Research Article
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Year 2019, Volume 5, Issue 2, 25 - 46, 14.12.2019

Abstract

References

  • Al-Saraj, T. M. (2014). Revisiting the foreign language classroom anxiety scale (FLCAS): The anxiety of female English language learners in Saudi Arabia. L2 Journal, 6, 49-76.
  • Amiri, M., & Ghonsooly, B. (2015). The relationship between English learning anxiety and the students' achievement on examinations. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 6 (4), 855-865.
  • Arnold, J., & Brown, H. D. (1999). A map of the terrain. In J. Arnold (Eds.), Affect in language learning (pp. 1−24). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Asmalı, M., Bilki, U., & Duban, C. A. (2015). A comparison of the Turkish and Romanian students’ willingness to communicate and its affecting factors in English. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 11, 59-74.
  • Awan, R. N., Azher, M., Anwar, M. N., & Naz, A. (2010). An investigation of foreign language classroom anxiety and its relationship with students’ achievement. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 7, 11-33.
  • Aydın, S., Harputlu, L., Savran Çelik, Ş, Uştuk, Ö., & Güzel, S. (2018). A descriptive study on foreign language anxiety among children. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 33(1), 229-241.
  • Bailey, K. M. (1983). Competitiveness and anxiety in adult second language learning: Looking at and through the diary studies. In Seliger, H. W., & Long, M. H. (Eds.), Classroom oriented research in second language acquisition (pp. 67-103). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
  • Başöz, T. (2015). Exploring the relationship between tolerance of ambiguity of EFL learners and their vocabulary knowledge. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 11, 53-66.
  • Blau, A. (1955). A unitary hypothesis of emotion: Anxiety, emotions of displeasure, and affective disorders. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 24, 75–103.
  • Bochner, S. (1965). Defining intolerance of ambiguity. Psychological Record, 15, 393-400.
  • Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (5th ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.
  • Brown, D. (1994). Principles of language learning and teaching. Englewood Cliff: Prentice Hall Regent.
  • Budner, S. (1962). Intolerance of ambiguity as a personality variable. Journal of Personality, 30, 29-50.
  • Chapelle, C. A. & Roberts, C. (1986). Ambiguity tolerance and field independence as predicators of proficiency in English as a second language. Language learning, 36, 27-45.
  • Chastain, K. (1988). Developing second language skills: Theory practice. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Javonich.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Dalkılıç, N. (2001). The role of foreign language classroom anxiety in English speaking courses. Journal of Çukurova University Institute of Social Sciences, 8, 70-82.
  • Demirdaş, Ö., & Bozdoğan, D. (2013). Foreign language anxiety and performance of language learners in preparatory classes. Turkish Journal of Education, 2(3), 4-13.
  • Dewaele, J-M., & Ip, T. S. (2013). The link between foreign language classroom anxiety, second language tolerance of ambiguity and self-rated English proficiency among Chinese learners. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 3, 47-66.
  • Dewaele, J-M., & Wei, L. (2013). Is multilingualism linked to a higher tolerance of ambiguity? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(1), 231–240.
  • Dewaele, J-M. (2010b). Multilingualism and affordances: Variation in self-perceived communicative competence and communicative anxiety in French L1, L2, L3, and L4. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 48, 105-129.
  • Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner, individual differences in second language acquisition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Elaldı, Ş. (2016). Foreign language anxiety of students studying English language and literature: A sample from Turkey. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(6), 219-228.
  • Ellis, R. (1996). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ely, C. M. (1995). Tolerance of ambiguity and the teaching of ESL. In J. M. Reid (Eds.), Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom (pp. 216-217). New York: Heinle & Heinle.
  • Ely, C. M. (1989). Tolerance of ambiguity and use of second language strategies. Foreign Language Annals, 22, 437-445.
  • Erten, İ. H., & Topkaya, E. Z. (2009). Understanding tolerance of ambiguity of EFL learners in reading classes at tertiary level. Novitas-royal, 3, 29-44.
  • Fahim, M. (2013). Communication competence: Is it related to foreign language anxiety and willingness to communicate? Journal of American Science, 9, 35-39.
  • Frenkel-Brunswick, E. (1949). Intolerance of ambiguity as an emotional and perceptual personality variable. Journal of Personality, 11, 108−143.
  • Gardner, R. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (1993). A student’s contributions to second language learning. Part II: Affective variables. Language Teaching, 26, 1−11.
  • Genç, G. (2016). Can ambiguity tolerance, success in reading, and gender predict the foreign language reading anxiety? Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 12(2), 135-151.
  • Goodwin, L. W., & Goodwin, L. D. (1996). Understanding quantitative and qualitative research in early childhood education. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Gregersen, T., & Horwitz, E. K. (2002). Language learning and perfectionism: Anxious and non-anxious language learners’ reactions to their own oral performance. The Modern Language Journal, 86, 562–570.
