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THE FORMATION OF FEMINIST IDENTITY: FEMINISM IN THE 1930’S TURKEY AND BRITAIN

Year 2011, Volume: 19 Issue: 3, 1013 - 1028, 01.09.2011

Abstract

This article focuses on the improvement of Turkish women’s rights pursuant to reforms made by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of Turkey, in constructing a modern Turkish nation, and discusses 1930’s women’s movements in Britain. Women’s suffrage in Turkey emerged as a part of a modernization process, during which Atatürk instituted equal rights before most Western countries had done so. He improved women’s status through his innovations thus building the most modern, democratic and secular Muslim state. Still, feminists of the 1980s question the Kemalist project of modernity in search of “liberation beyond emancipation”. Women’s rights in England emerged by women standing up for their rights, whereas those rights in Turkey emerged as a nationalistic policy by Atatürk.

References

  • 1. Atatürk’ün Söylev ve Demecleri, (Atatürk’s Addresses and Statements) II, 1906-1938, Ankara, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1952.
  • 2. Türkiye’de Dergiler – Ansiklopediler (Periodicals and Encyclopedies in Turkey) (1894- 1984), İstanbul, Gelişim Yayınları, 1984.
  • 3. Women’s Own, 5 January 1934.
  • 4. Arat, Y. The Patriarchal Paradox: Women Politicians in Turkey, London & Toronto, Associated University Press, 1989.
  • 5. - - - “The Project of Modernity and Women in Turkey”, in Bozdoğan, S. and Kasaba, R. (eds.), Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey, pp. 95-112, Seattle and London, University of Washington, 1997.
  • 6. Arat, Z. (ed.), Deconstructing Images of ‘Turkish Woman’, New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
  • 7. Berkes, N., The Development of Secularism in Turkey, New York, Routledge Press, 1998.
  • 8. Bozdağ, İ., 2002. Universal Dimensions of Atatürk, trans. M. A. Shaikh, Ankara, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture, 2002.
  • 9. Çalışlar, İ., Latife Hanım, İstanbul, Doğan Kitapçılık, 2006.
  • 10. Delaney, C., “Father State, Motherland, and the Birth of Modern Turkey” in Yanagisako S. and Delaney C. (eds.), Naturalizing Power: Essays in Feminist Cultural Analysis, pp. 177-199, New York, London, Routledge Press, 1995.
  • 11. Demirdirek, A., “In Pursuit of the Ottoman Women’s Movement” in Z. Arat (ed.), trans. Z. Arat, Deconstructing Images of ‘Turkish Woman’, pp.65-81, 1998.
  • 12. D’Cruze, S., “Women and the family” in Purvis, J. (ed.), Women’s History: Britain, 1850- 1945, pp. 51-84, New York, St Martin’s Press, 1995.
  • 13. Durakbaşa, A., “Kemalism as Identity Politics in Turkey” in Arat Z. (ed.), Deconstructing Images of Turkish Woman, pp. 139-155, 1998.
  • 14. Eisenstadt, S. N., “The Kemalist Regime and Modernization: Some Comparative and Analytical Remarks” in Landau, J. (ed.), Atatürk and Modernization of Turkey, pp. 3-16, Boulder, Colorado, West View Press, 1984.
  • 15. Göle, N., The Forbidden Modern: Civilization and Veiling, Ann Arbor, The University of Michigan Press, 1996.
  • 16. İnan, A. , Tarih Boyunca Türk Kadınının Hak ve Görevleri (The Rights and Duties of Turkish Women throughout History), İstanbul, Milli Eğitim Basımevi, 1975.
  • 17. Kandiyoti, D., “Emancipated, But Unliberated? Reflections on the Turkish Case”, Feminist Studies 13(2): 317-338, 1987.
  • 18. - - - (ed), Women, Islam and the State, Basingstoke, Macmillan Press, 1991.
  • 19. - - - ,“Women and the Turkish State: Political Actors or Symbolic Pawns?” in Yuval-Davis N. and Anthias F. (eds.), Woman-Nation State, London, Macmillan Press, 1988.
  • 20. Kinross, L., Atatürk: The Rebirth of a Nation, London, Morrison and Gibb Press, 1964.
  • 21. Lewis, R., Rethinking Orientalism: Women, Travel and the Ottoman Harem, New Jersey, Rutgers University Press, 2004.
  • 22. Montgomery, F. A., Women’s Rights: Struggles and Feminism in Britain c. 1770-1970, Manchester and New York, Manchester University Press, 2006.
  • 23. Özerdim, S. N., Atatürk Devrimleri Kronolojisi (The Chronology of Atatürk’s Revolutions), İstanbul, Varlık Yayınevi, 1966.
  • 24. Pugh, M. “Domesticity and the Decline of Feminism, 1930-1950” in Smith H.L. (ed.) British Feminism in the Twentieth Century, pp. 144-164, Amherst, The University of Massachusetts, 1990.
  • 25. - - - Women and the Women’s Movement in Britain 1914-1959, New York, Paragon House, 1992.
  • 26. Purvis, J. “From ‘Women Worthies’ to Poststructuralism? Debate and Controversy in Women’s History in Britain” in Purvis J. (ed.), Women’s History Britain, 1850-1945: An Introduction, pp. 1-22, New York, St. Martin’s, 1995.
  • 27. Roberts, E., Women’s Place, Oxford, Blackwell, 1984.
  • 28. Said, E., Orientalism, New York, Vintage, 1978.
  • 29. - - - “Arabs, Islam and the Dogmas of the West”, The New York Times Book Review 31 October 1976, 104-114, 1976.
  • 30. Taşkıran, T., Cumhuriyetin 50.Yılında Türk Kadın Hakları (Turkish Woman’s Rights in the 50th Anniversary of the Republic), Ankara, Başbakanlık, 1973.
  • 31. Tekeli, S., Kaoinlar ve Siyasal Toplumsal Hayat (Kaoins and Political Social Life), İstanbul, Birikim Yayınevi, 1982.
  • 32. Toprak, Z., “Cumhuriyet Halk Fırkasından Önce Kurulan Parti: Kadınlar Halk Fırkası”, Tarih ve Toplum, March 1988, 30-31, 1988.
  • 33. Ülker, N. ed., “Mustafa Kemal Paşa’nın Evliliği” (“The Marriage of Mustafa Kemal Pascha”) in Ülker N. (ed.), Az Bilinen Yönleriyle Atatürk (Less Known Features of Atatürk), pp. 1-34 İzmir, Ege Üniversitesi Basımevi, 2004.
  • 34. White, J. B. , “State Feminism, Modernization, and the Turkish Republican Woman”, NWSA Journal (A Publication of the National Women’s Studies Association), Special Issue, Gender and Modernism between the Wars, 1918-1939, 15(3), 145-159, 2003.
  • 35. Zihnioğlu, Y., Kadınsız Inkılap: Nezihe Muhittin, Kadınlar Halk Fırkası, Kadın Birliği (Revolution without Woman: Nezihe Muhittin, Women’s Community Party, Woman’s Union), İstanbul, Metis Yayınları, 2003.

