Year 2020, Volume 4 , Issue 1, Pages 1 - 33 2020-06-30

The Late Ottoman Şarkı and the Interweaving of Registers: Towards an Ideology of Song

Federica NARDELLA [1]


This paper investigates the şarkı song form, composed in the late nineteenth century, discussed with regards to the linguistic registers that characterised the use of Turkish in the same period. It considers the production and circulation of this popular vocal repertoire in relation to reforms in language education and an intense, public conversation about the place of Turkish in a society on the verge of a controversial modernity. My aim has been to suggest new ways of thinking about the role of song in supporting or subverting – and occasionally, both – language practice and efforts at standardisation, as well as considering it in the more general framework of language debate. The material chosen is a small group of songs appeared in the newspaper Ma’lûmât in December 1895. By particularly focusing on the way that various registers interweave in the texts, I have suggested that we look at this repertoire as a reflection of wider linguistic/cultural tensions. While Ottoman-period Turkish has often been regarded as an unreadable, impenetrable language belonging to the elites, the case of the şarkı and its urban, newspaper reading public suggests that we should begin looking at it as a language spectrum encapsulating a multitude of registers, chosen according to the intended meaning and occasion. I propose to consider song in its capacity to maintain affections and authority, as well as providing a tool for self-mapping in history and tradition. In the late Ottoman scenario, this translates into reconsidering notions of cultural and social schisms in favour of a fluidity in both language and music practice, that is manifest in the şarkı text.
Şarkı, Language education, Language reform, Diglossia, Linguistic registers
  • Akaslan, Yaşar. (2018). “Türkiye’de Kıraat İlmi Eğitim-Öğretimi.” [The Education of Qur’ān Recitation (Qirā’āt) in Turkey]. Cumhuriyet İlahiyat Dergisi. 22(2): 1081-1107.
  • Akdoğu, Onur. (1995). Türk Müziği’nde Türler ve Biçimler [Types and Forms in Turkish Music]. İzmir: Can Ofset.
  • Aksoy, Bülent. (2003). Avrupalı Gezginlerin Gözüyle Osmanlılarda Musiki [Ottoman Music through the Eyes of European Travellers]. İstanbul: Pan Yayıncılık.
  • Ali Rıfat Bey. (1895). Hüsn-ı Güftarın Senin Ey Mehlikâ [Oh You, Beautiful as the Moon, the Beauty of Your Speech] [Musical Score and Lyrics]. Ma’lûmât. Aattürk Library Archive, İstanbul.
  • Andrews, Walter G. (1985). Poetry’s Voice, Society’s Song: Ottoman Lyric Poetry. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press.
  • Andrews, Walter G; Black, Najaat and Kalpaklı, Mehmet (eds. and trans.) (2006). Ottoman Lyric Poetry: An Anthology. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Ârif Bey. (1895). Deva Yok mu Neden Bimar-ı Aşka [Is There No Remedy, Why, to the Love-Sick?] [Musical Score and Lyrics]. Ma’lûmât. Atatürk Library Archive, İstanbul.
  • ‘Âsım, Necîb. (1893). Urâl ve Âltây Lisânları [Ural and Altaic Languages]. İstanbul: Kitâpçı Kasbâr.
  • Bauman, Richard and Sherzer, Joel, ed. (1974). Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bauman, Richard. (2000). “Language, Identity, Performance.” Pragmatics. 10(1): 1-5.
  • Benes, Tuska. (2008). In Babel’s Shadow: Language, Philology, and the Nation in Nineteenth-Century Germany. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
  • Bergeron, Katherine. (2010). Voice Lessons: French Mélodie in the Belle Epoque. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Bombaci, Alessio. (1956). Storia della letteratura turca: dall’impero di Mongolia all’odierna Turchia. [History of Turkish Literature: Since the Mongol Empire to Today’s Turkey]. Milano: Nuova Accademia Editrice.
