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Visual culture theory and material culture in art education within the scope of ideological discussions

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 198 - 221, 31.08.2021

Abstract

In this study, Visual Culture Theory in art education and Material Culture, which is very similar to Visual Culture in content were examined. Both approaches were compared and evaluated in their contents and fundamentals in an historical manner. Although, it has not been commonly considered in Turkey, Visual Culture Theory, specifically; has been criticized as having a Neo-Marxist or Cultural Marxist agenda stemming from Critical Theory, nonetheless it is also viewed as being just another recent postmodernist approach. One of the critiques of Visual Culture is its having very limited studio and art practices or not having at all. As being a controversial theoretical account, Visual Culture approach seems widely not to be understood in its conceptual frame, content and fundamentals among art teachers in Turkey. It is observed that Visual Culture practices commonly focused on consumer society, capitalist marketing strategies, media and communication aspects in Turkey. The political theories are commonly unknown and therefore usually not considered in education literature. The Critical Theory philosophy and political strategies born in the Frankfurt School could be identified as the rationale behind the Visual Culture Theory. On the other hand, the Material Culture Studies is exempt from these discussions. The name ‘Visual Culture’ is also claimed to cause misunderstandings since the term ‘visual culture’ has very common uses in daily language meaning other things than the content of Visual Culture Theory. The controversial approaches, critiques and discussions about the Visual Culture Theory have also been investigated. Even though, having been criticized as an ideologically oriented theory, Visual Culture Theory clearly contributes to the field at great extent. The content and fundamentals of Visual Culture Theory and its feasibility in terms of application and practices in Turkish national art education curricula is also discussed in this study.

