and abiotic land management. Restor. Ecol. 23, 707e718.
  • Park, B.J., Y. Tsunetsugu, T. Kasetani, T. Morikawa, T. Kagawa, & Y. Miyazaki (2009). Physiological Effects of Forest Recreation in a Young Conifer Forest in Hinokage Town, Japan. Silva Fennica, 43 (2), 291-301.
  • Parkinson, T., R. de Dear, & C. Candido (2012). Perception of Transient Thermal Environments: Pleasure and Alliesthesia. In Proceedings of 7th Windsor Conference, Windsor, UK.
  • Pawlyn, M. (2011). Biomimicry in Architecture. RIBA Publishing, London.
  • Petherick, N. (2000). Environmental Design and Fear: The Prospect-Refuge Model and the University College of the Cariboo Campus. Western Geography, 10 (1), 89-112.
  • Reeve, A., Nieberler-Walker, K., Desha, C. (2017). Healing gardens in children’s hospitals: reflections on benefits, preferences and design from visitors’ boks. Urban Fro. Urban Green, 26, 48-56.
  • Ruso, B., & K. Atzwanger (2003). Measuring Immediate Behavioural Responses to the Environment. The Michigan Psychologist, 4, p. 12.
  • Ryan, C. (2014). An Introduction to Bophilia. (2014, November 10). Retrieved January 13, 2020, from
  • Salimpoor, V.N., M. Benovoy, K. Larcher, A. Dagher, & R. J. Zatorre (2011). Anatomically Distinct Dopamine Release During Anticipation and Experience of Peak Emotion to Music. Nature Neuroscience, 14 (2), 257-264.
  • Salingaros, N.A. (2012). Fractal Art and Architecture Reduce Physiological Stress. Journal of Biourbanism, 2 (2), 11-28.
  • Sanchez, J.A., Ikaga, T., Sanchez, V.A. (2018). Quantitative improvement in workplace performance through biophilic design: A pilot experiment case study. Energy & Buildings 177: 316-328.
  • Schweitzer, M., Gilpin, L., Frampton, S. (2004). Healing spaces: elements of environmental design that make an impact on health. J. Alternative Compl. Med. 10. S-71-S-83.
  • Senosiain Aguilar, J. (2003). Bio-architecture. Architectural Press, Oxford (Burlington, Mass).
  • Shan, M., Hwang, B.-G. (2018). Green building rating systems: global reviews of practices and research efforts. Sustain. Cities Soc. 39, 172–180. 2018.02.034
  • Stigsdotter, U.A. & P. Grahn (2003). Experiencing a Garden: A Healing Garden for People Suffering from Burnout Diseases. Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, 14, 38-48.
  • Stovin, V. (2009). Green Roofs and Stormwater Management. Department of Civil and Structural Engineering Pennine Water Group University of Sheffield, p. 44.
  • Süter, A. (2015). Art made of science – Microspheres.”. Retrieved January 13, 2020, from
  • Taylor, R.P., (2006). Reduction of Physiological Stress Using Fractal Art and Architecture. Leonardo, 39 (3), 245–251.
  • Tham, K.W. & H.C. Willem (2005). Temperature and Ventilation Effects on Performance and Neurobehavioral- Related Symptoms of Tropically Acclimatized Call Center Operators Near Thermal Neutrality. ASHRAE Transactions, 687-698.
  • Tsunetsugu, Y., Miyazaki, Y., Sato, H. (2007). Physiological effects in humans induced by the visual stimulation of room interiors with different wood quantities. J. Wood Sci. 53, 11e16.
  • Tsunetsugu, Y. & Y. Miyazaki (2005). Measurement of Absolute Hemoglobin Concentrations of Prefrontal Region by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy: Examples of Experiments and Prospects. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science, 24 (4), 469-72.
  • Tsunetsugu, Y., Y. Miyazaki, & H. Sato (2007). Physiological Effects in Humans Induced by the Visual Stimulation of Room Interiors with Different Wood Quantities. Journal of Wood Science, 53 (1), 11-16.
  • Ulrich, R.S. (1983). Aesthetic and Affective Response to Natural Environment. In I. Altman, & J. F. Wohlwill (Eds.), Behavior and the Natural Environment (85-125). New York: Plenum Press.
  • Ulrich, R.S., Simons, R.F., Losito, B.D., Fiorito, E., Miles, M.A., Zelson, M. (1991). Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. J. Environ. Psychol. 11, 201e230.
  • UN-HABITAT. State of the World’s Cities: Harmonious Cities. London Sterling. VA Nairobi, Kenya: Earthscan. (2019, January, 8). Retriewed from
  • USGBC. (2013). LEED V4 Reference Guide for Building Design and Construction. U.S. Green Building Council, Washington, DC.
  • van den Berg, A.E., T. Hartig, & H. Staats (2007). Preference for Nature in Urbanized Societies: Stress, Restoration, and the Pursuit of Sustainability. Journal of Social Issues, 63 (1), 79-96.