  • Cemîl, Mahmûd. (1893). Şevk-i Dil, Bahâriye Şarkı Mecmuası [Desire of the Heart, Springtime Song Collection] . İstânbûl: Matbaa-yı Safâ ve Enver.
  • Cemîl, Mahmûd. (1894). Şevk-i Dil, Bahâriye Şarkı Mecmuası [Desire of the Heart, Springtime Song Collection]. İstanbul: Âlem Matbaası – Ahmed İhsân ve Şürekâsı.
  • Civan Ağa. (1895). Ey Dil ne Oldun Feryât Edersin [Oh Heart, What Happened, You Cause Despair]. [Musical Score and Lyrics]. Ma’lûmât. Atatürk Library Archive, İstanbul.
  • Collins, James and Blot, Richard K. (2003). Literacy and Literacies: Texts, Power and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Daskalov, Roumen; Marinov; Tchavdar. (2013). Entangled Histories of the Balkans. Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
  • De Mauro, Tullio. (1991). Storia Linguistica dell’Italia Unita [Linguistic History of Unified Italy]. Roma, Bari: Editori Laterza
  • Duben, Alan; Behar, Cem. (1991). Istanbul Households: Marriage, Family and Fertility 1880-1940. Cambridge, New York, Port Chester, Melbourne, Sydney: Cambridge University Press.
  • Edwards, John. (2009). Language and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ekinci, Mehmet Uğur. (2016). Kevserî Macmû’ası: 18. Yüzyıl Saz Müziği Külliyatı. [The Kesverî Collection: 18th Century Complete Instrumental Works] İstanbul: Pan Yayıncılık.
  • Emin Bey. (1895). Bir Gül-ı Ranâye Gönül Bağladım [I Am Attached to a Beautiful Rose] [Musical Score and Lyrics]. Ma’lûmât. Atatürk Library Archive, İstanbul.
  • Erdemir, Avni. (1999). Anadolu Sahası Musikişinas Divan Şairleri. [Divan Musician-Poets of the Anatolian Area] Ankara: Türk Sanatı ve Eğitimi Vakfı (TÜSAV) Yayınları: 1
  • Ertürk, Nergis. (2011). Grammatology and Literary Modernity in Turkey. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Erol, Ayhan. (2012). “Music, Power and Symbolic Violence: the Turkish State’s Music Policies During the Early Republican Period.” European Journal of Cultural Studies. 15 (1): 35-52.
  • Feldman, Walter. (1990-1991). “Cultural Authority and Authenticity in the Turkish Repertoire.” Asian Music. 22 (1): 73-111.
  • Feldman, Walter. (1996). Music of the Ottoman court. Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung.
  • Ferahfezâ yâhûd Yeni Şarkı [Ferahfezâ or New Song]. (1896-1897). Atatürk Library Archive, İstanbul
  • Findley, Carter Vaughn. (1980). Bureaucratic Reform in the Ottoman Empire: The Sublime Porte, 1789-1922. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Fortna, Benjamin. (2011). Learning to Read in the Late Ottoman Empire and the Early Turkish Republic. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Frieson, Elizabeth B. (2000). “Cheap and Easy: the Creation of Consumer Culture in late Ottoman Society.” In Consumption Studies and the History of the Ottoman Empire, 1550-1922: an Introduction, Ed. Donald Quataert: 243-260 New York: State University of New York Press.
  • Frishkopf, Michael. (2013). “Against Ethnomusicology: Language Performance and the Social Impact of Ritual Performance in Islam.” Performing Islam. 2(1): 11-43.
  • Frishkopf, Michael. (2018). “Paralinguistic Ramification of Language Performance in Islamic Ritual.” Yale Journal of Music & Religion. 4(1): 5-27.
  • Gal, Susan. (2011). “Polyglot Nationalism. Alternative Perspectives on Language in 19th Century Hungary.” Langage et Société. 136: 31-54.
