Research Article
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An Archaeometric Investigation on the Pigments Used in the Wall Paintings of Post-Byzantine (XIX century) Churches in Cappadocia

Year 2023, Issue: 7, 41 - 57, 06.07.2023
https://doi.org/10.54577/lycus.1117155

Abstract

Cappadocia region, rock churches, monasteries, houses, underground settlements, valleys and historical and geological formations have unique beauty. The region, which is rich with its cultural assets belongs to Christian culture in Anatolia, is generally known with its rock churches, and is a subject to researches. The purpose of this study is; to understand the wall painting technology of the 19th century church, and to make a comparison with the wall painting materials of the rock churches. The study material is composed of pigments in the wall paintings of the Church of St. Theodoros Trion, which is from the 19th century, and located in Nevşehir. Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Distributed Spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-Ray Diffraction Spectrometry (XRD) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) are used to determine material characterization of pigments. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) analysis method was used in the analysis of the soil structure. As a result of analysis of the wall painting, it has been found that the ultramarine pigment is obtained from the lapis lazuli mineral and the covellite mineral of the covellite blue. In red, the red ochre and the caput mortuum pigment in purple color has been found. In the mineral of different pigment species, bauxite mineral belongs to the region have been detected. Green color, it has been determined that it is obtained from the glauconite and celadonite mineral in the region. According to the research carried out in the region in green color, it has been detected that only this pigment species has been used from the 6th century to the 19th century.

Supporting Institution

PAÜ-BAP

Thanks

We would like to thank Turkey's Culture and Tourism Ministry, the Directorate of Nevşehir Museum for their contributions to the project and the Scientific Research Council of Pamukkale University, for research grant 2017ARKE002