FEMİNİST KİMLİĞİN OLUŞUMU: 1930’LAR TÜRKİYE VE İNGİLTERE’SİNDE KADIN HAKLARI

Year 2011, Volume: 19 Issue: 3, 1013 - 1028, 01.09.2011

Abstract

Bu makale, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti kurucusu olan Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’ün modern bir Türk toplumunu oluşturma aşamasında yaptığı reformlardan biri olan Türk kadın haklarının elde edilmesi ve 1930’lar İngiltere’sinde kadın haklarının durumu konusunu tartışır. Türkiye’deki kadınların seçme hakkı, modernleşme sürecinin bir parçası olarak birçok Batılı ülkelerden daha önce kurumlaştırılmıştır. Atatürk, kadın haklarını en ileri modern, demokratik ve laik bir Müslüman devlet kurma amacı ile devrimleştirmiştir. Halen, “kurtuluşun ötesinde özgürlük” arayışı içinde olan 1980’lerin feministleri, ülkenin modernleşme aşaması olarak görülen Kemalist devrimlerini sorgular. İngiltere’deki kadın hakları, kendi haklarını savunan kadınlar tarafından ortaya çıkartılırken, Türkiye’deki aynı haklar Atatürk’ün ulusal politikası olarak ortaya çıkmıştır.

