Research Article
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Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, 116 - 119, 31.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.24880/maeuvfd.1095230

Abstract

References

  • 1. WHO Guidelines on Tularemia. http://whqlibdoc. who.int/publications/2007/9789241547376_eng.pdf. P. 13
  • 2. Mead PS. Tularemia. Wallace RB (Ed.) Wallace/Maxcy-Rosenau-Last: Public Health and Preventive Medicine. Fifteenth edition. New York: McGraw Hill Medical. 2008; 424-427.
  • 3. Kubelkova K, Macela A. Putting the Jigsaw together - A brief insight into the Tularemia. Open Life Sci. 2015; 10: 195-216.
  • 4. Dikici N, Ural O, Sümer Ş, Öztürk K, Albayrak Yiğit Ö, Katlanır E, Keleş B. Konya Bölgesinde Tularemi. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2012; 46(2): 225-235.
  • 5. Arslanyılmaz M, Aslan D, Akın L, Aktaş D. Tularemi: Güncel değerlendirmeler. Balkan Med J. 2014; 31: 3-10.
  • 6. CDC Tularemia. http://www.cdc.gov/tularemia
  • 7. Pollitzer R. The Institute of Contemporary Russian Studies Fordham University New York 1963; 58.
  • 8. Otlu S. Hayvanlarda tularemi araştırmaları ve dünyadaki durum. In: Gürcan Ş. (ed.) Francisella tularensis ve Tularemi, Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri, İstanbul. 2009; 161-168.
  • 9. Foley JE. Tularemia in horses. https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-33.1.47
  • 10. Karataş Yeni D. Determination of the cross reaction of Tularemia titer and Brucella on sheep at specific disease focus in Turkey. Etlik Vet Mikrobiyol Derg. 2015; 26 (1): 7-10.
  • 11. Kılıç S, Çelebi B, Bayram Y, Çitil B. Francisella tularensis antikorları ile Brucella çapraz reaksiyonlarının araştırılması. Turk Hij Den Biyol Derg. 2013; 70(2): 65-70.
  • 12. Preacher KJ. Calculation for the chi-square test: An interactive calculation tool for chi-square tests of goodness of fit and independence 2001. [Computer software]. http://quantpsy.org
  • 13. Maurin M. Francisella tularensis, tularemia and serological diagnosis. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020; 10:512090.
  • 14. Buyuk F, Celebi Ö, Akca D, Otlu S, Tazegul E, Gulmez A, Sahin M. Estimated apparent and true prevalences of paratuberculosis in sheep herds of the Kars Region in Northeastern Turkey. Veterinarni Medicina. 2014; 59:7.
  • 15. Rogan WJ, Gladen B. Estimating prevalence from the results of a screening test. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1978; 107, 71-76.
  • 16. Gese EM, Schultz RD, Johnson MR, Williams ES, Crabtree RL, Ruff RL. Serological survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. J Wildl Dis. 1997; 33: 47-56.
  • 17. Mörner T, Sandstedt K. A serological survey of antibodies against Francisella tularensis in some Swedish mammals. Nord Vet Med. 1983; 35: 82-85.
  • 18. Office International Epizootica (OIE). Tularemia. 2009. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/ pdfs/tularemia.pdf.
  • 19. Bevanger L, Maeland JA, Naess AI. Agglutinins and antibodies to Francisella tularensis outer membrane antigens in the early diagnosis of disease during an outbreak of tularemia. J Clin Microbiol. 1988; 26: 433-437.
  • 20. Arata M, Chams A, Farhang-azad, Meščerjakova I, Neronov V, Saidi S. First detection of tularemia in domestic and wild mammals in Iran. Bull Wld Hlth Org. 1973; 49: 597-603.
  • 21. Avma. Tularemia. https://avma.org/reference/backgrounders /tularemia_bgrd.asp
  • 22. Quinn PJ, Monkey B, Carter ME, Donnerly WJ, Leonard FC. Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. Francisella tularensis. Oxford, Blackwell Pub; 2004.
  • 23. Oklahoma State University College Of Veterinary Medicine. Tularemia Diagnosed in a Foal and a Cat Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. 2021; Volume 27.
  • 24. Jellison WL, Bell JF, Vetrees JD, Holmes MA, Larson CL, Owen CR. Preliminary observations on diseases in the 1957-1958 outbreak of Microtus in western United States, in North American Wildlife Conference, 1958; 23rd.
  • 25. Tokgöz SK, Golem SB. Tülaremide laboratuvar araştırmaları. Türk Hıfzısıhha ve Tecrübi Biyoloji Dergisi 1938; 1: 137-153.
  • 26. Claus KD, Newhall JH, Mee D. Isolation of Pasteurella tularensis from foals. J Bacteriol. 1959; 78(2): 294-295.