  • Gal, Susan. (2015). “Imperial Linguistics and Polyglot Nationalisms in Austria-Hungary: Hunfalvy, Gumplowicz and Schuchardt” Balkanistica. Eds. Donald L. Dyer, Brian A. Joseph and Christina E. Kramer. 28(1): 151-175.
  • Gal, Susan. (2018). “Registers in Circulation: the Social Organization of Interdiscursivity.” Signs and Society. 6(1): 1-24.
  • Gökalp, Ziya. (2017). Türkçülüğün Esasları [The Principles of Turkism]. İstanbul: Kapı Yayınları. [Original work published in 1923].
  • Günaydın, Neva. (2018). “Türk Makam Müziği’nde Taksim ve Çalışma Yöntemi Olarak Şarkı Formunun Kullanımı.” [The Use of the Şarkı Form as Taksim and Study Method in Turkish Makam Music]. Master Thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul: Turkey.
  • Hall, Leslie R. (1989). The Turkish fasıl: selected repertoire. PhD thesis. University of Toronto.
  • Hakkı Bey. (1895). Tezyin Ediyor Gülşenî Şebboy ile Sünbül [The Wallflower and Hyacinth Adorn the Rose Garden] [Musical Score and Lyrics]. Ma’lûmât. Atatürk Library Archive, İstanbul.
  • Hâşim Bey. (1895). Mecbûr Oldum Ben bir Güle. [I Became Bound to a Rose] [Musical Score and Lyrics]. Ma’lûmât. Atatürk Library Archive, İstanbul.
  • Holbrook, Victoria Rowe. (1994). The Unreadable Shores of Love: Turkish Modernity and Mystic Romance. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Hristo Efendi. (1895). Gidelim Göksu’ya bir Âlem-i Âb Eyleyelim. [Let’s go to Göksu and Have a Drinking Party] [Musical Score and Lyrics]. Ma’lûmât. Atatürk Library Archive, İstanbul.
  • İz, Fahir. (1964). Eski Türk Edebiyatında Nesir. İstanbul: Osman Yalçın Matbaası
  • İz, Fahir and Menemencioğlu, Nermin (eds.) (1978). The Penguin book of Turkish verse. London: Penguin Books.
  • Kalender, Ruhi. (1978). “20. yy. Başlarında İstanbul’un Musiki Hayatı.” [The Musical Life of Istanbul in the Early 20th Century]. Musiki Dergisi. Retrieved from http://www.musikidergisi.net/?p=2258
  • Kaartinen, Timo. (2015). “The Registers and Persuasive Powers of an Indonesian Village Chronicle.” In Registers of Communications. Eds. Asif Agha and Frog: pp. 165-186. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, SKS.
  • Kamusella, Tomasz. (2009). The Politics of Language and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Kanal, Hümmet. (2016). “Sultan II. Abdülhamid’in Osmanlı Eğitimine Yaptığı Önemli bir Katkı: Emlâk-ı Hümâyûn’a İnşa Edilen Okullar” [An Important Contribution of Sultan Abdulhamid II to Ottoman Education System: the Schools Built on Sultan’s Land]. SUTAD 40: 151-176.
  • Kunt, Metin. (2008). “Reading Elite, Elite Reading.” In Printing and Publishing in the Middle East. Ed. by Philip Sadgrove: pp. 89-99. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Kushner, David. (1998). Türk Milliyetçiliğinin Doğuşu (1876-1908). [The Rise of Turkish Natioanalism (1876-1908)]. (Doğan, Zeki, Trans.). İstanbul: Fener Yayınları. [Original work published in 1977].
  • Levend, Agâh Sırrı. (1960). Türk Dilinde Gelişme ve Sadeleşme Evreleri. [Stages of Development and Simplification in the Turkish Language]. Ankara: Türk Tarihi Kurumu
  • Lewis, Geoffrey. (1999). The Turkish Language Reform: a Catastrophic Success. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Mardin, Şerif. (2002). “Playing Games with Names.” Fragments of Culture: The Everyday of Modern Turkey. Eds. Deniz Kandiyoti and Ayşe Saktanber: pp. 115-127. London, New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Publishers.
