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Nano- ve Mikroplastik’lerin İnsan Sağlığı ve Ekosistem Üzerindeki Olası Etkileri

Year 2019, Volume 5, Issue 2, 17 - 24, 30.12.2019

Abstract

Tamamıyla antropojenik kaynaklı ve kalıcı bir çevresel kirletici olan nano- ve mikroplastikler, su, hava veya toprak kirliliği ile ilgili standartlarda henüz bir kirletici parametre olarak yer almasa da, son zamanlarda küresel ölçekte öncelikli kirleticiler kapsamında dikkate alınmaya başlamıştır. Maalesef günümüzde tükettiğimiz gıdalar ve soluduğumuz hava nano- ve mikroplastik kirliliği içerebilmektedir. Nano- ve mikroplastik’ lerin insan sağlığına etkilerinin anlaşılması konularındaki sınırlı araştırmalar ve gözlemsel kanıtlar, çeşitli kaynaklardan gelebilecek nano- ve mikroplastik’ lere maruziyetin mevcut düzeylerinin ciddi bir toksisite oluşturma ihtimalinin düşük olduğunu, fakat imkansız da olmayacağını göstermektedir. Bununla birlikte, patojenik mikroorganizmaları ve toksik kimyasalları yüzeyinde taşıyabilen nano- ve mikroplastik’ lerin yüksek dozlarda kronik olarak gıdalarla yutulmasının ve solunmasının potansiyel etkileri henüz bilinmemektedir.

References

  • Antunes, J. C., Frias, J. G. L., Micaelo, A. C., Sobral, P. (2013). Resin pellets from beaches of the Portuguese coast and adsorbed persistent organic pollutants. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 130, 62-69.
  • Bakir, A., Rowland, S. J., Thompson, R. C. (2014). Enhanced desorption of persistent organic pollutants from microplastics under simulated physiological conditions. Environmental Pollution, 185, 16-23.
  • Bråte, I. L. N., Eidsvoll, D. P., Steindal, C. C., Thomas, K. V. (2016). Plastic ingestion by Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from the Norwegian coast. Marine pollution bulletin, 112(1-2), 105-110.
  • Brennecke, D., Duarte, B., Paiva, F., Caçador, I., Canning-Clode, J. (2016). Microplastics as vector for heavy metal contamination from the marine environment. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 178, 189-195.
  • Carbery, M., O'Connor, W., Palanisami, T. (2018). Trophic transfer of microplastics and mixed contaminants in the marine food web and implications for human health. Environment international.
  • Cole, M., Lindeque, P., Fileman E, Halsband C, Goodhead R, Moger J, Galloway T. S. (2013). Microplastic Ingestion by Zooplankton, Environmental Science & Technology 47 (12), 6646-6655.
  • Corcoran, P. L., Moore, C. J., Jazvac, K. (2014). An anthropogenic marker horizon in the future rock record. GSA today, 24(6), 4-8.
  • Cox, K. D., Covernton, G. A., Davies, H. L., Dower, J. F., Juanes, F., Dudas, S. E. (2019). Human Consumption of Microplastics. Environmental Science & Technology, 53, 12, 7068-7074.
  • da Costa, J. P., Santos, P. S., Duarte, A. C., Rocha-Santos, T. (2016). (Nano) plastics in the environment–sources, fates and effects. Science of the Total Environment, 566, 15-26.de Lucia, G. A., Caliani, I., Marra, S., Camedda, A., Coppa, S., Alcaro, L., Campani, T., Giannetti, M., Coppola, D., Cicero, A. M., Panti, C., Baini, M., Guerranti, C., Marsili, L., Massaro, G., Fossi, M. C., Matiddi, M., (2014). Amount and distribution of neustonic micro-plastic off the western Sardinian coast (Central-Western Mediterranean).
  • De Tender, C. A., Devriese, L. I., Haegeman, A., Maes, S., Ruttink, T., Dawyndt, P. (2015). Bacterial community profiling of plastic litter in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Environmental science & technology, 49(16), 9629-9638.