References

  • Akyürek 2000 E. Akyürek, “MS IV-XI Yüzyılları Kapadokya’daki Bizans”, (Editör: Metin Sözen) Kapadokya, İstanbul, 2000, pp. 226-395.
  • Artioli 2012 G. Artioli, Science Methods and Cultural Heritage; An Introduction to the Application of Materials Science to Archaeometry and Conservation Science, Oxford Universty Press, New York, 2012.
  • Cristache et. al. 2013 A. Cristache Raluca, I. Sandu., V. Vasilache, & O. Cristache, “Study of Archeometric Characteristics of a Panel Painted Icon Form XIXth Century” ACTA CHEMICA IASI, Vol. 21_2, pp. 2013, 71-82.
  • Estaugh et. al. 2004 N. Estaugh, , T. Chaplin, R. Siddall, & V. Walsh, The Pigment Compendium: A Dictionary of Historical Pigments, Elsevier Science, pp. 298, 2004.
  • Ganio et. al. 2017 M. Ganio, E. Pouyet, S. M. Webb & C. S. Patterson, “From Lapis Lazuli to Ultramarine Blue: Investigating Cennino Cennini’s Recipe Using Sulfur K-edge XANES”, Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2017, January (pp.8).
  • Khachani et. al.2014 M. Khachani, A. El Hamidi, M. Halim & S. Arsalene “Non-isothermal kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the dehydroxylation process of synthetic calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2” Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, January, 2014, pp. 615-624.
  • Manso et. al. 2010 M. Manso, S. Valadas, S. Pessanha, A. Guilherme, I. Queralt, A. E. Candeias & M. L. Carvalho, “Characterization of Japanese color sticks by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 65, 2010, pp. 321–327.
  • Margaretha et. al. 2012 Y. Y. Margaretha, H. S. Prastyo, A. Ayucitra & S. Ismadji “Calcium oxide from Pomacea sp. shell as a catalyst for biodiesel production” International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering Vol. 3. 2012, pp. 33.
  • Nel et. al. 2006 P. Nel, D. Lau, D. Hay & N. Wright “Non-destructive micro-X-ray diffraction analysis of painted artefacts: Determination of detection limits for the chromium oxide–zinc oxide matrix” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 251, 2006, pp. 489–495.
  • Olivera et. al. 2002 L. F. Oliveira, G. M. Edwards Howell, L. Frost, J. T. Kloprogge & P. S. Middleton “Caput mortuum: spectroscopic and structural studies of an ancient pigment” The Analyst, 2002, pp. 537.
  • Pekak 1998 S. Pekak, “Kappadokya'da Post-Bizans Dönemi Dini Mimarisi 1: Nevşehir ve Çevresi” XV. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı 1. Cilt, TC. Kültür Bakanlığı Anıtlar ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü Yayınları, vol:58, Ankara, 1998, pp. 1-44.
  • Pekak 2009 Pekak, S. “Kappadokia Bölgesi Osmanlı Dönemi Kiliseleri: Örnekler, Sorunlar, Öneriler” Ortadoğu Teknik Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol. 26. Ankara, 2009, pp. 249-277.
  • Pelosi et. al. 2009 C. Pelosi, U. Santamaria, G. Agresti & P. Paola “Project on the Rock Paintings in Cappadocia. Analitycal Investigations of the Forty Martyrs in Şahinefendi and Other Sites (Report 2008)”, T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü, Arkeometri Sonuçları Toplantısı, Vol. 25., Denizli, 2009, pp. 548.
  • Pelosi et. al. 2013 C. Pelosi, U. Santamaria, G. Agresti & P. Paola “The Rock Hewn Wall Paintings in Cappadoiıa (Turkey). Characterization Of the Constituent Materials and A Chronological Overview”, e-Preservation Science (e-PS) vol. 10. 2013, pp. 99-108.
  • Riberio et. al. 2012 D. V. Riberio, J. A. Labrincha & M. R. Morelli “Effect of the addition of red mud on the corrosion parameters of reinforced concrete” Cement and Concrete Research vol.42. pp. 124–133, 2012.
  • Reedy et. al. 2014 T. R. Reedy, K. Thyagarajan, O. A. Montero, S. Reedy, L. Reedy & T. Endo “X-Ray Diffraction, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Optical Absorption Study of Bauxite”, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, vol.2, pp. 114-120, 2014.
  • Schönemann and Edwards 2011 A. Schönemann & H. G. M. Edwards “Raman and FTIR microspectroscopic study of the alteration of Chinese tung oil and related drying oils during ageing” Anal Bioanal Chem, vol. 400, 2011, pp.1173–1180.
  • Salvado et. al. 2014 N. Salvado, S. Bıuti, A. G. Miguel Aranda & T. Pradell “New insights on blue pigments used in 15th century paintings by synchrotron radiation-based micro- FTIR and XRD” Analytical Methods, vol. 6. 2014, pp. 3610.
  • Toschi et. al. 2016 F. Toschi, F. Colosi, A. Lentini & A. Paladini, “A multidisciplinary study of Roman painted plasters from Roman villa in Ponti Novi (Sabina area, Lazio, Italy)”, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, vol.7. pp. 2016, 144-122.
  • Tsamo et. al. 2017 C. Tsamo, G. P. Kofa & R. Kamga “Decreasing Yield and Alumina Content of Red Mud by Optimization of the Bauxite Processing Process” International Journal of Metallurgical Engineering, vol. 6(1), 2017, pp.1-9.
  • Yang et. al. 2015 Y. Yang, X. Wang, M. Wang, H. Wang & P. Xian “Recovery of iron from red mud by selective leach with oxalic acid” Hydrometallurgy vol. 157, 2015, pp. 239–245.
  • Zhang and Lv 2016 Y. Zhang & W. Lv “Recovery of iron and calcium aluminate slag from high-ferrous bauxite by high-temperature reduction and smelting process” International Journal of Minerals Metallurgy and Materials, August, 2016, pp. 812.

Kapadokya’daki Post-Bizans (XIX yüzyıl) Kilisesindeki Duvar Resimlerindeki Pigmentlerin Arkeometrik Teknikler ile Araştırılması

