Research Article
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Suicide Cases by Cyanide in Turkey: A Research based on Newspaper Reports

Year 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, 310 - 318, 17.05.2021
https://doi.org/10.31020/mutftd.836670

Abstract

Introduction: Cyanide exposure occurs in two ways; intentional and unintentional. Intentional exposure occurs in wars, genocides, and suicides; unintentional exposure occurs through inhalation of smoke from fires, work and home accidents, and industrial activities. This study aims to examine the issue of suicide by cyanide in Turkey by using newspaper reports as a source of data.
Methods: The content analysis method was used in this study. Four newspapers reports the highest circulation were examined between January 2018 and December 2019 in Turkey. Only 4 out of the 1075 daily newspapers have been chosen as data sources. The two keywords, "suicide" and "cyanide", were used in examing the newspapers' online search engines.
Results: 11 newspaper reports were analyzed. It was determined that five cases occurred in Istanbul, two cases occurred in Antalya, one case in Ankara, one case in Izmir, one case in Mersin, and one case in Denizli. It has been determined that in three of the five cases which the cause is investigated, the reasons for their suicides were financial problems, and two of them were psychological conditions.
Conclusion: To prevent suicides cases by cyanide which seriously harm human and public health, national authorities should develop strategies to report these cases carefully, follow the cyanide supply channels strictly, and prevent people from reaching this poisonous substance.

References

  • 1. Antonisse MMG, Reinhoudt DN. Neutral anion receptors: design and application. Chemical Communications 1998;4:443-448. DOI:10.1039/a707529d. 2. Gunnlaugsson T, et al. Anion recognition and sensing in organic and aqueous media using luminescent and colorimetric sensors. Coord Chem Rev 2006;250(23-24):3094-3117.
  • 3. Steed JW. A modular approach to anion binding podands: adaptability in design and synthesis leads to adaptability in properties. Chem Commun 2006;25:2637-2649.
  • 4. Gimeno N, et al. Cyanide sensing with organic dyes: studies in solution and on nanostructured Al2O3 surfaces. Chem Eur J 2008; 14(10):3006-3012.
  • 5. Musshoff F, Kirschbaum KM, Madea B. An uncommon case of a suicide with inhalation of hydrogen cyanide. Forensic science international 2011;204(1-3):e4-e7.
  • 6. Troup CM, Ballantyne B. Analysis of cyanide in biological fluids and tissues. In: Ballantyne B, Marrs TC, (Ed.). Clinical and experimental toxicology of cyanides. Bristol, UK: IOP Publishing Limited, 1987.
  • 7. Xu Z, et al. Sensors for the optical detection of cyanide ion. Chem Soc Rev 2010;39(1):127-137.
  • 8. Nguyen H, Tran T, Wong P. A kinetic study of the cementation of gold from cyanide solutions onto copper. Hydrometallurgy 1997;46(1-2):55-69. DOI:10.1016/s0304-386x(96)00093-x.
  • 9. Chaaban MA. Hazardous waste source reduction in materials and processing technologies. J Mater Process Technol 2001;119(1-3):336-343.
  • 10. Hall AH, Saiers J, Baud F. Which cyanide antidote? Crit Rev Toxicol 2009;39(7):541-552.
  • 11. Gill JR, Marker E, Stajic M. Suicide by cyanide: 17 deaths. J Forensic Sci 2004;49:826-828.
  • 12. Binder L, Fredrickson L. Poisonings in laboratory personnel and health care professionals. Am J Emerg Med 1991; 9(1):11-15. DOI:10.1016/0735-6757(91)90004-4. 13. Pasi A, Morath M, Hartmann H. Cyanide poisoning: forensic toxicology observations in the study of 54 cases of fatal poisoning. Z Rechtsmed 1985; 95:35-43. DOI: 10.1007/BF00203850.
  • 14. Feldman JM, Feldman MD. Sequelae of Attempted Suicide by Cyanide Ingestion: A Case Report. Int J Psychiatry Med 1990; 20(2):173–179. DOI:10.2190/2xvu-mgtc-rumj-jy7x.
  • 15. Blanco PJ, Rivero AG. The first case of illegal euthanasia in Spain: fatal oral potassium cyanide poisoning. Soud Lek 2004;49:30-33.
  • 16. Coentrão L, Moura D. Acute cyanide poisoning among jewelry and textile industry workers. Am J Emerg Med 2011; 29(1):78-81. DOI:10.1016/j.ajem.2009.09.014.
  • 17. Winek CL, et al. Cyanide poisoning as a mode of suicide. J Forensic Sci 1978;11(1):51–55. DOI:10.1016/0379-0738(78)90092-0.
  • 18. Vogel SN, Sultan TR, Ten Eyck RP. Cyanide Poisoning. Clinical Toxicology 1981;18(3):367-383. DOI:10.3109/15563658108990043.
  • 19. Jollant F. Fifty years of research on the causes of suicide: where are we? Bulletin De L Academie Nationale De Medicine 2018; 202(7):1651-1663.
  • 20. Fernando GC, Busuttil A. Cyanide ingestion case studies of four suicides. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1991;12:241-246.
  • 21. Hamel J. A review of acute cyanide poisoning with a treatment update. Critical Care Nurse 2011; 31(1):72-82. DOI:10.4037/ccn2011799.
  • 22. Newspaper Circulation. Available from: URL: http://gazetetirajlari.com/, Accessed on 24.12.2019.
  • 23. Turkey Press Advertisement Association. Available from: URL:https://ilanbis.bik.gov.tr/Uygulamalar/AylikListe, Accessed on 21.12.2019.
  • 24. Noble H, Smith J. Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research. Evid Based Nurs 2015;18(2):34–35. DOI:10.1136/eb-2015-102054.
  • 25. Lewis S. qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health Promotion Practice 2015;16(4):473-475. DOI:10.1177/1524839915580941.
  • 26. World Health Organization. (WHO). Preventing suicide: A global imperative. Available from: URL: https://www.who.int/mental_health/suicide-prevention/world_report_2014/en/. Accessed on 9.3.2020.
  • 27. Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI). Available from: URL: http://www.tuik.gov.tr/Start.do Accessed on 12.03.2020.
  • 28. Dias D, et al. Suicides in the Centre of Portugal: Seven years analysis. Forensic Sci Int 2014;234:22-28.
  • 29. Bernal M, et al. Risk factors for suicidality in Europe: results from the ESEMED study. J Affect Disord 2007;101(1-3):27-34.
  • 30. Värnik A, et al. Gender issues in suicide rates, trends and methods among youths aged 15-24 in 15 European countries. J Affect Disord 2009;113(3):216-226.
  • 31. Värnik A, et al. Suicide methods in Europe: a gender-specific Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences 193 analysis of countries participating in the “European Alliance Against Depression”. J Epidemiol Community Health 2008;62(6):545-551.
  • 32. Akhgari M, Fatemeh B, Alireza K. Cyanide poisoning related deaths, a four-year experience and review of the literature. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences 2016;48(2):186-194.
  • 33. Garff LE, et al. Cyanide suicide after deep web shopping. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2016;37(3):194-197. DOI:10.1097/paf.0000000000000241. 34. Demir H, Çakmak C. Suicides as a public health problem: The case of Turkey. Journal of Health and Social Policies Overview 2017;2:94-118.
  • 35. Uysal C, Karapirli M, Üzün İ. Cyanide poisining: An unusual case. Journal of Harran University Medical Faculty 2011; 8(3): 119-122.