  • Gudykunst, W. B. (2005). An anxiety/uncertainty management (AUM) theory of strangers’ intercultural adjustment. In W. B. Gudykunst (Eds.), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 419-457). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Hembree, R. (1988). Correlates, causes, effects, and treatment of test anxiety. Review of Educational Research, 58, 47-77.
  • Horwitz, E. K., & Young, D. J. (1991). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall
  • Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70, 125–132.
  • Huang, P., & Hwang, Y. (2013). An exploration of EFL learners’ anxiety and e-learning environments. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 4(1) 27-35.
  • Kamran, K. S. (2011). Effect of gender on ambiguity tolerance of Iranian English language learners. Journal of Education and Practice, 2, 25-34.
  • Kazamina, V. (1999). How tolerant are Greek EFL learners of foreign language ambiguities. Leeds Working Papers in Linguistics, 7, 69-78.
  • Kocaman, O. & Pamukoğlu, M. (2018). Exploring the perceptions of EFL learners on ambiguity tolerance: Sakarya University sample. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 8(2), 224-233.
  • Lu, Z., & Liu, M. (2015). An investigation of Chinese university EFL learner’s foreign language reading anxiety, reading strategy use and reading comprehension performance. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 5, 65-85.
  • Lucas, J. (1984). Communication apprehension in the ESL classroom: Getting our students to talk. Foreign Language Annals, 17, 593-598.
  • MacIntyre, P. D., Babin, P. A., & Clément, R. (1999). Willingness to communicate: Antecedents and consequences. Communication Quarterly, 47, 215– 229.
  • MacIntyre, P. D., Noels, K. A., & Clément, R. (1997). Biases in self-ratings of second language proficiency: The role of language anxiety. Language Learning, 47, 265-287.
  • Macintyre, P. D., & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15, 3-26.
  • MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991). Language anxiety: Its relationship to other anxieties and to processing in native and second languages. Language Learning, 41, 513– 534.
  • Mason, J. (1996). Qualitative researching. London: Sage.
  • Maykut, P., & Morehouse, R. (1994). Beginning qualitative research: A philosophic and practical guide. London: Falmer Press.
  • McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1987). Willingness to communicate and interpersonal communication. In J. C. McCroskey, & J. A. Daly (Eds.), Personality and interpersonal communication (pp. 129-159). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • McCroskey, J. C., & McCroskey, L. L. (1986). Self-report as an approach to measuring communication competence. Communication Research Reports, 5, 108-113.
  • Mesri, F. (2012). The relationship between gender and Iranian EFL Learners’ foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA). International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2, 147-156.
  • Norton, R.W. (1975). Measurement of ambiguity tolerance. Journal of Personality Assessment, 39, 607-619.
  • Nosratinia, M., Niknam, M., & Sarabchian, E. (2013). The role of emotional intelligence and tolerance of ambiguity in predicting EFL learners’ language learning strategies. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 17(1), 22-29.
  • Nunan, D. & Bailey, K.M. (2008). Exploring second language classroom research: A comprehensive guide. Boston: Heinle.
  • Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Bailey, P., & Daley, C. E. (1999). Factors associated with foreign language anxiety. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 217–239.
  • Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students' self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37(2), 91-105.
  • Price, M. L. (1991). The subjective experience of foreign language anxiety: Interviews with anxious students. In E. K. Horwitz, & D. J. Young (Eds.), Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 101-108). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Rastegar, M., & Kermani, M. E. (2015). Emotional intelligence, tolerance of ambiguity, and language learning strategies use of EFL learners: A study of relations. Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Science Journal (CSJ), 36(3), 1961-1971.
  • Reid, J. (1995). Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
  • Samimy, K. K., & Rardin, J. P. (1994). Adult language learners' affective reactions to community language learning: A descriptive study. Foreign Language Annals, 27, 379-390.
  • Sparks, R. L., & Ganschow, L. (1995). A strong inference approach to causal factors in foreign language learning: A response to MacIntyre. The Modern Language Journal, 79(ii), 235-244.
  • Thompson, A. S., & Lee, J. (2012). Anxiety and EFL: Does multilingualism matter? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16(6), 730-749
  • Tuncer, M., & Doğan, Y. (2015). Effect of foreign language classroom anxiety on Turkish university students’ academic achievement in foreign language learning. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 3(6), 14-19.
  • Young, D. J. (1992). Language anxiety from the foreign language specialist's perspective: Interviews with Krashen, Omaggio Hadley, Terrell, and Rardin. Foreign Language Annals, 25(2), 157-172.
  • Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: What does the language anxiety research suggest? The Modern Language Journal, 75, 425-439.
  • Young, D. J. (1991). The relationship between anxiety and foreign language oral proficiency ratings. In Horwitz, E. K., & Young, D. J. (Eds.) Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 57-63). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Young, D. J. (1986). The relationship between anxiety and foreign language oral proficiency ratings. Foreign Language Annals, 19, 439-445.
  • Zhanibek, A. (2001). The relationship between language anxiety and students’ participation in foreign language classes (Unpublished master thesis). Bilkent University, Turkey.