  • Deng, Y., Zhang, Y., Lemos, B., Ren, H. (2017). Tissue accumulation of microplastics in mice and biomarker responses suggest widespread health risks of exposure. Scientific Reports, 7, 46687.
  • Derraik, J. G. B. (2002). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review, Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44, 842–852.
  • Dris, R., Gasperi, J., Saad, M., Mirande, C., Tassin, B. (2016). Synthetic fibers in atmospheric fallout: a source of microplastics in the environment?. Marine pollution bulletin, 104(1-2), 290-293.
  • Eckert, E. M., Di Cesare, A., Kettner, M. T., Arias-Andres, M., Fontaneto, D., Grossart, H. P., Corno, G. (2018). Microplastics increase impact of treated wastewater on freshwater microbial community. Environmental Pollution, 234, 495-502.
  • Erni-Cassola, G., Gibson, M. I., Thompson, R. C., Christie-Oleza, J. A. (2017). Lost, but found with Nile red: a novel method for detecting and quantifying small microplastics (1 mm to 20 μm) in environmental samples. Environmental science & technology, 51(23), 13641-13648.
  • Free, C. M., Jensen, O. P., Mason, S. A., Eriksen, M., Williamson, N. J., Boldgiv B. (2014). High-levels of microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake, Marine pollution bulletin, 85(1), 156-163.Frias, J. P. G. L., Nash, R. (2019). Microplastics: Finding a consensus on the definition. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 138, 145-147.
  • Galloway, T. S., Cole, M., Lewis, C. (2017). Interactions of microplastic debris throughout the marine ecosystem. Nature ecology & evolution, 1(5), 0116.
  • Gasperi, J., Wright, S. L., Dris, R., Collard, F., Mandin, C., Guerrouache, M., Tassin B. (2018). Microplastics in air: Are we breathing it in?, Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, 1, 1-5.
  • Hartmann, N., Hüffer, T., Thompson, R. C., Hassellöv, M., Verschoor, A., Daugaard, A. E., Herrling, M. P. (2019). Are we speaking the same language? Recommendations for a definition and categorization framework for plastic debris, Environmental science & technology.
  • He, Q., Zhang, Z., Gao, F., Li, Y., Shi, J. (2011). In vivo biodistribution and urinary excretion of mesoporous silica nanoparticles: effects of particle size and PEGylation. small, 7(2), 271-280.Imran, M., Das, K. R., Naik, M. M. (2018). Co-selection of multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens in metal and microplastic contaminated environments: An emerging health threat. Chemosphere.
  • Kaya, A. T., Yurtsever, M., Bayraktar, S. Ç. (2018). Ubiquitous exposure to microfiber pollution in the air. The European Physical Journal Plus, 133(11), 488.
  • Kirstein, I. V., Kirmizi, S., Wichels, A., Garin-Fernandez, A., Erler, R., Löder, M., Gerdts G. (2016). Dangerous hitchhikers? Evidence for potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. on microplastic particles, Marine Environmental Research, 120, 1-8.
  • Koelmans, A. A., Bakir, A., Burton, G. A., Janssen, C. R. (2016). Microplastic as a vector for chemicals in the aquatic environment: critical review and model-supported reinterpretation of empirical studies. Environmental science & technology, 50(7), 3315-3326.
  • Kosuth, M., Mason, S. A., Wattenberg, E. V. (2018). Anthropogenic contamination of tap water, beer, and sea salt. PloS one, 13(4), e0194970.
  • Lehner, R., Weder, C., Petri-Fink, A., Rothen-Rutishauser, B. (2019). Emergence of nanoplastic in the environment and possible impact on human health, Environmental Science & Technology, 53(4), 1748-1765.
  • Liebezeit, G., Liebezeit E. (2014). Synthetic particles as contaminants in German beers, Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 31(9): 1574-1578.
  • Mato, Y., Isobe, T., Takada, H., Kanehiro, H., Ohtake, C., Kaminuma T. (2001). Plastic resin pellets as a transport medium for toxic chemicals in the marine environment, Environmental Science and Technology 35(2): 318-324.