References

  • Basak, R. (2021). Teacher Opinions and Perspectives of Visual Culture Theory and Material Culture Studies in Art Education. Journal of Education in Black Sea Region, 6(2), 186-211.
  • Beltagui, A., ve Schmidt, T. (2017). Why can’t we all get along? A study of Hygge and Janteloven in a Danish social-casual games community. Games and Culture, 12(5), 403-425.
  • Boughton, D. (2004). The problem of seduction: Assessing visual culture. Studies in Art Education, 45(3), 265-269.
  • Burton, J. M. (2000). The configuration of meaning: learner-centered art education revisited. Studies in Art Education, 41(4), 330-345.
  • Chalmers, G. (2005). Visual culture education in the 1960s. Art Education, 58(6), 6-11.
  • Duncum, P. (1982). Toward locating children’s spontaneous drawing during middle childhood within art education. Journal of the Institute of Art Education, 6(1-2), 69-86.
  • Duncum, P. (1987). What, even Dallas? Popular culture within the general art curriculum. Studies in Art Education, 29(1), 6-16.
  • Duncum, P. (1997). Art education for new times. Studies in Art Education, 38(2), 69-79.
  • Duncum, P. (2003). The theories and practices of visual culture in art education. Arts Education Policy Review, 105(2), 19-25.
  • Duncum, P. (2009). Visual Culture in art education, circa 2009. Visual Arts Research, 35(1), 64-75.
  • Duncum, P. (2010). Seven principles for visual culture education. Art Education, 63(1), 6-10.
  • Dutton, D. (2009). The Art Instinct: Beauty, pleasure and human evolution. New York: Bloomsbury Press.
  • Dutton, D. (2013). Aesthetics and evolutionary psychology. In J. Levinson (Ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics (pp. 693-705). Oxford University Press.
  • Efland, A. (2005). Problems confronting visual culture. Art Education, 58(6), 35-40.
  • Enculturation. (2019). Merriam-Webster online İngilizce sözlük. Erişim Linki: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/enculturation
  • Gramsci, A. (2021, 21 Ocak). Antonio Gramsci, Cultural Marxism, wokeness, and Leninism 4.0. [Video] YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdsSIWh_VkQ&list=PL2XZFDA4TkUZZeGXK0lW8V6mPkg4rdkGV&index=15&t=1313s
  • Hicks, S. (2017, 1 Ağustos). Stephen Hicks: Nietzsche perfectly forecasts the postmodernist Left. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KbA9ALOrHaA
  • Hicks, S. (2018, 24 Mart). Stephen Hicks: Explaining postmodernism in 2018. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-BGbHG63x8w&t=7915s
  • Heise, D. (2004). Is visual culture becoming our canon of art? Art Education, 57(5), 41-46.
  • Janša, J. (2020, 19 Eylül). The Dangers of Cultural Marxism to Europe. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACyLMJOY0wM&list=PL2XZFDA4TkUZZeGXK0lW8V6mPkg4rdkGV&index=2&t=192s
  • Lehmann, C. (2018, 26 Temmuz). What is Marx’s ‘Conflict Theory’ doing to our politics? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9xAvkJpm7Nk&list=PL2XZFDA4TkUZZeGXK0lW8V6mPkg4rdkGV&index=13
  • Mamur, N. (2012). Perceptions concerning visual culture dialogues of visual art pre-service teachers. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12(3), 2166-2173.
  • Mamur, N. (2020). A critical analysis of aesthetics and cultural texture of shopping malls in teacher education: The ideology of space. International Journal of Education & the Arts, 20(27). http://doi.org/10.26209/ijea21n27
  • Marxism. (2019). Online Ansiklopedi Maddesi. Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Erişim linki: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/marx/
  • Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Sözlük maddesi: ‘Modern’. Merriam-Webster.com online sözlük. Erişim tarihi ve linki: 17 Mayıs 2021, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/modern
  • Özsoy, V., Mamur, N., ve Sarıbaş, S. (2020). Use of visual culture in visual arts courses: Opinions of participating teachers after TUBITAK-4005 Project. Pegem Eğitim ve Öğretim Dergisi, 10(3), 767-808.
  • Pariser, D. (2019). Dead cat, living horse: Losing our heads over theory. Studies in Art Education, 60(1), 69-74.
  • Peterson, J. (2018a, 20 Ocak). Postmodernism in a nutshell- Jordan Peterson. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=el6TVEMnS3E
  • Peterson, J. (2018b, 10 Nisan). Jordan Peterson- Winston Churchill predicted the death of our civilization. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYmMQ-xFP10
  • Peterson, J. (2017a, 21 Ağustos). Jordan Peterson – Studies in Scandinavian Men & Women. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hFBk1iLMPds&t=2s
  • Peterson, J. (2017b, 7 Ekim). Why do the Neomarxists and the postmodernists ally themselves - Jordan Peterson and Camille paglia. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M9sbsf0nal0
  • Santini, C. (2021, 17 Mayıs). Kintsugi spirit: finding strength in imperfection. https://esprit-kintsugi.com/en/quest-ce-que-le-kintsugi/
  • Smith, R. A. (2005). Efland on the aesthetic and visual culture: A response. Studies in Art Education, 46(3), 284-288.
  • Tavin, K. ve Tervo, J. (2018). How soon is now? Post-conditions in art education. Studies in Art Education, 59(4), 282-296.
  • Thompson, C. M. (2003). Kinderculture in the art classroom: Early childhood art and the mediation of culture. Studies in Art Education, 44(2), 135-146.
  • Trahan, R. (2020, 16 Kasım). What is Critical Race Theory? A former critical theorist answers. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqaCDXosfuU&t=1172s
  • Türkcan, B., ve Yaşar, Ş. (2011). The role of visual culture studies on primary school students’ interpretation of visual world. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 11(3), 1564-1570.
  • Yılmaz, M., Yılmaz, U., ve Demir-Yılmaz, E. N. (2019). The relation between social learning and visual culture. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 11(4), 421-427.

Görsel sanatlar eğitiminde ideoloji tartışmaları temelinde görsel kültür kuramı ve materyal kültürü