How Anxious are Turkish EFL Learners? Tolerance of Ambiguity and Self-perceived Communication Competence as Predictors

Year 2019, Volume 5, Issue 2, 25 - 46, 14.12.2019

Abstract

Foreign language anxiety has already been reported to deteriorate learners' language learning performance. It is closely related to how learners perceive their communication performance in the target language and how tolerant they are when they face ambiguities in foreign language learning. Therefore, the current study investigated learners' foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA), second language tolerance of ambiguity (SLTA), and self-perceived communication competence (SPCC). The study also aimed to examine the potential predictive power of SPCC and SLTA on Turkish EFL learners' FLCA. Mixed-methodology design was used combining the data gathered from four semi-structured interviews and three different questionnaires. 156 freshmen studying at a Turkish state university enrolled in different departments participated in this study. Descriptive statistics showed that students had a moderate level of FLCA, but low SLTA and SPCC. Multiple regression analyses significantly identified SLTA and SPCC as predicting FLCA. Both independent variables were negatively related to FLCA explaining 26% of the total variance. In the light of the findings, some practical suggestions were put forward both for language teachers and further research.

References

  • Al-Saraj, T. M. (2014). Revisiting the foreign language classroom anxiety scale (FLCAS): The anxiety of female English language learners in Saudi Arabia. L2 Journal, 6, 49-76.
  • Amiri, M., & Ghonsooly, B. (2015). The relationship between English learning anxiety and the students' achievement on examinations. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 6 (4), 855-865.
  • Arnold, J., & Brown, H. D. (1999). A map of the terrain. In J. Arnold (Eds.), Affect in language learning (pp. 1−24). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Asmalı, M., Bilki, U., & Duban, C. A. (2015). A comparison of the Turkish and Romanian students’ willingness to communicate and its affecting factors in English. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 11, 59-74.
  • Awan, R. N., Azher, M., Anwar, M. N., & Naz, A. (2010). An investigation of foreign language classroom anxiety and its relationship with students’ achievement. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 7, 11-33.
  • Aydın, S., Harputlu, L., Savran Çelik, Ş, Uştuk, Ö., & Güzel, S. (2018). A descriptive study on foreign language anxiety among children. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 33(1), 229-241.
  • Bailey, K. M. (1983). Competitiveness and anxiety in adult second language learning: Looking at and through the diary studies. In Seliger, H. W., & Long, M. H. (Eds.), Classroom oriented research in second language acquisition (pp. 67-103). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
  • Başöz, T. (2015). Exploring the relationship between tolerance of ambiguity of EFL learners and their vocabulary knowledge. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 11, 53-66.
  • Blau, A. (1955). A unitary hypothesis of emotion: Anxiety, emotions of displeasure, and affective disorders. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 24, 75–103.
  • Bochner, S. (1965). Defining intolerance of ambiguity. Psychological Record, 15, 393-400.
  • Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (5th ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.
  • Brown, D. (1994). Principles of language learning and teaching. Englewood Cliff: Prentice Hall Regent.
  • Budner, S. (1962). Intolerance of ambiguity as a personality variable. Journal of Personality, 30, 29-50.
  • Chapelle, C. A. & Roberts, C. (1986). Ambiguity tolerance and field independence as predicators of proficiency in English as a second language. Language learning, 36, 27-45.
  • Chastain, K. (1988). Developing second language skills: Theory practice. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Javonich.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Dalkılıç, N. (2001). The role of foreign language classroom anxiety in English speaking courses. Journal of Çukurova University Institute of Social Sciences, 8, 70-82.
  • Demirdaş, Ö., & Bozdoğan, D. (2013). Foreign language anxiety and performance of language learners in preparatory classes. Turkish Journal of Education, 2(3), 4-13.
  • Dewaele, J-M., & Ip, T. S. (2013). The link between foreign language classroom anxiety, second language tolerance of ambiguity and self-rated English proficiency among Chinese learners. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 3, 47-66.