  • Myhill, John. (2006). Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A Historical Study. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Nic Craith, Máiréad. (2007). Language, Power and Identity Politics. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • O’Connell, John Morgan. (2013). Alaturka: Style in Turkish Music. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Özalp, Mehmet Nazmi. (1992). Türk Musikisi Beste Formları. [Turkish Music Composition Forms]. Ankara: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı.
  • Özbilen, N. Özgül; Ayangil, Ruhi. (2009). “Fasıl Şarkıcılığı Açısından Türk Makam Müziği’nde Süslemeler.” [Ornamentation in Turkish Makam Music from the Perspective of Fasıl Singing]. Müzik Kültürü ve Eğitimi, Vol: II: pp. 565-572. Ankara: Atatürk Kültür, Dil ve tarih Kurumu. Retrieved from https://www.ayk.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/%c3%96ZB%c4%b0LEN-N.-%c3%96zg%c3%bcl%e2%80%93AYANG%c4%b0L-Ruhi-FASIL-%c5%9eARKICILI%c4%9eI-A%c3%87ISINDAN-T%c3%9cRK-MAKAM-M%c3%9cZ%c4%b0%c4%9e%c4%b0%e2%80%99NDE-S%c3%9cSLEMELER.pdf
  • Öztuna, Yılmaz. (1986). Hacı Ârif Bey. Ankara: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları
  • Öztuna, Yılmaz. (1988). Şevki Bey. Ankara: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları
  • Paçacı, Gönül. (2010). Osmanlı Müziğini Okumak. Neşriyât-ı Musikî. [Reading Ottoman Music. Music Publications]. İstanbul: T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı.
  • Poulos, Panagiotis C. (2014). “Özel Mekânlar, Kamusal İlgiler: İmparatorluk’tan Cumhuriyet’e İstanbul’da Müzikli Ev Toplantıları (Meclisleri)” [Private Places, Public Interests: Istanbul Musical House-Gatherings from the Empire to the Republic]. Toplumsal Tarih 242 (February): 82-89.
  • Rizâ Efendi. (1895). Âh Düşeyim Der iken Eyvâh Vefâlısına. [Ah, When I Said Let Me Fall for Her Truthfulness] [Musical Score and Lyrics]. Ma’lûmât. Atatürk Library Archive, İstanbul.
  • Rizâ Efendi. (1895). Bak şu Güzel Köylüye İşte bu Kızdır Peri [Look at this Beautiful Village Girl, Indeed a Fairy is this Girl] [Musical Score and Lyrics]. Ma’lûmât. Atatürk Library Archive, İstanbul.
  • Rizâ Efendi. (1895). Aman ey Yâr-ı Cefâ-pîşe Nizâr Etme Beni [Oh Cruel Beloved, Do Not Break Me Down] [Musical Score and Lyrics]. Ma’lûmât. Atatürk Library Archive, İstanbul.
  • Salgar, M. Fatih. (2011). Hacı Arif Bey: Hayatı, Sanatı, Eserleri. [Hacı Arif Bey: his Life, Art, Works]. İstanbul: Ötüken.
  • Salgar, M. Fatih. (2017). Türk Müziğinde Makamlar, Usuller ve Seyir Örnekleri. [Makam, Rhythmic Cycles and Development in Turkish Music]. İstanbul: Ötüken.
  • Signell, Karl. (1980). “Turkey’s Classical Music, a Class Symbol.” Asian Music. 12 (1): 164-169.
  • Somel, Selçuk Akşin. (2010). Osmanlı’da Eğitimin Modernleşmesi (1839-1908): İslâmlaşma, Otokrasi ve Disiplin. [The Modernization of Public Education in the Ottoman Empire (1839-1908): Islamization, Autocracy, and Discipline] (Yener, Osman, Trans.). İstanbul: İletişim publications, [Original work published 2001].