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 198 - 221, 31.08.2021

Abstract

Bu makalede, görsel sanatlar eğitiminde yaygınlaşan bir kuram olan Görsel Kültür Kuramı ile birlikte, içerik olarak ona benzerlik taşıyan, ancak kavramsal temel prensipleri bakımından oldukça farklı bir alan olan Materyal Kültürü Araştırmaları incelenmiş, tarihsel kökleri bağlamında iki yaklaşıma yönelik eleştiriler ve kıyaslamalar ortaya konulmuştur. Ülkemizde pek bahsedilmemekle beraber, Görsel Kültür Kuramı’nın ideolojik gizli bir gündeme hizmet ettiği görüşü, uzun zamandır yaygın olarak tartışılmaktadır. Görsel Kültür Kuramı, Frankfurt Okulu’ndan doğan Eleştirel Kuram bağlantılı gizli Neo-Marxist veya Kültürel Marxist bir yaklaşım olmakla eleştirilen, kimilerine göre ise sadece postmodernist bir yaklaşım olan bir sanat eğitimi kuramıdır. Kurama getirilen yaygın eleştirilerden bir diğeri ise atölye uygulamaları konusundaki içerik yetersizliğidir. Tartışmalı bir sanat eğitimi kuramı olan Görsel Kültür Kuramı’nın, kavramsal temelleri ve içeriği bakımından Türkiye’de yaygın olarak pek anlaşılmadığı görülmektedir. Ülkemizde kuramın sadece tüketici toplumu, popüler kültür, kapitalist pazarlama yöntemleri, medya ve iletişim gibi boyutlarının ele alındığı görülmektedir. Bunun sebebi olarak Frankfurt Okulu temelli gizli kuramsal yöntem ve stratejiler ve bunun yanında politik teorilerin sanat eğitimi alanında pek bilinmemesi görülebilir. Materyal Kültürü Araştırmaları alanı bu tartışmaların dışındadır. Diğer taraftan siyasî boyutunun gizlenmesinde kuramın adının ‘Görsel Kültür’ olmasının rolü ve katkısı olduğu da düşünülmektedir. Bu araştırmada Görsel Kültür Kuramı’na yönelik görüşler ve kuramın içeriği hakkında tartışmalar ele alınmıştır. İdeolojik amaçlı olmakla eleştirilse de, pedagojik bir yöntem olarak sanat eğitimi alanına önemli katkılar sağladığı açık olan bu kuramın içeriği ve kuram hakkındaki tartışmalardan yola çıkılarak Milli Eğitim Sistemimiz içerisinde bu kuramın ülkemizdeki uygulanabilirliği de kuramsal bakımdan incelenmiştir.