  • Dewaele, J-M., & Wei, L. (2013). Is multilingualism linked to a higher tolerance of ambiguity? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(1), 231–240.
  • Dewaele, J-M. (2010b). Multilingualism and affordances: Variation in self-perceived communicative competence and communicative anxiety in French L1, L2, L3, and L4. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 48, 105-129.
  • Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner, individual differences in second language acquisition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Elaldı, Ş. (2016). Foreign language anxiety of students studying English language and literature: A sample from Turkey. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(6), 219-228.
  • Ellis, R. (1996). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ely, C. M. (1995). Tolerance of ambiguity and the teaching of ESL. In J. M. Reid (Eds.), Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom (pp. 216-217). New York: Heinle & Heinle.
  • Ely, C. M. (1989). Tolerance of ambiguity and use of second language strategies. Foreign Language Annals, 22, 437-445.
  • Erten, İ. H., & Topkaya, E. Z. (2009). Understanding tolerance of ambiguity of EFL learners in reading classes at tertiary level. Novitas-royal, 3, 29-44.
  • Fahim, M. (2013). Communication competence: Is it related to foreign language anxiety and willingness to communicate? Journal of American Science, 9, 35-39.
  • Frenkel-Brunswick, E. (1949). Intolerance of ambiguity as an emotional and perceptual personality variable. Journal of Personality, 11, 108−143.
  • Gardner, R. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (1993). A student’s contributions to second language learning. Part II: Affective variables. Language Teaching, 26, 1−11.
  • Genç, G. (2016). Can ambiguity tolerance, success in reading, and gender predict the foreign language reading anxiety? Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 12(2), 135-151.
  • Goodwin, L. W., & Goodwin, L. D. (1996). Understanding quantitative and qualitative research in early childhood education. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Gregersen, T., & Horwitz, E. K. (2002). Language learning and perfectionism: Anxious and non-anxious language learners’ reactions to their own oral performance. The Modern Language Journal, 86, 562–570.
  • Gudykunst, W. B. (2005). An anxiety/uncertainty management (AUM) theory of strangers’ intercultural adjustment. In W. B. Gudykunst (Eds.), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 419-457). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Hembree, R. (1988). Correlates, causes, effects, and treatment of test anxiety. Review of Educational Research, 58, 47-77.
  • Horwitz, E. K., & Young, D. J. (1991). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall
  • Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70, 125–132.
  • Huang, P., & Hwang, Y. (2013). An exploration of EFL learners’ anxiety and e-learning environments. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 4(1) 27-35.
  • Kamran, K. S. (2011). Effect of gender on ambiguity tolerance of Iranian English language learners. Journal of Education and Practice, 2, 25-34.
  • Kazamina, V. (1999). How tolerant are Greek EFL learners of foreign language ambiguities. Leeds Working Papers in Linguistics, 7, 69-78.
  • Kocaman, O. & Pamukoğlu, M. (2018). Exploring the perceptions of EFL learners on ambiguity tolerance: Sakarya University sample. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 8(2), 224-233.
  • Lu, Z., & Liu, M. (2015). An investigation of Chinese university EFL learner’s foreign language reading anxiety, reading strategy use and reading comprehension performance. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 5, 65-85.
  • Lucas, J. (1984). Communication apprehension in the ESL classroom: Getting our students to talk. Foreign Language Annals, 17, 593-598.
  • MacIntyre, P. D., Babin, P. A., & Clément, R. (1999). Willingness to communicate: Antecedents and consequences. Communication Quarterly, 47, 215– 229.
  • MacIntyre, P. D., Noels, K. A., & Clément, R. (1997). Biases in self-ratings of second language proficiency: The role of language anxiety. Language Learning, 47, 265-287.
  • Macintyre, P. D., & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15, 3-26.
  • MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991). Language anxiety: Its relationship to other anxieties and to processing in native and second languages. Language Learning, 41, 513– 534.