  • Mendoza, L. M. R., Karapanagioti, H., Álvarez, N. R. (2018). Micro (nanoplastics) in the marine environment: Current knowledge and gaps. Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, 1, 47-51.
  • Neu, L., Bänziger, C., Proctor, C. R., Zhang, Y., Liu, W. T., Hammes, F. (2018). Ugly ducklings—the dark side of plastic materials in contact with potable water. npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, 4(1), 7.
  • Park, E. J., Bae, E., Yi, J., Kim, Y., Choi, K., Lee, S. H., Park, K. (2010). Repeated-dose toxicity and inflammatory responses in mice by oral administration of silver nanoparticles. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, 30(2), 162-168.
  • Pauly, J. L., Stegmeier, S. J., Allaart, H. A., Cheney, R. T., Zhang, P. J., Mayer, A. G., Streck, R. J. (1998). Inhaled cellulosic and plastic fibers found in human lung tissue. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 7(5), 419-428.
  • Peng, X., Chen, M., Chen, S., Dasgupta, S., Xu, H., Ta, K., Bai, S. (2018). Microplastics contaminate the deepest part of the world’s ocean. Geochemical Perspectives Letters, 9, 1-5.
  • Prata, J. C. (2018). Airborne microplastics: Consequences to human health?. Environmental Pollution, 234, 115-126.
  • Rafiee, M., Dargahi, L., Eslami, A., Beirami, E., Jahangiri-rad, M., Sabour, S., Amereh, F. (2018). Neurobehavioral assessment of rats exposed to pristine polystyrene nanoplastics upon oral exposure. Chemosphere, 193, 745-753.
  • Reed, C. (2015). Dawn of the Plasticene age. New Scientist, 225(3006), 28-32.
  • Rochman, C. M., Hoh, E., Kurobe, T., Teh, S. J. (2013). Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress. Scientific reports, 3, 3263.
  • Rochman, C. M., Tahir, A., Williams, S. L., Baxa, D. V., Lam, R., Miller, J. T., Teh, S. J. (2015). Anthropogenic debris in seafood: Plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption. Scientific reports, 5, 14340.
  • SAPEA, Science Advice for Policy by European Academies. (2018). A Scientific Perspective on Microplastics in Nature and Society. Berlin: SAPEA.
  • Schmidt, C., Lautenschlaeger, C., Collnot, E. M., Schumann, M., Bojarski, C., Schulzke, J. D., Stallmach, A. (2013). Nano-and microscaled particles for drug targeting to inflamed intestinal mucosa—A first in vivo study in human patients. Journal of Controlled Release, 165(2), 139-145.
  • Schwabl P., Liebmann B., Köppel S., Reiberger T., Assessment of microplastic concentrations in human stool – Preliminary results of a prospective study, International Conference On Emerging Contaminants (EmCon) In Oslo, June 2018.
  • Sharma, S., Chatterjee, S. (2017). Microplastic pollution, a threat to marine ecosystem and human health: a short review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(27), 21530-21547.
  • Thompson, R. C., Olsen, Y., Mitchell, R. P., Davis, A., Rowland, S. J., John, A. W., Russell, A. E. (2004). Lost at sea: where is all the plastic?. Science, 304(5672), 838-838.
  • Viršek, M. K., Lovšin, M. N., Koren, Š., Kržan, A., Peterlin, M. (2017). Microplastics as a vector for the transport of the bacterial fish pathogen species Aeromonas salmonicida. Marine pollution bulletin, 125(1-2), 301-309.
  • Waring, R. H., Harris, R. M., Mitchell, S. C., (2018). Plastic contamination of the food chain: A threat to human health?. Maturitas.
  • Weber A., (2018). What about us? Effects of nano- and microplastics on human immune cells, micro2018, Spain.
  • Wright, S.L., Kelly, F.J., (2017). Plastic and human health: a micro issue? Environ. Sci. Technol. 51 (12), 6634-6647.