References

  • 1. Atatürk’ün Söylev ve Demecleri, (Atatürk’s Addresses and Statements) II, 1906-1938, Ankara, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1952.
  • 2. Türkiye’de Dergiler – Ansiklopediler (Periodicals and Encyclopedies in Turkey) (1894- 1984), İstanbul, Gelişim Yayınları, 1984.
  • 3. Women’s Own, 5 January 1934.
  • 4. Arat, Y. The Patriarchal Paradox: Women Politicians in Turkey, London & Toronto, Associated University Press, 1989.
  • 5. - - - “The Project of Modernity and Women in Turkey”, in Bozdoğan, S. and Kasaba, R. (eds.), Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey, pp. 95-112, Seattle and London, University of Washington, 1997.
  • 6. Arat, Z. (ed.), Deconstructing Images of ‘Turkish Woman’, New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
  • 7. Berkes, N., The Development of Secularism in Turkey, New York, Routledge Press, 1998.
  • 8. Bozdağ, İ., 2002. Universal Dimensions of Atatürk, trans. M. A. Shaikh, Ankara, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture, 2002.
  • 9. Çalışlar, İ., Latife Hanım, İstanbul, Doğan Kitapçılık, 2006.
  • 10. Delaney, C., “Father State, Motherland, and the Birth of Modern Turkey” in Yanagisako S. and Delaney C. (eds.), Naturalizing Power: Essays in Feminist Cultural Analysis, pp. 177-199, New York, London, Routledge Press, 1995.
  • 11. Demirdirek, A., “In Pursuit of the Ottoman Women’s Movement” in Z. Arat (ed.), trans. Z. Arat, Deconstructing Images of ‘Turkish Woman’, pp.65-81, 1998.
  • 12. D’Cruze, S., “Women and the family” in Purvis, J. (ed.), Women’s History: Britain, 1850- 1945, pp. 51-84, New York, St Martin’s Press, 1995.
  • 13. Durakbaşa, A., “Kemalism as Identity Politics in Turkey” in Arat Z. (ed.), Deconstructing Images of Turkish Woman, pp. 139-155, 1998.
  • 14. Eisenstadt, S. N., “The Kemalist Regime and Modernization: Some Comparative and Analytical Remarks” in Landau, J. (ed.), Atatürk and Modernization of Turkey, pp. 3-16, Boulder, Colorado, West View Press, 1984.
  • 15. Göle, N., The Forbidden Modern: Civilization and Veiling, Ann Arbor, The University of Michigan Press, 1996.
  • 16. İnan, A. , Tarih Boyunca Türk Kadınının Hak ve Görevleri (The Rights and Duties of Turkish Women throughout History), İstanbul, Milli Eğitim Basımevi, 1975.
  • 17. Kandiyoti, D., “Emancipated, But Unliberated? Reflections on the Turkish Case”, Feminist Studies 13(2): 317-338, 1987.
  • 18. - - - (ed), Women, Islam and the State, Basingstoke, Macmillan Press, 1991.
  • 19. - - - ,“Women and the Turkish State: Political Actors or Symbolic Pawns?” in Yuval-Davis N. and Anthias F. (eds.), Woman-Nation State, London, Macmillan Press, 1988.
  • 20. Kinross, L., Atatürk: The Rebirth of a Nation, London, Morrison and Gibb Press, 1964.
  • 21. Lewis, R., Rethinking Orientalism: Women, Travel and the Ottoman Harem, New Jersey, Rutgers University Press, 2004.
  • 22. Montgomery, F. A., Women’s Rights: Struggles and Feminism in Britain c. 1770-1970, Manchester and New York, Manchester University Press, 2006.
  • 23. Özerdim, S. N., Atatürk Devrimleri Kronolojisi (The Chronology of Atatürk’s Revolutions), İstanbul, Varlık Yayınevi, 1966.
  • 24. Pugh, M. “Domesticity and the Decline of Feminism, 1930-1950” in Smith H.L. (ed.) British Feminism in the Twentieth Century, pp. 144-164, Amherst, The University of Massachusetts, 1990.
  • 25. - - - Women and the Women’s Movement in Britain 1914-1959, New York, Paragon House, 1992.
  • 26. Purvis, J. “From ‘Women Worthies’ to Poststructuralism? Debate and Controversy in Women’s History in Britain” in Purvis J. (ed.), Women’s History Britain, 1850-1945: An Introduction, pp. 1-22, New York, St. Martin’s, 1995.
  • 27. Roberts, E., Women’s Place, Oxford, Blackwell, 1984.
  • 28. Said, E., Orientalism, New York, Vintage, 1978.
  • 29. - - - “Arabs, Islam and the Dogmas of the West”, The New York Times Book Review 31 October 1976, 104-114, 1976.
  • 30. Taşkıran, T., Cumhuriyetin 50.Yılında Türk Kadın Hakları (Turkish Woman’s Rights in the 50th Anniversary of the Republic), Ankara, Başbakanlık, 1973.
  • 31. Tekeli, S., Kaoinlar ve Siyasal Toplumsal Hayat (Kaoins and Political Social Life), İstanbul, Birikim Yayınevi, 1982.
  • 32. Toprak, Z., “Cumhuriyet Halk Fırkasından Önce Kurulan Parti: Kadınlar Halk Fırkası”, Tarih ve Toplum, March 1988, 30-31, 1988.
  • 33. Ülker, N. ed., “Mustafa Kemal Paşa’nın Evliliği” (“The Marriage of Mustafa Kemal Pascha”) in Ülker N. (ed.), Az Bilinen Yönleriyle Atatürk (Less Known Features of Atatürk), pp. 1-34 İzmir, Ege Üniversitesi Basımevi, 2004.
  • 34. White, J. B. , “State Feminism, Modernization, and the Turkish Republican Woman”, NWSA Journal (A Publication of the National Women’s Studies Association), Special Issue, Gender and Modernism between the Wars, 1918-1939, 15(3), 145-159, 2003.
  • 35. Zihnioğlu, Y., Kadınsız Inkılap: Nezihe Muhittin, Kadınlar Halk Fırkası, Kadın Birliği (Revolution without Woman: Nezihe Muhittin, Women’s Community Party, Woman’s Union), İstanbul, Metis Yayınları, 2003.

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Ayça ÜLKER ERKAN This is me

Publication Date September 1, 2011
Published in Issue Year 2011 Volume: 19 Issue: 3

Cite

APA ÜLKER ERKAN, A. (2011). THE FORMATION OF FEMINIST IDENTITY: FEMINISM IN THE 1930’S TURKEY AND BRITAIN. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 19(3), 1013-1028.

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