Year 2023, Issue: 7, 41 - 57, 06.07.2023
https://doi.org/10.54577/lycus.1117155

Abstract

Kapadokya bölgesi, kaya kiliseleri, manastırları, evleri, yeraltı yerleşimleri, vadileri ve tarihi ve jeolojik oluşumları eşsiz güzelliklere sahiptir. Anadolu'da Hristiyan kültürüne ait kültürel varlıkları ile zengin olan bölge, genellikle kaya kiliseleri ile tanınmakta ve araştırmalara konu olmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı; 19. yy kilisesinin duvar resim teknolojisini anlamak ve kaya kiliselerinin duvar resimlerinde kullanılan malzemeler ile karşılaştırma yapmaktır. Çalışma materyalini Nevşehir'de bulunan 19. yüzyıldan kalma St. Theodoros Trion Kilisesi'nin duvar resimlerinde bulunan pigmentler oluşturmaktadır. Pigmentlerin malzeme karakterizasyonunu belirlemek için Taramalı Elektron Mikroskobu ve Enerji Dağıtılmış Spektrometre (SEM-EDX), X-Işını Kırınım Spektrometresi (XRD) ve Fourier Dönüşümlü Kızılötesi Spektrofotometre (FTIR) kullanılır. Toprak yapısının analizinde X-Ray Floresan Spektrometresi (XRF) analiz yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Duvar resminin analizi sonucunda lacivert pigmentinin lapis lazuli mineralinden ve kovellit mavisinin kovellit mineralinden elde edildiği tespit edilmiştir. Kırmızıda, kırmızı aşı boyası ve mor renkte kaput mortuum pigmenti bulunmuştur. Farklı pigment türlerinin mineralinde bölgeye ait boksit minerali tespit edilmiştir. Yeşil rengin yörede bulunan glokonit ve seladonit mineralinden elde edildiği belirlenmiştir. Yeşil renkte bölgede yapılan araştırmalara göre 6. yüzyıldan 19. yüzyıla kadar sadece bu pigment türünün kullanıldığı tespit edilmiştir

