Year 2019, Volume 19 , Issue 48, Pages 227 - 262 2019-06-29

ABBASİ ŞİİRİNDE MERSİYE: İBNU’R-RÛMÎ’NİN OĞLUNA YAZDIĞI MERSİYESİ (ANALİTİK BİR İNCELEME)
Marâthi (Elegies) in the Abbasid Poetry: An Analytical Research on the Marsiyah Poetry Written by Ibn Al-Rûmî's for His Son
-الرثاء في الشعر العباسي :قصيدة ابن الرومي في رثاء ابنه -دراسة تحليلية

Mehmet Ali Kılay Araz [1]


Mersiye (Ağıt), Arap şiirinde öne çıkan ve şairlerin, şiirlerinde doğruyu ve gerçeği ifade ettiği türlerden biridir. Mersiye şairin, sevdiklerini yitirmesine karşılık duyduğu üzüntüyü ifade ettiği içten bir duygu gerektirir. İbnu’r-Rûmi de Mersiye türünde şiir yazan şairlerin önde gelenlerinden biridir. Onun oğlu için yazdığı mersiye, çok ince ve gerçek duyguları ifade ettiği şiirleri arasından en güzeli ve en meşhurudur. İbnu’Rûmî’nin oğlu için yazdığı mersiye üzüntüsü, kararsızlığı ve huzursuzluğunu ustaca yansıttığı bir şiirdir. Bu makale, İbnu’r-Rûmî’nin oğlu için kaleme aldığı Mersiyesini konu edinmektedir. Mersiye, insanın psikolojisi ile ilintili olması, şairin sevdiği bir yakınını kaybetmesi nedeniyle yaşadığı trajedinin duygusunu yoğun ve gerçek biçimde yaşadığı önemli şiir türlerinden biridir.

Çalışmada, İbnu’r-Rûmî’nin Mersiyesindeki şiirsel özellikler nelerdir? İbnu’r-Rûmî, Mersiyesinde şiir ve sanatı nasıl birleştirmiştir? gibi sorulara yanıt aranacaktır. Bu makale, önsöz ve girişle beraber Abbasiler Döneminde Kültürel Hayat, Mersiye’nin Sözlük ve Terim Anlamları, Mersiye Türleri gibi konuların yanında en sonunda İbnu’r-Rûmî’nin Oğluna Yazdığı Şiiri içermektedir. Giriş Bölümü, İbnu’r-Rûmî ve Hayatı, İbnu’r-Rûmî’nin Oğluna Yazdığı Mersiyenin Bilimsel Tahlilinden bahsetmektedir. Birinci Bölüm, Kasidenin Yapısı, ikinci bölüm ise İbnu’r-Rûmî’nin Mersiyesinin Özellikleri, teorik bakımdan araştırmanın yöntemi tarihi bir metodolojiyi, uygulama bakımından ise Analitik Çözümleme yöntemini benimsemiştir. Araştırmada İbnu’r-Rûmî’nin yaşadığı insani tecrübe ve onun duygu ve hisleri ile ölçü ve kafiyeli bir biçimde kaleme aldığı şiirinde benimsenen teknikler, kaleme aldığı mersiye türüne ışık tutulmaya, yapı, dil ve sanatsal imgelerin özellikleri bakımından onun şiiri analitik bir biçimde ele alınmıştır.

Abstarct

Elegy (marsiyah) is one of the types of the Arabic poetry, poet express the truth and reality in poems. Because marsiyah requires a sincere feeling that the poet expresses his sorrow for the loss of loved ones. Ibn al-Rûmî, one of the leading poets, wrote poems in the style of marsiyah. The Marsiyah, which is written for his son, is one of the most beautiful and famous poems in which he expressed his real feelings, the sadness, indecision and hesitancy.

This study deals with the subject of Ibn al-Rûmî's mariyah for his son. Marsiyah is a great tragedy or lamentation for a departed soul. It is related to the psychology of the human being. It is one of the important poetry types in which the poet lives an intense and real sense of feeling, poet experienced due to the loss of a loved one.

This study aims to answer the following questions: What are the poetic features of Ibn al-Rûmî? How combined Ibn al-Rûmî poetry and art in the Marsiyah?

In addition to introduction and conclusion it includes following sections: (i) Cultural Life in the Abbasid Period, (ii) Dictionary and Term Meanings of Marsiyah and its Species, and (iii) Poetry Written by Ibn al-Rûmî for his Son.