References

  • Basak, R. (2021). Teacher Opinions and Perspectives of Visual Culture Theory and Material Culture Studies in Art Education. Journal of Education in Black Sea Region, 6(2), 186-211.
  • Beltagui, A., ve Schmidt, T. (2017). Why can’t we all get along? A study of Hygge and Janteloven in a Danish social-casual games community. Games and Culture, 12(5), 403-425.
  • Boughton, D. (2004). The problem of seduction: Assessing visual culture. Studies in Art Education, 45(3), 265-269.
  • Burton, J. M. (2000). The configuration of meaning: learner-centered art education revisited. Studies in Art Education, 41(4), 330-345.
  • Chalmers, G. (2005). Visual culture education in the 1960s. Art Education, 58(6), 6-11.
  • Duncum, P. (1982). Toward locating children’s spontaneous drawing during middle childhood within art education. Journal of the Institute of Art Education, 6(1-2), 69-86.
  • Duncum, P. (1987). What, even Dallas? Popular culture within the general art curriculum. Studies in Art Education, 29(1), 6-16.
  • Duncum, P. (1997). Art education for new times. Studies in Art Education, 38(2), 69-79.
  • Duncum, P. (2003). The theories and practices of visual culture in art education. Arts Education Policy Review, 105(2), 19-25.
  • Duncum, P. (2009). Visual Culture in art education, circa 2009. Visual Arts Research, 35(1), 64-75.
  • Duncum, P. (2010). Seven principles for visual culture education. Art Education, 63(1), 6-10.
  • Dutton, D. (2009). The Art Instinct: Beauty, pleasure and human evolution. New York: Bloomsbury Press.
  • Dutton, D. (2013). Aesthetics and evolutionary psychology. In J. Levinson (Ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics (pp. 693-705). Oxford University Press.
  • Efland, A. (2005). Problems confronting visual culture. Art Education, 58(6), 35-40.
  • Enculturation. (2019). Merriam-Webster online İngilizce sözlük. Erişim Linki: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/enculturation
  • Gramsci, A. (2021, 21 Ocak). Antonio Gramsci, Cultural Marxism, wokeness, and Leninism 4.0. [Video] YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdsSIWh_VkQ&list=PL2XZFDA4TkUZZeGXK0lW8V6mPkg4rdkGV&index=15&t=1313s
  • Hicks, S. (2017, 1 Ağustos). Stephen Hicks: Nietzsche perfectly forecasts the postmodernist Left. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KbA9ALOrHaA
  • Hicks, S. (2018, 24 Mart). Stephen Hicks: Explaining postmodernism in 2018. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-BGbHG63x8w&t=7915s
  • Heise, D. (2004). Is visual culture becoming our canon of art? Art Education, 57(5), 41-46.
  • Janša, J. (2020, 19 Eylül). The Dangers of Cultural Marxism to Europe. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACyLMJOY0wM&list=PL2XZFDA4TkUZZeGXK0lW8V6mPkg4rdkGV&index=2&t=192s
  • Lehmann, C. (2018, 26 Temmuz). What is Marx’s ‘Conflict Theory’ doing to our politics? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9xAvkJpm7Nk&list=PL2XZFDA4TkUZZeGXK0lW8V6mPkg4rdkGV&index=13
  • Mamur, N. (2012). Perceptions concerning visual culture dialogues of visual art pre-service teachers. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12(3), 2166-2173.
  • Mamur, N. (2020). A critical analysis of aesthetics and cultural texture of shopping malls in teacher education: The ideology of space. International Journal of Education & the Arts, 20(27). http://doi.org/10.26209/ijea21n27
  • Marxism. (2019). Online Ansiklopedi Maddesi. Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Erişim linki: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/marx/
  • Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Sözlük maddesi: ‘Modern’. Merriam-Webster.com online sözlük. Erişim tarihi ve linki: 17 Mayıs 2021, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/modern
  • Özsoy, V., Mamur, N., ve Sarıbaş, S. (2020). Use of visual culture in visual arts courses: Opinions of participating teachers after TUBITAK-4005 Project. Pegem Eğitim ve Öğretim Dergisi, 10(3), 767-808.
  • Pariser, D. (2019). Dead cat, living horse: Losing our heads over theory. Studies in Art Education, 60(1), 69-74.
  • Peterson, J. (2018a, 20 Ocak). Postmodernism in a nutshell- Jordan Peterson. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=el6TVEMnS3E
  • Peterson, J. (2018b, 10 Nisan). Jordan Peterson- Winston Churchill predicted the death of our civilization. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYmMQ-xFP10
  • Peterson, J. (2017a, 21 Ağustos). Jordan Peterson – Studies in Scandinavian Men & Women. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hFBk1iLMPds&t=2s
  • Peterson, J. (2017b, 7 Ekim). Why do the Neomarxists and the postmodernists ally themselves - Jordan Peterson and Camille paglia. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M9sbsf0nal0
  • Santini, C. (2021, 17 Mayıs). Kintsugi spirit: finding strength in imperfection. https://esprit-kintsugi.com/en/quest-ce-que-le-kintsugi/
  • Smith, R. A. (2005). Efland on the aesthetic and visual culture: A response. Studies in Art Education, 46(3), 284-288.
  • Tavin, K. ve Tervo, J. (2018). How soon is now? Post-conditions in art education. Studies in Art Education, 59(4), 282-296.
  • Thompson, C. M. (2003). Kinderculture in the art classroom: Early childhood art and the mediation of culture. Studies in Art Education, 44(2), 135-146.
  • Trahan, R. (2020, 16 Kasım). What is Critical Race Theory? A former critical theorist answers. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqaCDXosfuU&t=1172s
  • Türkcan, B., ve Yaşar, Ş. (2011). The role of visual culture studies on primary school students’ interpretation of visual world. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 11(3), 1564-1570.
  • Yılmaz, M., Yılmaz, U., ve Demir-Yılmaz, E. N. (2019). The relation between social learning and visual culture. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 11(4), 421-427.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Rasim BASAK (Primary Author)
ULUDAĞ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-6941-440X
Türkiye

Publication Date August 31, 2021
Application Date June 25, 2021
Acceptance Date August 24, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2

Cite

APA Basak, R. (2021). Görsel sanatlar eğitiminde ideoloji tartışmaları temelinde görsel kültür kuramı ve materyal kültürü . e-Kafkas Journal of Educational Research , 8 (2) , 198-221 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/kafkasegt/issue/64536/957360

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