  • Spooner, Brian and William L. Hanaway, eds. (2012). Literacy in the Persianate World: Writing and the Social Order. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
  • Stokes, Martin. (2010). The Republic of Love: Cultural Intimacy in Turkish Popular Music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Strauss, Johann. (1995). “The Millets and the Ottoman Language: The Contribution of Ottoman Greeks to Ottoman Letters (19th-20th Centuries).” Die Welt des Islams, New Sources 35(2): 189-249.
  • Strauss, Johann. (2017). “Language and Power in the Late Ottoman Empire.” In Imperial Lineages and Legacies in the Eastern Mediterranean: Recording the Imprint of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Rule. Ed. Rhoads Murphey: pp. 115-142. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Şahbaz, Namık Kemal. (2004). “Türkçe Öğretimi Açısından Elifba Kitapları.” [Alphabet Books with Regards to the Teaching of Turkish]. [Paper presented at İnönü University XIII. National Education Sciences Congress on July 6-9, 2004, Malatya, Turkey]. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/909857/T%C3%9CRK%C3%87E_%C3%96%C4%9ERET%C4%B0M%C4%B0_A%C3%87ISINDAN_EL%C4%B0FBA_K%C4%B0TAPLARI
  • Tekelioğlu, Orhan. (1996). “The Rise of a Spontaneous Synthesis: the Historical Background of Turkish Popular Music.” Middle Eastern Studies. 32 (2): 194-215.
  • Tietze, Andreas and Lazard, Gilbert. (1967). “Persian Loanwords in Anatolian Turkish.” Oriens. 20: 125-168.
  • Tohumcu, Ahmed. (2009). “Türk Müziği Terminolojisinde Yozlaşma – Örnek Olay Analizi: Şarkı Formu.” [The Degeneration in Turkish Music Terminology – Case Study Analysis: the Şarkı Form]. Müzik Kültürü ve Eğitimi, II. Cilt: pp. 711-718. Ankara: Atatürk Kültür, Dil ve tarih Kurumu. Retrieved from https://www.ayk.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/M%c3%9cZ%c4%b0K-K%c3%9cLT%c3%9cR%c3%9c-VE-E%c4%9e%c4%b0T%c4%b0M%c4%b0-2.-C%c4%b0LT.pdf
  • Toker, Hikmet. (2016). Elhân-ı Aziz: Sultan Abdülaziz Devrinde Sarayda Mûsikî. [Melodies of Aziz: Music in the Court in the Era of Sultan Abdülaziz]. Ankara: TBMM Milli Saraylar.
  • Topuzkanamış, Ersoy. (2018). “Osmanlı Dönemi İlk Modern İptidaiye ve Rüştiye Programlarında Türkçe Eğitimi: 1891 Yılı Örneği.” [Turkish Education in the First Modern Elementary and Secondary School Curricula of the Ottoman Period: The Sample of Year 1891] OTAM 43: 247-280
  • Twine, Nanette. “Script Reform Movements in the Meji Period.” Monumenta Nipponica 38, no. 2 (1983): 115-132.
  • Uzun, Mustafa and Özkan, İsmail Hakkı. (2010). “Şarkı”. [Şarkı Song] İslâm Ansiklopedisi, Retrieved from https://islamansiklopedisi.org.tr/sarki--musiki#2-musiki
  • Ünlü, Cemal. (2016). Git Zaman, Gel Zaman. Fonograf, Gramofon, Taş Plak. [As the Time Goes By. Phonograph, Gramophone, Record]. 2nd ed. İstanbul: Pan Yayıncılık.
  • Vurgun, Ahmet. (2017). II. Abdülhamid Dönemi İlköğretimde Ahlak Eğitimi. [Moral Education in Primary Education in the Time of Abdülhamid II.]. İstanbul: Yeditepe Yayınevi.