Introduction section provides information about Ibn al-Rûmî and an analytical evaluation of his marsiyah, which he wrote for his Son. The first and second parts of the study cover the structure of the marsiyah (qasidah) and its characteristics. The method adopted in this study is based upon theoretical method of a historical methodology, the application of the Analytical Analysis.

The analytical approach of the study focused on Ibn al-Rûmî's human experience and his feelings, and the techniques adopted in the poem which he wrote in a rhythm and measure, to shed light on the genre of writing, the nature, language and characteristics of artistic images.

Keywords: Marsiyah (Elegy), Arabic Poetry, The Abbasids, Ibn al-Rûmî

Srtuctred Abstract

Dirge (marsiyah) is one of the types of the Arabic poetry, poet express the truth and reality in poems. Because marsiyah requires a sincere feeling that the poet expresses his sorrow for the loss of loved ones. Ibn al-Rûmî, one of the leading poets, wrote poems in the style of marsiyah. The Marsiyah, which is written for his son, is one of the most beautiful and famous poems in which he expressed his real feelings, the sadness, indecision and hesitancy.

This study deals with the subject of Ibn al-Rûmî's marsiyah for his son. Marsiyah is a great tragedy or lamentation for a departed soul. It is related to the psychology of the human being. It is one of the important poetry types in which the poet lives an intense and real sense of feeling, poet experienced due to the loss of a loved one.

This study aims to answer the following questions: What are the poetic features of Ibn al-Rûmî? How combined Ibn al-Roumi poetry and art in the Marsiyah?

And one of the most important previous studies - which dealt with the Marsiyah of Ibn al-Roumi and his poems in general - is as follows:

Marsiyah at Ibn Al-Roumi: A Master's Study, Master's Thesis: Ali Idriss Awad Meloud Bakasem, Alexandria University (Faculty of Arts), 2011.

The Marsiyah Poem at Ibn Al - Roumi: An Empirical Study, Master's Thesis by Wafa' Umar Othman Al - Fati, Umm Al - Qura University, Faculty of Arts, 2001.

In addition to introduction and conclusion it includes following sections: (i) Cultural Life in the Abbasid Period, (ii) Dictionary and Term Meanings of Marsiyah and its Species, and (iii) Poetry Written by Ibn al-Rûmî for his Son.

Introduction section provides information about Ibn al-Rûmî and an analytical evaluation of his marsiyah, which he wrote for his Son. The first and second parts of the study cover the structure of the marsiyah (qasidah) and its characteristics. The method adopted in this study is based upon theoretical method of a historical methodology, the application of the Analytical Analysis.

The analytical approach of the study focused on Ibn al-Rûmî's human experience and his feelings, and the techniques adopted in the poem which he wrote in a rhythm and measure, to shed light on the genre of writing, the nature, language and characteristics of artistic images.

At the end of this research, we can summarize the following conclusions:

Recognition of the meaning of Marsiyah Language and terminology is to praise the person after his death, and enumeration of his exploits, and expression of grief, grief and pain, as well as identify the types of mourning, mourning and condolence, and identify the son of Al-Roumi birth and growth, and culture, and descriptions, and his death.

The most important traditional topics in which Ibn Al-Roumi excelled from satire, praise, lamentation and others. We touched upon the study of the structure of the poem, which was divided into two sections and each section dealt with several axes. One of the most important features of the poem lament the ingenuity of innovation and the magnificence of photography and accuracy and the strength of emotion and clarity of ideas, and the diversification between the methods of news and construction, in addition to the ease of hair and its dimensions, and the lack of cost and ambiguity and complexity in it.

In his homily, the poet revealed the true human self-effacement expressed in the verses of the poem, expressing his sincere feelings of sorrow towards those who lost. The consistency of the word with the meaning in the poem shows and illustrates the poetic experience experienced by Ibn al-Rumi and the skill in choosing words expressing the meanings of grief.

The poet has benefited from the long and quiet weight that suits the passion, and the poet repeated in his verses the letter Dal and the broken to indicate the state of anxiety and a sense of sadness for the loss of his son.

The diversity of the poet in the use of artistic images of the metaphorical metaphor and metaphor, imagination was a way to portray his emotions and grief and pain.

يعد الرثاء من الأغراض ذات الصدارة في خارطة الشعر العربي، وأصدقها على ألسنة الشعراء؛ لأنه يتطلب عاطفة صادقة يعبر الشاعر من خلالها عن مدى حزنه لفقد من يحب، وابن الرومي أحد هؤلاء الشعراء الذين برعوا في الرثاء، ومن أشهر مراثيه مرثية ابنه محمد، وهي من أجمل القصائد وأروعها؛ حيث تحمل إحساسًا مرهفًا، وعاطفًة صادقة، وبراعة ممزوجة بطعم الفجيعة، والتقلب، والاضطراب.

