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Mordecai Kaplan’ın Yahudi Dinî Hayatında Yaptığı Yenilikler

Year 2019, Volume 1, Issue 2, 171 - 192, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3582402

Abstract

Yeniden Yapılanmacı hareketin kurucusu olan Mordecai Kaplan, fikirleri ve eserleri ile Amerikan Yahudi toplumu üzerinde oldukça etkili olmuştur. Kaplan, modernizmin Yahudi yaşamında bir parçalanma meydana getirdiğini gözlemlemiş ve Yahudiliği yeniden yapılandırarak bu dini modern müntesipleri için daha anlamlı bir hale getirmeye çalışmıştır. Bu amaçla kaleme aldığı Judaism as a Civilization adlı kitabında, Amerikan Yahudi yaşamını canlandırmak için kapsamlı bir yeniden yapılanma programı önermekle kalmamış, aynı zamanda yeni nesil Yahudilerin karşılaştığı zorlukların etkileyici bir analizini de sunmuştur. Bu kitabında Kaplan, Yahudiliği gelişen bir medeniyet olarak yeniden tanımlamış ve Yahudilik içerisinde farklı bir din yorumu geliştirmiştir. Bu anlayış çerçevesinde geliştirdiği sinagog merkezi, bat mitzva töreni gibi birçok kavram, Amerikan Yahudilerinin büyük bir çoğunluğu tarafından kabul edilmiştir. Kaplan ayrıca Yeniden Yapılanmacı hareket aracılığıyla Amerikan Yahudi toplumu içerisinde kadın haklarına ve cinsiyet eşitliğine yönelik pek çok yeniliğe de öncülük etmiştir.

References

  • “About Matan”. Erişim: 15.12.2019, https://www.matan.org.il/en/about-2/.
  • Alpert, Rebecca & Goldie Milgram. “Women in the Reconstructionist Rabbinate”. Religious Institutions and Women’s Leadership: New Roles Inside the Mainstream, ed. Catherine Wessinger, Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1996, 291-310.
  • Alpert, Rebecca T. & Jacob J. Staub. Exploring Judaism: A Reconstructionist Approach. New York: The Reconstructionist Press, 1985.
  • Balin, Carole B. “Moving Through the Movements: American Denominations and Their Haggadot”. My People’s Passover Haggadah Traditional Texts, Modern Commentaries, ed. Lawrence A. Hoffman & David Arnow, Woodstock: Jewish Lights Publishing, 2008, 1: 79-84.
  • Bronznick, Shifra v.dğr. “Women as Leaders in Judaism”. Gender and Women’s Leadership: A Reference Handbook, ed. Karen O’Connor, California: SAGE, 2010, 1: 513-523.
  • Caplan, Eric. From Ideology to Liturgy: Reconstructionist Worship and American Liberal Judaism. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 2002.
  • Cohen, Jack v.dğr. “Kaplan, Mordecai Menahem (1881-1983)”. Encyclopedia Judaica, ed. Fred Skolnik & Michael Berenbaum, Detroit: Mac Millan Reference USA and Keter Publishing House, 2007, 11: 776-779.
  • Cohn-Sherbok, Dan. Modern Judaism. Londra: Macmillan, 1996.
  • Eisen, Arnold. “Mordecai Kaplan’s Judaism as a Civilization at 70: Setting the Stage for Reappraisal”. Jewish Social Studies 12/2 (2006): 1-16.
  • Eisenstein, Ira. “Kaplan as Liturgist”. The American Judaism of Mordecai M. Kaplan, ed. Mel Scult v.dğr., New York: New York University Press, 1992, 319-334.
  • Friedman, Reena S. “The Emergence of Reconstructionism: An Evolving American Judaism, 1922-1945”. American Jewish Archives 48/1 (1996): 1-22.