  • Yurtsever, M. Microplastic pollution threat in table salt that an abiotic sea product. Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 35(3), 1-1.
  • Yurtsever, M., Balcı S.Z., Steril Alanlar Ne Kadar Steril? Mikro-Nanoplastik Kirliliği, 4th. National Environmental Management Symposium In Health Organizations, Ekim, 2018, İstanbul.
  • Yurtsever, M., Yurtsever, U. (2019). Use of a convolutional neural network for the classification of microbeads in urban wastewater, Chemosphere, 216, 271-280.
  • Zalasiewicz, J., Waters, C. N., do Sul, J. A. I., Corcoran, P. L., Barnosky, A. D., Cearreta, A., McNeill, J. R. (2016). The geological cycle of plastics and their use as a stratigraphic indicator of the Anthropocene. Anthropocene, 13, 4-17.
  • Zettler, E. R., Mincer, T. J., Amaral-Zettler, L. A. (2013). Life in the “plastisphere”: microbial communities on plastic marine debris. Environmental science & technology, 47(13), 7137-7146.

Year 2019, Volume 5, Issue 2, 17 - 24, 30.12.2019

Abstract

References

  • Antunes, J. C., Frias, J. G. L., Micaelo, A. C., Sobral, P. (2013). Resin pellets from beaches of the Portuguese coast and adsorbed persistent organic pollutants. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 130, 62-69.
  • Bakir, A., Rowland, S. J., Thompson, R. C. (2014). Enhanced desorption of persistent organic pollutants from microplastics under simulated physiological conditions. Environmental Pollution, 185, 16-23.
  • Bråte, I. L. N., Eidsvoll, D. P., Steindal, C. C., Thomas, K. V. (2016). Plastic ingestion by Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from the Norwegian coast. Marine pollution bulletin, 112(1-2), 105-110.
  • Brennecke, D., Duarte, B., Paiva, F., Caçador, I., Canning-Clode, J. (2016). Microplastics as vector for heavy metal contamination from the marine environment. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 178, 189-195.
  • Carbery, M., O'Connor, W., Palanisami, T. (2018). Trophic transfer of microplastics and mixed contaminants in the marine food web and implications for human health. Environment international.
  • Cole, M., Lindeque, P., Fileman E, Halsband C, Goodhead R, Moger J, Galloway T. S. (2013). Microplastic Ingestion by Zooplankton, Environmental Science & Technology 47 (12), 6646-6655.
  • Corcoran, P. L., Moore, C. J., Jazvac, K. (2014). An anthropogenic marker horizon in the future rock record. GSA today, 24(6), 4-8.
  • Cox, K. D., Covernton, G. A., Davies, H. L., Dower, J. F., Juanes, F., Dudas, S. E. (2019). Human Consumption of Microplastics. Environmental Science & Technology, 53, 12, 7068-7074.
  • da Costa, J. P., Santos, P. S., Duarte, A. C., Rocha-Santos, T. (2016). (Nano) plastics in the environment–sources, fates and effects. Science of the Total Environment, 566, 15-26.de Lucia, G. A., Caliani, I., Marra, S., Camedda, A., Coppa, S., Alcaro, L., Campani, T., Giannetti, M., Coppola, D., Cicero, A. M., Panti, C., Baini, M., Guerranti, C., Marsili, L., Massaro, G., Fossi, M. C., Matiddi, M., (2014). Amount and distribution of neustonic micro-plastic off the western Sardinian coast (Central-Western Mediterranean).
  • De Tender, C. A., Devriese, L. I., Haegeman, A., Maes, S., Ruttink, T., Dawyndt, P. (2015). Bacterial community profiling of plastic litter in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Environmental science & technology, 49(16), 9629-9638.
  • Deng, Y., Zhang, Y., Lemos, B., Ren, H. (2017). Tissue accumulation of microplastics in mice and biomarker responses suggest widespread health risks of exposure. Scientific Reports, 7, 46687.
  • Derraik, J. G. B. (2002). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review, Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44, 842–852.