يحاول هذا البحث أن يعالج موضوع الرثاء في شعر ابن الرومي، فالرثاء من أهم الأغراض الشعرية؛ لارتباطه بالنفس الإنسانية، فهو فن وجداني ينزف فيه الشاعر صادقًا عند حلول الـمأساة بسبب فقدان من يحبه.

وإن التساؤلات التي يحاول أن يجيب عنها هي ما يأتي:

§  ما هي سمات الرثاء في شعر ابن الرومي؟

§  هل استطاع ابن الرومي أن يوحِّد بين الفنّ والشّعور في رثائه.

وقد تميز البحث الحالي عن الدراسات السابقة في كونه دراسة تحليلية لقصيدة ابن الرومي في رثاء ابنه من حيث بنية قصيدة رثاء الابن عند ابن الرومي وسماتها ولغتها الشعرية، وعاطفة الشاعر، والصور الفنية. بعكس الدراسات السابقة التي كانت تتحدث عن الرثاء في شعر ابن الرومي وقصائده بشكل عام دون تحديد وتخصيص نموذج معين للدراسة.

وقد اقتضت طبيعة هذه الدراسة وغايتها أن تتوزع على مقدمة وتمهيد يتضمن: الحياة الثقافية في العصر العباسي، ومعنى الرثاء في اللغة والاصطلاح، وأنواع الرثاء، بالإضافة إلى وجود ملحق يتضمن قصيدة الرثاء لابن الرومي، ويلي التمهيد مبحثان:

الأول: يشمل على ابن الرومي وحياته. وخصصت الثاني: لدراسة قصيدة ابن الرومي في رثاء ابنه دراسة تحليلية.

فتناولت فيه أولًا: بنية القصيدة. ثم ثانيًا: سمات (خصائص) الرثاء عن ابن الرومي.

أما منهج الدراسة، فقد اعتمدت على المنهج التاريخي في عرض الجانب النظري، والمنهج الوصفي التحليلي في الجانب التطبيقي.

 أما أهمية البحث فتمثلت في:

§               محاولة الوقوف على هذه التجربة الإنسانية التي مر بها ابن الرومي وبيان طبيعتها على المستوى الشعوري والعاطفي.

§               بيان الفنيات التي اعتمدها ابن الرومي في شعره الرثائي.

§               تسليط الضوء على هذا الجانب الرثائي في شعر ابن الرومي.

§               دراسة القصيدة دراسة تحليلية من حيث سمات الرثاء وبنية القصيدة واللغة الشعرية والصور الفنية.

الكلمات المفتاحية :الرثاء، الشعر العربي، العباسيون، ابن الرومي

  • _ أشقر، محمد عبد القادر- ابن الرومي دراسة في المؤثرات البيئية والشخصية في شعره، دار الرفاعي ودار القلم العربي، بيروت، ط1، 2006. _ البستاني، بطرس- محيط المحيط، تح: محمد عثمان، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، لبنان، ط1، 2009. _ ابن رشيق القيرواني- العمدة في محاسن الشعر وآدابه ونقده، مطبعة السعادة، مصر، ط2، 1964. _ ابن الرومي- ديوان ابن الرومي، تح: أحمد حسن بسج، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، لبنان، ط3، 2002. _ ابن فارس، أحمد- معجم مقاييس اللغة، تح: عبد السلام محمد هارون، دار الفكر، بيروت، لبنان، 1979. _ ابن منظور- لسان العرب، تحقيق عامر أحمد حيدر، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، لبنان، ط2، 2009. _ الرافعي، مصطفى صادق- تاريخ آداب العرب، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، لبنان، ط2، 2009. _ رشيد، ناظم- الأدب في العصر العباسي، مديرية دار الكتب، جامعة الموصل، العراق، 1989. _ روشنفكر، كبرى ومحمدى، دانش- قصيدة ابن الرومي في رثاء ولده، دراسة دلاليه، (دون معلومات)، 1991
Primary Language ar
Subjects Poetry
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Mehmet Ali Kılay Araz (Primary Author)
Institution: ANKARA SOSYAL BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ, DİNİ İLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Application Date : April 5, 2019
Acceptance Date : June 19, 2019
Publication Date : June 29, 2019

APA Araz, M . (2019). -الرثاء في الشعر العباسي :قصيدة ابن الرومي في رثاء ابنه -دراسة تحليلية. Nüsha , 19 (48) , 227-262 . DOI: 10.32330/nusha.549467