The prevalence of Francisella tularensis in horse herds in Turkey

Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, 116 - 119, 31.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.24880/maeuvfd.1095230

Abstract

Tularemia caused by Francisella tularensis can exist in nature over a long period of time. The disease can be transmitted by ticks, biting flies, water exposure, food, and aerosols. F. tularensis infections occur especially in the North America, Europe, and Asia. Tularemia is often water-associated and effects humans and an array of animals including domestic animals, wild small mammals, and fish. In horses, there is almost no information about tularemia. However, fever, dyspnea, incoordination and depression have been described. This study aimed to estimate prevalence of F. tularensis among horse herds in Turkey. Totally 109 horses aged 36 months and older were randomly sampled from different regions of Turkey. Blood serum samples were investigated by Microagglutination Test (MAT) in terms of F. tularensis antibody. Prevalence changes were estimated via the diagnostic values (51% for sensitivity and 99% for specificity) reported for the MAT. The animal, within-herd and between-herd apparent prevalences were calculated 40.4% (95% CI = 31.6 to 49.8%), 41.1% (95 CI = 32.3 to 50.6%) and 81.8% (95% CI = 52.3 to 94.9%), respectively. True prevalences were calculated by conversion of the apparent prevalences via the Rogan-Gladen estimator. True animal, within-herd, and between-herd prevalences were calculated as 78.7% (95% CI = 61.3 to 97.5%), 80.2% (95 CI = 62.5 to 99.2%) and 161.6% (95 CI = 103 to 187.7%), respectively. The results provide useful information regarding the prevalence of tularemia in horse herds in Turkey and will hopefully attract the special attention of veterinarians and promote the establishment of an efficient control programme.