Türkiye’de Siyanüre Bağlı İntihar Vakaları: Gazete Haberleri Üzerinden Bir Araştırma

Year 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, 310 - 318, 17.05.2021
https://doi.org/10.31020/mutftd.836670

Abstract

Giriş: Siyanüre maruz kalma iki şekilde gerçekleşmektedir: Kasıtlı ve istemsiz maruziyet. Kasıtlı maruziyet savaşlarda, soykırımlarda ve intiharlarda meydana gelir; istemsiz maruz kalma, yangın, iş ve ev kazaları ve endüstriyel faaliyetlerden kaynaklanan dumanın solunması yoluyla gerçekleşir. Bu çalışma, Türkiye'deki siyanüre bağlı intihar vakalarının gazete haberlerini incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır.
Yöntem: Bu çalışmada içerik analizi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Türkiye'de Ocak 2018-Aralık 2019 arasında en çok tiraj yapan dört gazetedeki haberler incelenmiştir. Bu çalışmada 1075 günlük gazeteden yalnızca dört gazete veri kaynağı olarak seçilmiştir. Gazetelerin çevrimiçi haber arama motorlarında "intihar" ve "siyanür" olmak üzere iki anahtar kelime kullanılmıştır.
Bulgular: 11 gazete haberi analiz edilmiştir. İstanbul'da 5, Antalya'da 2, Ankara'da 1, İzmir'de 1, Mersin'de 1, Denizli'de 1 vakanın meydana geldiği belirlenmiştir Sebebi işleme konulan beş vakadan üçünün işlenme sebeplerinin maddi sorun olduğu, ikisinin ise işleme nedeninin psikolojik koşulları olduğu tespit edilmiştir.
Sonuç: İnsan ve toplum sağlığına ciddi zarar veren siyanür kaynaklı intiharların önüne geçmek için ulusal otoriteler bu vakaları dikkatli bir şekilde rapor etmek, siyanür tedarik kanallarını sıkı bir şekilde takip etmek ve insanların siyanüre ulaşmasını önlemek için stratejiler geliştirmelidir.