  • Vessel, Edward A. (2012). New York University Center for Brain Imaging. Personal communication with the authors.
  • Wang, K. & R.B. Taylor (2006). Simulated Walks through Dangerous Alleys: Impacts of Features and Progress on Fear. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 26, 269-283.
  • Wang, D.V. & J.Z. Tsien (2011). Convergent Processing of Both Positive and Negative Motivational Signals by the VTA Dopamine Neuronal Populations. PLoS ONE 6(2), e17047. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017047.
  • WGBC. (2014). Health, wellbeing & productivity in offices: the next chapter for green building. In: Council, W.G.B. (Ed.), Health, Wellbeing and Productivity. World Green Building Council, UK, p. 87.
  • White, M., Smith, A., Humphryes, K., Pahl, S., Snelling, D., Depledge, M. (2010). Blue space: the importance of water for preference, affect, and restorativeness ratings of natural and built scenes. J. Environ. Psychol. 30, 482e493.
  • Wigö, H. (2005). Technique and Human Perception of Intermittent Air Velocity Variation. KTH Research School, Centre for Built Environment.
  • Wilson E.O. (1984). Biophilia: The Human Bond With Other Soecies, Harward University Press, Cambridge.
  • Wilson E.O. (1993). Biophilia and the conservation ethic. In SR Kellert & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The Biophilia Hypothesis, 2-41.
  • Windhager, S., K. Atzwangera, F.L. Booksteina, & K. Schaefera (2011). Fish in a Mall Aquarium-An Ethological Investigation of Biophilia. Landscape and Urban Planning, 99, 23–30.
  • Xie, X.H., Gou, Z.H. (2017). Building performance simulation as an early intervention or late verification in architectural design: same performance outcome but different design solutions. J. Green Build. 12 (1), 45–61. 12.1.45.
  • Xue F, Zhonghua G., Stephen Siu-Yu Lau, Siu Kit Lau, Kin-Hung Chung. (2019a). From biophilic design to biophilic urbanism: stakeholders’ perspectives. Journal of Cleaner Production 211: 1444-1452.
  • Xue, F., Stephen S.Y.L., Zhonghua G., Yifan S., Boya J. (2019b). Incorporating biophilia into green building rating tools for promoting health and wellbeing. Environmental Impact Assesment Review 76: 98-112.
  • Xue, F., Gou, Z., Lau, S.S.Y., (2017). Green open space in high-dense Asian cities: site configurations, microclimates and users' perceptions. Sustain. Cities Soc. 34, 114e125.
  • Ye, L., Cheng, Z., Wang, Q., Lin, H., Lin, C., Liu, B. (2015). Developments of green building standards in China. Renew. Energy 73, 115–122. 2014.05.014.
  • Zadeh, R.S., Shepley, M.M.Williams, G., Chung, S.S.E. (2014). The impact of Windows and daylight on acute-care nurses’ physiological, physiological and behavirol health. Herd Health Environ. Res. Des. J 7 (4), 35-61.
  • Zald, D.H., R.L. Cowan, P. Riccardi, R.M. Baldwin, M.S. Ansari, R. Li, E.S. Shelby, C.E. Smith, M. McHugo, & R.M. Kessler (2008). Midbrain Dopamine Receptor Availability Is Inversely Associated with Novelty-Seeking Traits in Humans. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31 December 2008, 28(53), 14372-14378; doi: 10.1523/ JNEUROSCI.2423-08.2008
  • Zbaśnik-Senega_enik, M., Kuzman, M.K. (2014). Interpretations of organic architecture. Prostor 22, 290e301.
  • Zevi, B. (1959). Towards an Organic Architecture. Faber & Faber, London. Zou, Y., Zhao, W., Zhong, R. (2017). The spatial distribution of green buildings in China: regional imbalance, economic fundamentals, and policy incentives. Appl. Geogr. 88, 38–47.
  • Zhang, H. (2003). Human Thermal Sensation and Comfort in Transient and Non-Uniform Thermal Environments, Ph.D. Thesis, CEDR, University of California at Berkeley,
  • Zhang H, E. Arens, C. Huizenga, & T. Han (2010). Thermal Sensation and Comfort Models for Non-Uniform and Transient Environments: Part II: Local Comfort of Individual Body Parts. Building and Environment, 45 (2), 389-398.
Primary Language en
Subjects Architecture
Journal Section Research Articles

Orcid: 0000-0003-2579-8349
Author: Beyza ŞAT GÜNGÖR (Primary Author)
Institution: Özyeğin University Faculty of Architecture and Design
Country: Turkey


Publication Date : July 20, 2020

APA Şat Güngör, B . (2020). Do Green Building Standards Meet the Biophilic Design Strategies? . Journal of Design Studio , 2 (1) , 5-23 . Retrieved from