References

  • 1. WHO Guidelines on Tularemia. http://whqlibdoc. who.int/publications/2007/9789241547376_eng.pdf. P. 13
  • 2. Mead PS. Tularemia. Wallace RB (Ed.) Wallace/Maxcy-Rosenau-Last: Public Health and Preventive Medicine. Fifteenth edition. New York: McGraw Hill Medical. 2008; 424-427.
  • 3. Kubelkova K, Macela A. Putting the Jigsaw together - A brief insight into the Tularemia. Open Life Sci. 2015; 10: 195-216.
  • 4. Dikici N, Ural O, Sümer Ş, Öztürk K, Albayrak Yiğit Ö, Katlanır E, Keleş B. Konya Bölgesinde Tularemi. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2012; 46(2): 225-235.
  • 5. Arslanyılmaz M, Aslan D, Akın L, Aktaş D. Tularemi: Güncel değerlendirmeler. Balkan Med J. 2014; 31: 3-10.
  • 6. CDC Tularemia. http://www.cdc.gov/tularemia
  • 7. Pollitzer R. The Institute of Contemporary Russian Studies Fordham University New York 1963; 58.
  • 8. Otlu S. Hayvanlarda tularemi araştırmaları ve dünyadaki durum. In: Gürcan Ş. (ed.) Francisella tularensis ve Tularemi, Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri, İstanbul. 2009; 161-168.
  • 9. Foley JE. Tularemia in horses. https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-33.1.47
  • 10. Karataş Yeni D. Determination of the cross reaction of Tularemia titer and Brucella on sheep at specific disease focus in Turkey. Etlik Vet Mikrobiyol Derg. 2015; 26 (1): 7-10.
  • 11. Kılıç S, Çelebi B, Bayram Y, Çitil B. Francisella tularensis antikorları ile Brucella çapraz reaksiyonlarının araştırılması. Turk Hij Den Biyol Derg. 2013; 70(2): 65-70.
  • 12. Preacher KJ. Calculation for the chi-square test: An interactive calculation tool for chi-square tests of goodness of fit and independence 2001. [Computer software]. http://quantpsy.org
  • 13. Maurin M. Francisella tularensis, tularemia and serological diagnosis. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020; 10:512090.
  • 14. Buyuk F, Celebi Ö, Akca D, Otlu S, Tazegul E, Gulmez A, Sahin M. Estimated apparent and true prevalences of paratuberculosis in sheep herds of the Kars Region in Northeastern Turkey. Veterinarni Medicina. 2014; 59:7.
  • 15. Rogan WJ, Gladen B. Estimating prevalence from the results of a screening test. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1978; 107, 71-76.
  • 16. Gese EM, Schultz RD, Johnson MR, Williams ES, Crabtree RL, Ruff RL. Serological survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. J Wildl Dis. 1997; 33: 47-56.
  • 17. Mörner T, Sandstedt K. A serological survey of antibodies against Francisella tularensis in some Swedish mammals. Nord Vet Med. 1983; 35: 82-85.
  • 18. Office International Epizootica (OIE). Tularemia. 2009. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/ pdfs/tularemia.pdf.
  • 19. Bevanger L, Maeland JA, Naess AI. Agglutinins and antibodies to Francisella tularensis outer membrane antigens in the early diagnosis of disease during an outbreak of tularemia. J Clin Microbiol. 1988; 26: 433-437.
  • 20. Arata M, Chams A, Farhang-azad, Meščerjakova I, Neronov V, Saidi S. First detection of tularemia in domestic and wild mammals in Iran. Bull Wld Hlth Org. 1973; 49: 597-603.
  • 21. Avma. Tularemia. https://avma.org/reference/backgrounders /tularemia_bgrd.asp
  • 22. Quinn PJ, Monkey B, Carter ME, Donnerly WJ, Leonard FC. Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. Francisella tularensis. Oxford, Blackwell Pub; 2004.
  • 23. Oklahoma State University College Of Veterinary Medicine. Tularemia Diagnosed in a Foal and a Cat Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. 2021; Volume 27.
  • 24. Jellison WL, Bell JF, Vetrees JD, Holmes MA, Larson CL, Owen CR. Preliminary observations on diseases in the 1957-1958 outbreak of Microtus in western United States, in North American Wildlife Conference, 1958; 23rd.
  • 25. Tokgöz SK, Golem SB. Tülaremide laboratuvar araştırmaları. Türk Hıfzısıhha ve Tecrübi Biyoloji Dergisi 1938; 1: 137-153.
  • 26. Claus KD, Newhall JH, Mee D. Isolation of Pasteurella tularensis from foals. J Bacteriol. 1959; 78(2): 294-295.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Derya KARATAŞ YENİ> (Primary Author)
NECMETTİN ERBAKAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-7261-1394
Türkiye


Doğan AKÇA>
KAFKAS UNIVERSITY, INSTITUTE OF HEALTH SCIENCES, MIDWIFERY (DR)
0000-0002-3986-8769
Türkiye

Publication Date August 31, 2022
Application Date March 29, 2022
Acceptance Date August 9, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2

Cite

APA Karataş Yeni, D. & Akça, D. (2022). The prevalence of Francisella tularensis in horse herds in Turkey . Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University , 7 (2) , 116-119 . DOI: 10.24880/maeuvfd.1095230