  • Gillman, Neil. Conservative Judaism: The New Century. New Jersey: Behrman House, 1993.
  • Hirsh, Richard. “Divorce”. Guide to Jewish Practice: The Life Cycle, ed. David A. Teutsch, Wyncote: Reconstructionist Rabbinical College Press, 2015, 3: 227-276.
  • Hirsch, Richard. “Reconstructionism”. Encyclopedia Judaica, Detroit: Mac Millan Reference and Keter Publishing House, 2007, 17: 146-149.
  • Joseph, Norma B. “Bar Mitzvah, Bat Mitzvah”. Encyclopaedia Judaica, ed. Fred Skolnik, Detroit: Mac Millan Reference USA and Keter Publishing House, 2007, 3: 164-166.
  • Kaplan, Mordecai M. Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life. New York: Macmillan, 1934.
  • Kaplan, Mordecai M. Not so Random Thoughts. New York: The Reconstructionist Press, 1966.
  • Kaplan, Mordecai M. The Future of the American Jew. New York: Macmillan, 1948.
  • Kaplan, Mordecai M. The Greater Judaism in the Making: A Study of the Modern Evolution of Judaism. New York: Reconstructionist Press, 1960.
  • Liebman, Charles S. “Reconstructionism in American Jewish Life”. The American Jewish Year Book 71 (1970): 3-99.
  • Moore, Deborah Dash. “Judaism as a Gendered Civilization: The Legacy of Mordecai Kaplan’s Magnum Opus”. Jewish Social Studies: History, Culture, and Society 12/2 (2006): 172-186.
  • “Old Symbols, New Rituals: Adapting Traditional Symbols, Ceremonies and Blessings”. Ritualwell, erişim: 04.12.2019, https://www.ritualwell.org/ritual/old-symbols-new-rituals-adapting-traditional-symbols-ceremonies-and-blessings.
  • Penzner, Barbara. “Weddings”. A Guide to Jewish Practice: Life Cycle, ed. David A. Teutsch, Wyncote: The Recontructionist Rabbinical College Press, 2015, 3: 141-225.
  • Rapaport, Gitelle. “Designed for Women”. Erişim: 15.12.2019, https://drisha.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Designed-for-Women-Rabbi-Silber-no-date.pdf.
  • Sasso, Sandy E. “B’rit B’not Israel: Observations on Women and Reconstructionism”. A Contemporary Jewish Review 8/2 (Summer 1973): 101-105.
  • Scult, Mel. Judaism Faces the Twentieth Century: A Biography of Mordecai M. Kaplan. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1993.
  • Scult, Mel. The Radical American Judaism of Mordecai M. Kaplan. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2013.
  • Sen, Debolina. “Kaplan, Mordecai (1881-1983)”. The World’s Greatest Religious Leaders: How Religious Figures Helped Shape World History, ed. Scott E. Hendrix & Uchenna B. Okeja, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2018, 321-325.
  • Staub, Jacob J. “Reconstructionist Judaism”. Encyclopedia of American Jewish History, ed. Stephen H. Norwood & Eunice G. Pollack, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2008, 1: 89-97.
  • Stein, Regina. “The Road to Bat Mitzvah in America”. Women and American Judaism: Historical Perspectives, ed. Pamela Susan Nadell & Jonathan D. Sarna, Hanover: Brandeis University Press, 2001, 223-234.
  • Teutsch, David A. “Value-Based Decision Making”. A Guide to Jewish Practice: Everyday Living, ed. David A. Teutsch, Wyncote: Reconstructionist Rabbinical College Press, 2011, 1: 551-563.