References

  • 1. Antonisse MMG, Reinhoudt DN. Neutral anion receptors: design and application. Chemical Communications 1998;4:443-448. DOI:10.1039/a707529d. 2. Gunnlaugsson T, et al. Anion recognition and sensing in organic and aqueous media using luminescent and colorimetric sensors. Coord Chem Rev 2006;250(23-24):3094-3117.
  • 3. Steed JW. A modular approach to anion binding podands: adaptability in design and synthesis leads to adaptability in properties. Chem Commun 2006;25:2637-2649.
  • 4. Gimeno N, et al. Cyanide sensing with organic dyes: studies in solution and on nanostructured Al2O3 surfaces. Chem Eur J 2008; 14(10):3006-3012.
  • 5. Musshoff F, Kirschbaum KM, Madea B. An uncommon case of a suicide with inhalation of hydrogen cyanide. Forensic science international 2011;204(1-3):e4-e7.
  • 6. Troup CM, Ballantyne B. Analysis of cyanide in biological fluids and tissues. In: Ballantyne B, Marrs TC, (Ed.). Clinical and experimental toxicology of cyanides. Bristol, UK: IOP Publishing Limited, 1987.
  • 7. Xu Z, et al. Sensors for the optical detection of cyanide ion. Chem Soc Rev 2010;39(1):127-137.
  • 8. Nguyen H, Tran T, Wong P. A kinetic study of the cementation of gold from cyanide solutions onto copper. Hydrometallurgy 1997;46(1-2):55-69. DOI:10.1016/s0304-386x(96)00093-x.
  • 9. Chaaban MA. Hazardous waste source reduction in materials and processing technologies. J Mater Process Technol 2001;119(1-3):336-343.
  • 10. Hall AH, Saiers J, Baud F. Which cyanide antidote? Crit Rev Toxicol 2009;39(7):541-552.
  • 11. Gill JR, Marker E, Stajic M. Suicide by cyanide: 17 deaths. J Forensic Sci 2004;49:826-828.
  • 12. Binder L, Fredrickson L. Poisonings in laboratory personnel and health care professionals. Am J Emerg Med 1991; 9(1):11-15. DOI:10.1016/0735-6757(91)90004-4. 13. Pasi A, Morath M, Hartmann H. Cyanide poisoning: forensic toxicology observations in the study of 54 cases of fatal poisoning. Z Rechtsmed 1985; 95:35-43. DOI: 10.1007/BF00203850.
  • 14. Feldman JM, Feldman MD. Sequelae of Attempted Suicide by Cyanide Ingestion: A Case Report. Int J Psychiatry Med 1990; 20(2):173–179. DOI:10.2190/2xvu-mgtc-rumj-jy7x.
  • 15. Blanco PJ, Rivero AG. The first case of illegal euthanasia in Spain: fatal oral potassium cyanide poisoning. Soud Lek 2004;49:30-33.
  • 16. Coentrão L, Moura D. Acute cyanide poisoning among jewelry and textile industry workers. Am J Emerg Med 2011; 29(1):78-81. DOI:10.1016/j.ajem.2009.09.014.
  • 17. Winek CL, et al. Cyanide poisoning as a mode of suicide. J Forensic Sci 1978;11(1):51–55. DOI:10.1016/0379-0738(78)90092-0.
  • 18. Vogel SN, Sultan TR, Ten Eyck RP. Cyanide Poisoning. Clinical Toxicology 1981;18(3):367-383. DOI:10.3109/15563658108990043.
  • 19. Jollant F. Fifty years of research on the causes of suicide: where are we? Bulletin De L Academie Nationale De Medicine 2018; 202(7):1651-1663.
  • 20. Fernando GC, Busuttil A. Cyanide ingestion case studies of four suicides. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1991;12:241-246.
  • 21. Hamel J. A review of acute cyanide poisoning with a treatment update. Critical Care Nurse 2011; 31(1):72-82. DOI:10.4037/ccn2011799.
  • 22. Newspaper Circulation. Available from: URL: http://gazetetirajlari.com/, Accessed on 24.12.2019.
  • 23. Turkey Press Advertisement Association. Available from: URL:https://ilanbis.bik.gov.tr/Uygulamalar/AylikListe, Accessed on 21.12.2019.
  • 24. Noble H, Smith J. Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research. Evid Based Nurs 2015;18(2):34–35. DOI:10.1136/eb-2015-102054.
  • 25. Lewis S. qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health Promotion Practice 2015;16(4):473-475. DOI:10.1177/1524839915580941.
  • 26. World Health Organization. (WHO). Preventing suicide: A global imperative. Available from: URL: https://www.who.int/mental_health/suicide-prevention/world_report_2014/en/. Accessed on 9.3.2020.
  • 27. Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI). Available from: URL: http://www.tuik.gov.tr/Start.do Accessed on 12.03.2020.
  • 28. Dias D, et al. Suicides in the Centre of Portugal: Seven years analysis. Forensic Sci Int 2014;234:22-28.
  • 29. Bernal M, et al. Risk factors for suicidality in Europe: results from the ESEMED study. J Affect Disord 2007;101(1-3):27-34.
  • 30. Värnik A, et al. Gender issues in suicide rates, trends and methods among youths aged 15-24 in 15 European countries. J Affect Disord 2009;113(3):216-226.
  • 31. Värnik A, et al. Suicide methods in Europe: a gender-specific Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences 193 analysis of countries participating in the “European Alliance Against Depression”. J Epidemiol Community Health 2008;62(6):545-551.
  • 32. Akhgari M, Fatemeh B, Alireza K. Cyanide poisoning related deaths, a four-year experience and review of the literature. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences 2016;48(2):186-194.
  • 33. Garff LE, et al. Cyanide suicide after deep web shopping. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2016;37(3):194-197. DOI:10.1097/paf.0000000000000241. 34. Demir H, Çakmak C. Suicides as a public health problem: The case of Turkey. Journal of Health and Social Policies Overview 2017;2:94-118.
  • 35. Uysal C, Karapirli M, Üzün İ. Cyanide poisining: An unusual case. Journal of Harran University Medical Faculty 2011; 8(3): 119-122.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Medicine
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Hasim CAPAR
İSTANBUL SABAHATTİN ZAİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7056-7879
Türkiye