  • Dris, R., Gasperi, J., Saad, M., Mirande, C., Tassin, B. (2016). Synthetic fibers in atmospheric fallout: a source of microplastics in the environment?. Marine pollution bulletin, 104(1-2), 290-293.
  • Eckert, E. M., Di Cesare, A., Kettner, M. T., Arias-Andres, M., Fontaneto, D., Grossart, H. P., Corno, G. (2018). Microplastics increase impact of treated wastewater on freshwater microbial community. Environmental Pollution, 234, 495-502.
  • Erni-Cassola, G., Gibson, M. I., Thompson, R. C., Christie-Oleza, J. A. (2017). Lost, but found with Nile red: a novel method for detecting and quantifying small microplastics (1 mm to 20 μm) in environmental samples. Environmental science & technology, 51(23), 13641-13648.
  • Free, C. M., Jensen, O. P., Mason, S. A., Eriksen, M., Williamson, N. J., Boldgiv B. (2014). High-levels of microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake, Marine pollution bulletin, 85(1), 156-163.Frias, J. P. G. L., Nash, R. (2019). Microplastics: Finding a consensus on the definition. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 138, 145-147.
  • Galloway, T. S., Cole, M., Lewis, C. (2017). Interactions of microplastic debris throughout the marine ecosystem. Nature ecology & evolution, 1(5), 0116.
  • Gasperi, J., Wright, S. L., Dris, R., Collard, F., Mandin, C., Guerrouache, M., Tassin B. (2018). Microplastics in air: Are we breathing it in?, Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, 1, 1-5.
  • Hartmann, N., Hüffer, T., Thompson, R. C., Hassellöv, M., Verschoor, A., Daugaard, A. E., Herrling, M. P. (2019). Are we speaking the same language? Recommendations for a definition and categorization framework for plastic debris, Environmental science & technology.
  • He, Q., Zhang, Z., Gao, F., Li, Y., Shi, J. (2011). In vivo biodistribution and urinary excretion of mesoporous silica nanoparticles: effects of particle size and PEGylation. small, 7(2), 271-280.Imran, M., Das, K. R., Naik, M. M. (2018). Co-selection of multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens in metal and microplastic contaminated environments: An emerging health threat. Chemosphere.
  • Kaya, A. T., Yurtsever, M., Bayraktar, S. Ç. (2018). Ubiquitous exposure to microfiber pollution in the air. The European Physical Journal Plus, 133(11), 488.
  • Kirstein, I. V., Kirmizi, S., Wichels, A., Garin-Fernandez, A., Erler, R., Löder, M., Gerdts G. (2016). Dangerous hitchhikers? Evidence for potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. on microplastic particles, Marine Environmental Research, 120, 1-8.
  • Koelmans, A. A., Bakir, A., Burton, G. A., Janssen, C. R. (2016). Microplastic as a vector for chemicals in the aquatic environment: critical review and model-supported reinterpretation of empirical studies. Environmental science & technology, 50(7), 3315-3326.
  • Kosuth, M., Mason, S. A., Wattenberg, E. V. (2018). Anthropogenic contamination of tap water, beer, and sea salt. PloS one, 13(4), e0194970.
  • Lehner, R., Weder, C., Petri-Fink, A., Rothen-Rutishauser, B. (2019). Emergence of nanoplastic in the environment and possible impact on human health, Environmental Science & Technology, 53(4), 1748-1765.
  • Liebezeit, G., Liebezeit E. (2014). Synthetic particles as contaminants in German beers, Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 31(9): 1574-1578.
  • Mato, Y., Isobe, T., Takada, H., Kanehiro, H., Ohtake, C., Kaminuma T. (2001). Plastic resin pellets as a transport medium for toxic chemicals in the marine environment, Environmental Science and Technology 35(2): 318-324.
  • Mendoza, L. M. R., Karapanagioti, H., Álvarez, N. R. (2018). Micro (nanoplastics) in the marine environment: Current knowledge and gaps. Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, 1, 47-51.