References

  • Akyürek 2000 E. Akyürek, “MS IV-XI Yüzyılları Kapadokya’daki Bizans”, (Editör: Metin Sözen) Kapadokya, İstanbul, 2000, pp. 226-395.
  • Artioli 2012 G. Artioli, Science Methods and Cultural Heritage; An Introduction to the Application of Materials Science to Archaeometry and Conservation Science, Oxford Universty Press, New York, 2012.
  • Cristache et. al. 2013 A. Cristache Raluca, I. Sandu., V. Vasilache, & O. Cristache, “Study of Archeometric Characteristics of a Panel Painted Icon Form XIXth Century” ACTA CHEMICA IASI, Vol. 21_2, pp. 2013, 71-82.
  • Estaugh et. al. 2004 N. Estaugh, , T. Chaplin, R. Siddall, & V. Walsh, The Pigment Compendium: A Dictionary of Historical Pigments, Elsevier Science, pp. 298, 2004.
  • Ganio et. al. 2017 M. Ganio, E. Pouyet, S. M. Webb & C. S. Patterson, “From Lapis Lazuli to Ultramarine Blue: Investigating Cennino Cennini’s Recipe Using Sulfur K-edge XANES”, Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2017, January (pp.8).
  • Khachani et. al.2014 M. Khachani, A. El Hamidi, M. Halim & S. Arsalene “Non-isothermal kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the dehydroxylation process of synthetic calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2” Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, January, 2014, pp. 615-624.
  • Manso et. al. 2010 M. Manso, S. Valadas, S. Pessanha, A. Guilherme, I. Queralt, A. E. Candeias & M. L. Carvalho, “Characterization of Japanese color sticks by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 65, 2010, pp. 321–327.
  • Margaretha et. al. 2012 Y. Y. Margaretha, H. S. Prastyo, A. Ayucitra & S. Ismadji “Calcium oxide from Pomacea sp. shell as a catalyst for biodiesel production” International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering Vol. 3. 2012, pp. 33.
  • Nel et. al. 2006 P. Nel, D. Lau, D. Hay & N. Wright “Non-destructive micro-X-ray diffraction analysis of painted artefacts: Determination of detection limits for the chromium oxide–zinc oxide matrix” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 251, 2006, pp. 489–495.
  • Olivera et. al. 2002 L. F. Oliveira, G. M. Edwards Howell, L. Frost, J. T. Kloprogge & P. S. Middleton “Caput mortuum: spectroscopic and structural studies of an ancient pigment” The Analyst, 2002, pp. 537.
  • Pekak 1998 S. Pekak, “Kappadokya'da Post-Bizans Dönemi Dini Mimarisi 1: Nevşehir ve Çevresi” XV. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı 1. Cilt, TC. Kültür Bakanlığı Anıtlar ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü Yayınları, vol:58, Ankara, 1998, pp. 1-44.
  • Pekak 2009 Pekak, S. “Kappadokia Bölgesi Osmanlı Dönemi Kiliseleri: Örnekler, Sorunlar, Öneriler” Ortadoğu Teknik Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol. 26. Ankara, 2009, pp. 249-277.
  • Pelosi et. al. 2009 C. Pelosi, U. Santamaria, G. Agresti & P. Paola “Project on the Rock Paintings in Cappadocia. Analitycal Investigations of the Forty Martyrs in Şahinefendi and Other Sites (Report 2008)”, T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü, Arkeometri Sonuçları Toplantısı, Vol. 25., Denizli, 2009, pp. 548.
  • Pelosi et. al. 2013 C. Pelosi, U. Santamaria, G. Agresti & P. Paola “The Rock Hewn Wall Paintings in Cappadoiıa (Turkey). Characterization Of the Constituent Materials and A Chronological Overview”, e-Preservation Science (e-PS) vol. 10. 2013, pp. 99-108.
  • Riberio et. al. 2012 D. V. Riberio, J. A. Labrincha & M. R. Morelli “Effect of the addition of red mud on the corrosion parameters of reinforced concrete” Cement and Concrete Research vol.42. pp. 124–133, 2012.
  • Reedy et. al. 2014 T. R. Reedy, K. Thyagarajan, O. A. Montero, S. Reedy, L. Reedy & T. Endo “X-Ray Diffraction, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Optical Absorption Study of Bauxite”, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, vol.2, pp. 114-120, 2014.
  • Schönemann and Edwards 2011 A. Schönemann & H. G. M. Edwards “Raman and FTIR microspectroscopic study of the alteration of Chinese tung oil and related drying oils during ageing” Anal Bioanal Chem, vol. 400, 2011, pp.1173–1180.
  • Salvado et. al. 2014 N. Salvado, S. Bıuti, A. G. Miguel Aranda & T. Pradell “New insights on blue pigments used in 15th century paintings by synchrotron radiation-based micro- FTIR and XRD” Analytical Methods, vol. 6. 2014, pp. 3610.
  • Toschi et. al. 2016 F. Toschi, F. Colosi, A. Lentini & A. Paladini, “A multidisciplinary study of Roman painted plasters from Roman villa in Ponti Novi (Sabina area, Lazio, Italy)”, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, vol.7. pp. 2016, 144-122.
  • Tsamo et. al. 2017 C. Tsamo, G. P. Kofa & R. Kamga “Decreasing Yield and Alumina Content of Red Mud by Optimization of the Bauxite Processing Process” International Journal of Metallurgical Engineering, vol. 6(1), 2017, pp.1-9.
  • Yang et. al. 2015 Y. Yang, X. Wang, M. Wang, H. Wang & P. Xian “Recovery of iron from red mud by selective leach with oxalic acid” Hydrometallurgy vol. 157, 2015, pp. 239–245.
  • Zhang and Lv 2016 Y. Zhang & W. Lv “Recovery of iron and calcium aluminate slag from high-ferrous bauxite by high-temperature reduction and smelting process” International Journal of Minerals Metallurgy and Materials, August, 2016, pp. 812.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Archaeology
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Bengin BİLİCİ GENÇ 0000-0002-7195-4077

Cem GÖK 0000-0002-8949-8129

Evin CANER 0000-0003-0499-7517

Yusuf ÖZCAN 0000-0003-4355-5383

Project Number 2017ARKE002
Publication Date July 6, 2023
Acceptance Date November 2, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2023 Issue: 7

Cite

Chicago BİLİCİ GENÇ, Bengin, Cem GÖK, Evin CANER, and Yusuf ÖZCAN. “An Archaeometric Investigation on the Pigments Used in the Wall Paintings of Post-Byzantine (XIX Century) Churches in Cappadocia”. Lycus Dergisi, no. 7 (July 2023): 41-57. https://doi.org/10.54577/lycus.1117155.

Lycus Dergisi, Anadolu Arkeolojisi, Tarihi Coğrafyası olmak üzere Prehistorik Dönem’den başlayarak, günümüze kadar olan kültür mirası, buluntular, arkeolojik kazı ve yüzey araştırmalarının sonuçları, restorasyon, konservasyon, müzecilik, antropoloji, epigrafi, etno-arkeoloji gibi bilimsel çalışmaları kapsar. Bunların dışında ilk defa yapılan tespitler, uygulamalar ve analiz çalışmalarının yer aldığı yazıları içerir.