  • Woodhead, Christine. (2011). “Ottoman Languages.” The Ottoman World. Ed. Christine Woodhead: pp. 143-158. Hoboken: Routledge.
  • Yahya Kaçar, Gülçin. (2012). Klâsik Türk Mûsikisi Güftelerinde Osmanlıca Kelime ve Terkîbler. [Ottoman Words and Compounds in the Lyrics of Classical Turkish Music]. Ankara: Maya Akademi.
  • Yalçın, Gökhan. (2016). Hâşim Bey Mecmû’ası: Birinci Bölüm. Edvâr. [Hâşim Bey’s Collection: First Volume. Circles]. Ankara: Atatürk Kültür Merkezi Başkanlığı.
  • Yenî Şarkılar, Yeni ve Nâdîde Şarkılar Hâvîdir (1896-1897) [New Songs, Containing New and Rare Songs]. Atatürk Library Archive, İstanbul.
  • Zeren Enis, Ayşe. (2013). Everyday Lives of Ottoman Muslim Women: Hanimlara Mahsus Gazete [Newspaper for Ladies (1895-1908)]. İstanbul: Libra Kitapçılık ve Yayıncılık.
Primary Language en
Subjects Music
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-5014-0886
Author: Federica NARDELLA (Primary Author)
Institution: King's College, London
Country: United Kingdom


Dates

Publication Date : June 30, 2020

Bibtex @research article { musicologist712316, journal = {Musicologist}, issn = {}, eissn = {2618-5652}, address = {Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Faik Ahmet Barutçu Kütüphanesi 61030 TRABZON}, publisher = {Trabzon University}, year = {2020}, volume = {4}, pages = {1 - 33}, doi = {10.33906/musicologist.712316}, title = {The Late Ottoman Şarkı and the Interweaving of Registers: Towards an Ideology of Song}, key = {cite}, author = {Nardella, Federica} }
APA Nardella, F . (2020). The Late Ottoman Şarkı and the Interweaving of Registers: Towards an Ideology of Song . Musicologist , 4 (1) , 1-33 . DOI: 10.33906/musicologist.712316
MLA Nardella, F . "The Late Ottoman Şarkı and the Interweaving of Registers: Towards an Ideology of Song" . Musicologist 4 (2020 ): 1-33 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/musicologist/issue/55390/712316>
Chicago Nardella, F . "The Late Ottoman Şarkı and the Interweaving of Registers: Towards an Ideology of Song". Musicologist 4 (2020 ): 1-33
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Late Ottoman Şarkı and the Interweaving of Registers: Towards an Ideology of Song AU - Federica Nardella Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.33906/musicologist.712316 DO - 10.33906/musicologist.712316 T2 - Musicologist JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 33 VL - 4 IS - 1 SN - -2618-5652 M3 - doi: 10.33906/musicologist.712316 UR - https://doi.org/10.33906/musicologist.712316 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Musicologist The Late Ottoman Şarkı and the Interweaving of Registers: Towards an Ideology of Song %A Federica Nardella %T The Late Ottoman Şarkı and the Interweaving of Registers: Towards an Ideology of Song %D 2020 %J Musicologist %P -2618-5652 %V 4 %N 1 %R doi: 10.33906/musicologist.712316 %U 10.33906/musicologist.712316
ISNAD Nardella, Federica . "The Late Ottoman Şarkı and the Interweaving of Registers: Towards an Ideology of Song". Musicologist 4 / 1 (June 2020): 1-33 . https://doi.org/10.33906/musicologist.712316
AMA Nardella F . The Late Ottoman Şarkı and the Interweaving of Registers: Towards an Ideology of Song. Musicologist. 2020; 4(1): 1-33.
Vancouver Nardella F . The Late Ottoman Şarkı and the Interweaving of Registers: Towards an Ideology of Song. Musicologist. 2020; 4(1): 1-33.