  • Neu, L., Bänziger, C., Proctor, C. R., Zhang, Y., Liu, W. T., Hammes, F. (2018). Ugly ducklings—the dark side of plastic materials in contact with potable water. npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, 4(1), 7.
  • Park, E. J., Bae, E., Yi, J., Kim, Y., Choi, K., Lee, S. H., Park, K. (2010). Repeated-dose toxicity and inflammatory responses in mice by oral administration of silver nanoparticles. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, 30(2), 162-168.
  • Pauly, J. L., Stegmeier, S. J., Allaart, H. A., Cheney, R. T., Zhang, P. J., Mayer, A. G., Streck, R. J. (1998). Inhaled cellulosic and plastic fibers found in human lung tissue. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 7(5), 419-428.
  • Peng, X., Chen, M., Chen, S., Dasgupta, S., Xu, H., Ta, K., Bai, S. (2018). Microplastics contaminate the deepest part of the world’s ocean. Geochemical Perspectives Letters, 9, 1-5.
  • Prata, J. C. (2018). Airborne microplastics: Consequences to human health?. Environmental Pollution, 234, 115-126.
  • Rafiee, M., Dargahi, L., Eslami, A., Beirami, E., Jahangiri-rad, M., Sabour, S., Amereh, F. (2018). Neurobehavioral assessment of rats exposed to pristine polystyrene nanoplastics upon oral exposure. Chemosphere, 193, 745-753.
  • Reed, C. (2015). Dawn of the Plasticene age. New Scientist, 225(3006), 28-32.
  • Rochman, C. M., Hoh, E., Kurobe, T., Teh, S. J. (2013). Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress. Scientific reports, 3, 3263.
  • Rochman, C. M., Tahir, A., Williams, S. L., Baxa, D. V., Lam, R., Miller, J. T., Teh, S. J. (2015). Anthropogenic debris in seafood: Plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption. Scientific reports, 5, 14340.
  • SAPEA, Science Advice for Policy by European Academies. (2018). A Scientific Perspective on Microplastics in Nature and Society. Berlin: SAPEA.
  • Schmidt, C., Lautenschlaeger, C., Collnot, E. M., Schumann, M., Bojarski, C., Schulzke, J. D., Stallmach, A. (2013). Nano-and microscaled particles for drug targeting to inflamed intestinal mucosa—A first in vivo study in human patients. Journal of Controlled Release, 165(2), 139-145.
  • Schwabl P., Liebmann B., Köppel S., Reiberger T., Assessment of microplastic concentrations in human stool – Preliminary results of a prospective study, International Conference On Emerging Contaminants (EmCon) In Oslo, June 2018.
  • Sharma, S., Chatterjee, S. (2017). Microplastic pollution, a threat to marine ecosystem and human health: a short review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(27), 21530-21547.
  • Thompson, R. C., Olsen, Y., Mitchell, R. P., Davis, A., Rowland, S. J., John, A. W., Russell, A. E. (2004). Lost at sea: where is all the plastic?. Science, 304(5672), 838-838.
  • Viršek, M. K., Lovšin, M. N., Koren, Š., Kržan, A., Peterlin, M. (2017). Microplastics as a vector for the transport of the bacterial fish pathogen species Aeromonas salmonicida. Marine pollution bulletin, 125(1-2), 301-309.
  • Waring, R. H., Harris, R. M., Mitchell, S. C., (2018). Plastic contamination of the food chain: A threat to human health?. Maturitas.
  • Weber A., (2018). What about us? Effects of nano- and microplastics on human immune cells, micro2018, Spain.
  • Wright, S.L., Kelly, F.J., (2017). Plastic and human health: a micro issue? Environ. Sci. Technol. 51 (12), 6634-6647.
  • Yurtsever, M. Microplastic pollution threat in table salt that an abiotic sea product. Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 35(3), 1-1.
  • Yurtsever, M., Balcı S.Z., Steril Alanlar Ne Kadar Steril? Mikro-Nanoplastik Kirliliği, 4th. National Environmental Management Symposium In Health Organizations, Ekim, 2018, İstanbul.
