Diller arası etkileşim tarih boyu süre gelmiştir. Önce sözlü daha sonra yazılı hale gelen bu etkileşim çeviri yoluyla sürdürülmüştür. Çeviri hayatın her alanında etkin durumdadır. Bu sayede çeviri ile ister bilimsel ve teknik alanda olsun ister edebiyat ve sanat alanında olsun dünya hakkında birçok bilgi edinilmektedir. Edinilen bu bilgilerin hedef okuyucu tarafından da doğru algılanması için kuramsal anlamda bir çeviri stratejisinin uygulanmasının gerekliliği düşünülmektedir.
Bu doğrultuda modern İran edebiyatının önde gelen kadın şairi olan Furûğ Ferruhzâd’ın Bir Başka Doğuş adlı şiir kitabında yer alan “Bahçenin Fethi” adlı şiiri incelemenin malzemesi olarak kullanılmıştır. Furûğ Ferruhzâd’ın olgunluk döneminin ürünü olan “Bahçenin Fethi” şiiri, çeviriye daha bilimsel bakabilmek adına Gideon Toury tarafından geliştirilen “Betimleyici Çeviri Araştırmaları” yöntemi doğrultusunda kuramsal bir çerçeve içerisinde ele alınmıştır. İncelemede Ali Güzelyüz, Makbule Aras ve Onat-Kutlar-Celal Hüsrevşahi adlı üç çevirmenin çevirileri değerlendirme konusu olmuştur. Çeviriler “kabul edilebilirlik” ve “yeterlilik” açısından incelenmiştir. Bu yöntem doğrultusunda eğer metin hedef metin normlarına göre çevrilmişse ve okuyucuda çeviri metin algısı yaratmıyorsa “kabul edilebilir” bir çeviri, kaynak metin normlarına göre çevrilmişse ve metin hedef okuyucuda yabancılaştırma algısı yaratıyorsa “yeterli” bir çeviri olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Ayrıca çevirmenlerin yaptıkları değişiklikler saptanarak, bu değişiklikler kaynak ve hedef metne göre incelenmiştir. Her iki yöntem esnasında çevirmen ne tür stratejiler uygulamış ise belirtilmeye çalışılmıştır.
Interaction between languages has been around for a while. This interaction, which first became verbal and then written, was continued through translation. Translation is active in all areas of life. In this way, a lot of information about the world is obtained through translation, whether in the scientific and technical field or in the field of literature and art. It is considered necessary to apply a theoretical translation strategy in order to perceive this information correctly by the target reader.
In this respect, Forough Farrokhzad, the leading woman poet of modern Iranian literature, used the material of the poem “The Conquest of the Garden in his poetry book” Another Birth. Forough Farrokhzad’s product of the maturity period “The Conquest of the Garden” is discussed in a theoretical framework with Descriptive Translation Studies developed by Gideon Toury in order to look at the translation more scientifically.
The translations of three translators Ali Güzelyüz, Makbule Aras and Onat Kutlar- Jalal Khosrowshahi were examined in terms of “acceptability” and “adequacy”. In line with this method, it evaluted if the text is translated according to the target text norms, as “an acceptable translation” or if the text is translated according to source text the norms, as “an adequate translation”. Furthermore, the changes made by the translators were determined and examined according to the source and target text. During both methods, it was tried to specify what strategies the translator applied.
Forough Farrokhzad, one of the famous women poets in the history of contemporary Iranian literature, was born on January 5, 1935. Suddenly, she got married when she was 16. In 1952, she published her first poetry collection, Esir. Over time, a number of disputes began between Forough and his husband, and they never ended. She had a son named Kâmyâr, but the birth of her son did not end these disputes, but rather increased them. As a result of these disputes, the marriage of Forough and Shapour ended in 1955. She could not see her son until after her divorce with her husband because of the rules set by the law. In 1956 she went to Rome. After coming back to Iran, she devoted herself fully to her art. In 1957, she published her second poetry book, Duvar. In 1959, Forough published her third poetry collection, İsyan. In 1958, she engaged in film production as well as poetry, and began working for the company “Golestan Film”, directed by Ebrahim Golestan. In 1962, Forough decided to make a film about lepers and went to Tabriz for film preparation. The film is called “House is black [Hâne Siyâhest]”. The script used in this film consists of the texts of the Qur'an and the Torah. Tabriz Bâbâdâghi Sanatorium lepers played in the film. In 1964, she published her fourth poetry collection, Another Birth. With this book she created her own language and was reborn in every sense. Forough poetry book of Let us believe in the Beginning of the Cold Season was published after the death of her. Fearing early death and unfinished business, Forough died on 13 February 1967 in a 32-year-old car accident.
In this study, Forough's poem "conquest of the garden" was evaluated.
These evaluations were discussed with descriptive translation studies developed by Gideon Toury based on the theory of polysystem proposed by Itamar Even-Zohar in 1970s. Toury considers that translation should be focused on target, and when evaluating a translation, he argues that translation should be evaluated according to the language / culture / literature to be read / discussed rather than the source text and author. According to Toury, translations first of all have a place in the target culture system. This position determines the translation strategies used. Thus, he proposes a three-stage method by starting his approach from theory of “polysystem” and considers that this method should be applied as follows:
1- To determine the position of the translated text in the target culture system and to review the acceptability and adequacy of the translated text
2- To compare the source and target texts, describe the relationships between binary text units to be selected from both texts, and attempt to generalize the underlying concept of translation.
3- To reach conclusions that can be used in the decisions taken in translation in the future, Reconstruct the translation process for source and target text
Toury sees translation as an activity managed by norms; these norms determine the equivalence of translation. Toury states that these norms that guide translation should be examined in two ways:
1- Conducting a textual translation analysis, which includes examining the shifts of words detected during the comparison of source and target texts.
2- Review of other texts such as criticism of the translation texts, foreword, afterword or interviews with translators
Toury examines the norms that determine each stage of translation in two main groups in descriptive translation studies. He calls these norms: “Initial norms” and “operational norms”. Initial norm: It is the norm that provides information on whether the translator has made the translation directly from the source text or has used an intermediate language during the translation. Operational norm: The norm that shows what kind of decisions the translator makes during the translation act
In this context, the three translations were examined in terms of “acceptability” and “adequacy” according to Gideon Toury’s “Descriptive Translation Studies”. The poem of the Conquest of the Garden” was evaluated on the Turkish translations of Onat Kutlar-Jalal Khosrowshahi, Makbule Aras and Ali Güzelyüz. In the context of these evaluations, it is observed that poetry's style, alliteration, certain rhyme and repetitions in poetry are transferred to the target text, since poems are written in free style in terms of form. It has been found that translators make a number of additions and subtractions to fully transfer the source text message to the target text and leave the same effect on the target reader.
: September 19, 2019
|APA||EREN SOYSAL, E . (2019). GİDEON TOURY’NİN BETİMLEYİCİ ÇEVİRİ ARAŞTIRMALARI YÖNTEMİ IŞIĞINDA FURUĞ FERRUHZAD’IN “BAHÇENİN FETHİ” ADLI ŞİİRİNİN TÜRKÇE ÇEVİRİLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ. Nüsha , 19 (49) , 17-44 . DOI: 10.32330/nusha.621953|