Cuma ÇAKMAK
DİCLE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-4409-9669
Türkiye


Yasin ÇİLHOROZ (Primary Author)
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5171-7779
Türkiye

Publication Date May 17, 2021
Application Date December 6, 2020
Acceptance Date March 15, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { mutftd836670, journal = {Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi}, issn = {1309-761X}, eissn = {1309-8004}, address = {lokman@mersin.edu.tr}, publisher = {Mersin University}, year = {2021}, volume = {11}, pages = {310 - 318}, doi = {10.31020/mutftd.836670}, title = {Suicide Cases by Cyanide in Turkey: A Research based on Newspaper Reports}, key = {cite}, author = {Capar, Hasim and Çakmak, Cuma and Çilhoroz, Yasin} }
APA Capar, H. , Çakmak, C. & Çilhoroz, Y. (2021). Suicide Cases by Cyanide in Turkey: A Research based on Newspaper Reports . Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi , 11 (2) , 310-318 . DOI: 10.31020/mutftd.836670
MLA Capar, H. , Çakmak, C. , Çilhoroz, Y. "Suicide Cases by Cyanide in Turkey: A Research based on Newspaper Reports" . Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi 11 (2021 ): 310-318 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/mutftd/issue/62328/836670>
Chicago Capar, H. , Çakmak, C. , Çilhoroz, Y. "Suicide Cases by Cyanide in Turkey: A Research based on Newspaper Reports". Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi 11 (2021 ): 310-318
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Suicide Cases by Cyanide in Turkey: A Research based on Newspaper Reports AU - Hasim Capar , Cuma Çakmak , Yasin Çilhoroz Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.31020/mutftd.836670 DO - 10.31020/mutftd.836670 T2 - Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 310 EP - 318 VL - 11 IS - 2 SN - 1309-761X-1309-8004 M3 - doi: 10.31020/mutftd.836670 UR - https://doi.org/10.31020/mutftd.836670 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Mersin University School of Medicine Lokman Hekim Journal of History of Medicine and Folk Medicine Suicide Cases by Cyanide in Turkey: A Research based on Newspaper Reports %A Hasim Capar , Cuma Çakmak , Yasin Çilhoroz %T Suicide Cases by Cyanide in Turkey: A Research based on Newspaper Reports %D 2021 %J Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi %P 1309-761X-1309-8004 %V 11 %N 2 %R doi: 10.31020/mutftd.836670 %U 10.31020/mutftd.836670
ISNAD Capar, Hasim , Çakmak, Cuma , Çilhoroz, Yasin . "Suicide Cases by Cyanide in Turkey: A Research based on Newspaper Reports". Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi 11 / 2 (May 2021): 310-318 . https://doi.org/10.31020/mutftd.836670
AMA Capar H. , Çakmak C. , Çilhoroz Y. Suicide Cases by Cyanide in Turkey: A Research based on Newspaper Reports. Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi. 2021; 11(2): 310-318.
Vancouver Capar H. , Çakmak C. , Çilhoroz Y. Suicide Cases by Cyanide in Turkey: A Research based on Newspaper Reports. Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi. 2021; 11(2): 310-318.
IEEE H. Capar , C. Çakmak and Y. Çilhoroz , "Suicide Cases by Cyanide in Turkey: A Research based on Newspaper Reports", Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 310-318, May. 2021, doi:10.31020/mutftd.836670

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