  • Yurtsever, M., Yurtsever, U. (2019). Use of a convolutional neural network for the classification of microbeads in urban wastewater, Chemosphere, 216, 271-280.
  • Zalasiewicz, J., Waters, C. N., do Sul, J. A. I., Corcoran, P. L., Barnosky, A. D., Cearreta, A., McNeill, J. R. (2016). The geological cycle of plastics and their use as a stratigraphic indicator of the Anthropocene. Anthropocene, 13, 4-17.
  • Zettler, E. R., Mincer, T. J., Amaral-Zettler, L. A. (2013). Life in the “plastisphere”: microbial communities on plastic marine debris. Environmental science & technology, 47(13), 7137-7146.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Marine and Freshwater Biology
Journal Section Derleme
Authors

Meral YURTSEVER> (Primary Author)
SAKARYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7965-1919
Türkiye

Supporting Institution TÜBİTAK
Project Number 115Y303
Thanks Bu çalışma TUBITAK 115Y303 projesi kapsamında desteklenen çalışmalar ışığında gerçekleştirilmiştir.
Publication Date December 30, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 5, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @review { menba589160, journal = {Menba Kastamonu Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {2147-2254}, eissn = {2667-8659}, address = {menba@kastamonu.edu.tr}, publisher = {Kastamonu University}, year = {2019}, volume = {5}, number = {2}, pages = {17 - 24}, title = {Nano- ve Mikroplastik’lerin İnsan Sağlığı ve Ekosistem Üzerindeki Olası Etkileri}, key = {cite}, author = {Yurtsever, Meral} }
APA Yurtsever, M. (2019). Nano- ve Mikroplastik’lerin İnsan Sağlığı ve Ekosistem Üzerindeki Olası Etkileri . Menba Kastamonu Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi , 5 (2) , 17-24 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/menba/issue/51010/589160
MLA Yurtsever, M. "Nano- ve Mikroplastik’lerin İnsan Sağlığı ve Ekosistem Üzerindeki Olası Etkileri" . Menba Kastamonu Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi 5 (2019 ): 17-24 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/menba/issue/51010/589160>
Chicago Yurtsever, M. "Nano- ve Mikroplastik’lerin İnsan Sağlığı ve Ekosistem Üzerindeki Olası Etkileri". Menba Kastamonu Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi 5 (2019 ): 17-24
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Nano- ve Mikroplastik’lerin İnsan Sağlığı ve Ekosistem Üzerindeki Olası Etkileri AU - MeralYurtsever Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Menba Kastamonu Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 17 EP - 24 VL - 5 IS - 2 SN - 2147-2254-2667-8659 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Menba Kastamonu Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi Nano- ve Mikroplastik’lerin İnsan Sağlığı ve Ekosistem Üzerindeki Olası Etkileri %A Meral Yurtsever %T Nano- ve Mikroplastik’lerin İnsan Sağlığı ve Ekosistem Üzerindeki Olası Etkileri %D 2019 %J Menba Kastamonu Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi %P 2147-2254-2667-8659 %V 5 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Yurtsever, Meral . "Nano- ve Mikroplastik’lerin İnsan Sağlığı ve Ekosistem Üzerindeki Olası Etkileri". Menba Kastamonu Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi 5 / 2 (December 2019): 17-24 .
AMA Yurtsever M. Nano- ve Mikroplastik’lerin İnsan Sağlığı ve Ekosistem Üzerindeki Olası Etkileri. Menba Kastamonu Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi. 2019; 5(2): 17-24.
Vancouver Yurtsever M. Nano- ve Mikroplastik’lerin İnsan Sağlığı ve Ekosistem Üzerindeki Olası Etkileri. Menba Kastamonu Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi. 2019; 5(2): 17-24.
IEEE M. Yurtsever , "Nano- ve Mikroplastik’lerin İnsan Sağlığı ve Ekosistem Üzerindeki Olası Etkileri", Menba Kastamonu Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 17-24, Dec. 2019