  • Mason, J. (1996). Qualitative researching. London: Sage.
  • Maykut, P., & Morehouse, R. (1994). Beginning qualitative research: A philosophic and practical guide. London: Falmer Press.
  • McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1987). Willingness to communicate and interpersonal communication. In J. C. McCroskey, & J. A. Daly (Eds.), Personality and interpersonal communication (pp. 129-159). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • McCroskey, J. C., & McCroskey, L. L. (1986). Self-report as an approach to measuring communication competence. Communication Research Reports, 5, 108-113.
  • Mesri, F. (2012). The relationship between gender and Iranian EFL Learners’ foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA). International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2, 147-156.
  • Norton, R.W. (1975). Measurement of ambiguity tolerance. Journal of Personality Assessment, 39, 607-619.
  • Nosratinia, M., Niknam, M., & Sarabchian, E. (2013). The role of emotional intelligence and tolerance of ambiguity in predicting EFL learners’ language learning strategies. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 17(1), 22-29.
  • Nunan, D. & Bailey, K.M. (2008). Exploring second language classroom research: A comprehensive guide. Boston: Heinle.
  • Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Bailey, P., & Daley, C. E. (1999). Factors associated with foreign language anxiety. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 217–239.
  • Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students' self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37(2), 91-105.
  • Price, M. L. (1991). The subjective experience of foreign language anxiety: Interviews with anxious students. In E. K. Horwitz, & D. J. Young (Eds.), Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 101-108). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Rastegar, M., & Kermani, M. E. (2015). Emotional intelligence, tolerance of ambiguity, and language learning strategies use of EFL learners: A study of relations. Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Science Journal (CSJ), 36(3), 1961-1971.
  • Reid, J. (1995). Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
  • Samimy, K. K., & Rardin, J. P. (1994). Adult language learners' affective reactions to community language learning: A descriptive study. Foreign Language Annals, 27, 379-390.
  • Sparks, R. L., & Ganschow, L. (1995). A strong inference approach to causal factors in foreign language learning: A response to MacIntyre. The Modern Language Journal, 79(ii), 235-244.
  • Thompson, A. S., & Lee, J. (2012). Anxiety and EFL: Does multilingualism matter? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16(6), 730-749
  • Tuncer, M., & Doğan, Y. (2015). Effect of foreign language classroom anxiety on Turkish university students’ academic achievement in foreign language learning. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 3(6), 14-19.
  • Young, D. J. (1992). Language anxiety from the foreign language specialist's perspective: Interviews with Krashen, Omaggio Hadley, Terrell, and Rardin. Foreign Language Annals, 25(2), 157-172.
  • Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: What does the language anxiety research suggest? The Modern Language Journal, 75, 425-439.
  • Young, D. J. (1991). The relationship between anxiety and foreign language oral proficiency ratings. In Horwitz, E. K., & Young, D. J. (Eds.) Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 57-63). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Young, D. J. (1986). The relationship between anxiety and foreign language oral proficiency ratings. Foreign Language Annals, 19, 439-445.
  • Zhanibek, A. (2001). The relationship between language anxiety and students’ participation in foreign language classes (Unpublished master thesis). Bilkent University, Turkey.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Research articles
Authors

Mehmet ASMALI (Primary Author)
Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat Üniversitesi
0000-0002-4899-1179
Türkiye

Publication Date December 14, 2019
Application Date July 22, 2019
Acceptance Date December 2, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 5, Issue 2

Cite

APA Asmalı, M. (2019). How Anxious are Turkish EFL Learners? Tolerance of Ambiguity and Self-perceived Communication Competence as Predictors . The Literacy Trek , 5 (2) , 25-46 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/literacytrek/issue/50626/595224

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