Mordecai Kaplan’s Innovations in Jewish Religious Life

Year 2019, Volume 1, Issue 2, 171 - 192, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3582402

Abstract

Mordecai Kaplan, the founder of the  Reconstructionist movement, has been  highly influential on American Jewish society with his ideas and works. Kaplan observed that modernism caused a fragmentation in Jewish life and endeavored to make Judaism more meaningful for modern Jews by reconstructing it. To this end, in his book called Judaism as a Civilization, Kaplan not only offered a comprehensive reconstructing program to revive American Jewish life, but also provided an impressive analysis of the challenges which the new generation of Jews were facing. In this book, Kaplan redefined Judaism as an evolving civilization and developed a different interpretation of religion within Judaism. Many concepts of Kaplan such as synagogue center and bat mitzvah ceremony, have been accepted by the majority of American Jews. Kaplan has also pioneered many innovations within the American Jewish community that will take place towards women’s rights and gender equality, through the Restructuring movement.

References

  • “About Matan”. Erişim: 15.12.2019, https://www.matan.org.il/en/about-2/.
  • Alpert, Rebecca & Goldie Milgram. “Women in the Reconstructionist Rabbinate”. Religious Institutions and Women’s Leadership: New Roles Inside the Mainstream, ed. Catherine Wessinger, Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1996, 291-310.
  • Alpert, Rebecca T. & Jacob J. Staub. Exploring Judaism: A Reconstructionist Approach. New York: The Reconstructionist Press, 1985.
  • Balin, Carole B. “Moving Through the Movements: American Denominations and Their Haggadot”. My People’s Passover Haggadah Traditional Texts, Modern Commentaries, ed. Lawrence A. Hoffman & David Arnow, Woodstock: Jewish Lights Publishing, 2008, 1: 79-84.
  • Bronznick, Shifra v.dğr. “Women as Leaders in Judaism”. Gender and Women’s Leadership: A Reference Handbook, ed. Karen O’Connor, California: SAGE, 2010, 1: 513-523.
  • Caplan, Eric. From Ideology to Liturgy: Reconstructionist Worship and American Liberal Judaism. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 2002.
  • Cohen, Jack v.dğr. “Kaplan, Mordecai Menahem (1881-1983)”. Encyclopedia Judaica, ed. Fred Skolnik & Michael Berenbaum, Detroit: Mac Millan Reference USA and Keter Publishing House, 2007, 11: 776-779.
  • Cohn-Sherbok, Dan. Modern Judaism. Londra: Macmillan, 1996.
  • Eisen, Arnold. “Mordecai Kaplan’s Judaism as a Civilization at 70: Setting the Stage for Reappraisal”. Jewish Social Studies 12/2 (2006): 1-16.
  • Eisenstein, Ira. “Kaplan as Liturgist”. The American Judaism of Mordecai M. Kaplan, ed. Mel Scult v.dğr., New York: New York University Press, 1992, 319-334.
  • Friedman, Reena S. “The Emergence of Reconstructionism: An Evolving American Judaism, 1922-1945”. American Jewish Archives 48/1 (1996): 1-22.
  • Gillman, Neil. Conservative Judaism: The New Century. New Jersey: Behrman House, 1993.
  • Hirsh, Richard. “Divorce”. Guide to Jewish Practice: The Life Cycle, ed. David A. Teutsch, Wyncote: Reconstructionist Rabbinical College Press, 2015, 3: 227-276.
  • Hirsch, Richard. “Reconstructionism”. Encyclopedia Judaica, Detroit: Mac Millan Reference and Keter Publishing House, 2007, 17: 146-149.
  • Joseph, Norma B. “Bar Mitzvah, Bat Mitzvah”. Encyclopaedia Judaica, ed. Fred Skolnik, Detroit: Mac Millan Reference USA and Keter Publishing House, 2007, 3: 164-166.
  • Kaplan, Mordecai M. Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life. New York: Macmillan, 1934.
  • Kaplan, Mordecai M. Not so Random Thoughts. New York: The Reconstructionist Press, 1966.
  • Kaplan, Mordecai M. The Future of the American Jew. New York: Macmillan, 1948.
  • Kaplan, Mordecai M. The Greater Judaism in the Making: A Study of the Modern Evolution of Judaism. New York: Reconstructionist Press, 1960.
  • Liebman, Charles S. “Reconstructionism in American Jewish Life”. The American Jewish Year Book 71 (1970): 3-99.
  • Moore, Deborah Dash. “Judaism as a Gendered Civilization: The Legacy of Mordecai Kaplan’s Magnum Opus”. Jewish Social Studies: History, Culture, and Society 12/2 (2006): 172-186.
  • “Old Symbols, New Rituals: Adapting Traditional Symbols, Ceremonies and Blessings”. Ritualwell, erişim: 04.12.2019, https://www.ritualwell.org/ritual/old-symbols-new-rituals-adapting-traditional-symbols-ceremonies-and-blessings.
  • Penzner, Barbara. “Weddings”. A Guide to Jewish Practice: Life Cycle, ed. David A. Teutsch, Wyncote: The Recontructionist Rabbinical College Press, 2015, 3: 141-225.
  • Rapaport, Gitelle. “Designed for Women”. Erişim: 15.12.2019, https://drisha.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Designed-for-Women-Rabbi-Silber-no-date.pdf.
  • Sasso, Sandy E. “B’rit B’not Israel: Observations on Women and Reconstructionism”. A Contemporary Jewish Review 8/2 (Summer 1973): 101-105.
  • Scult, Mel. Judaism Faces the Twentieth Century: A Biography of Mordecai M. Kaplan. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1993.
  • Scult, Mel. The Radical American Judaism of Mordecai M. Kaplan. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2013.
  • Sen, Debolina. “Kaplan, Mordecai (1881-1983)”. The World’s Greatest Religious Leaders: How Religious Figures Helped Shape World History, ed. Scott E. Hendrix & Uchenna B. Okeja, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2018, 321-325.
  • Staub, Jacob J. “Reconstructionist Judaism”. Encyclopedia of American Jewish History, ed. Stephen H. Norwood & Eunice G. Pollack, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2008, 1: 89-97.
  • Stein, Regina. “The Road to Bat Mitzvah in America”. Women and American Judaism: Historical Perspectives, ed. Pamela Susan Nadell & Jonathan D. Sarna, Hanover: Brandeis University Press, 2001, 223-234.
  • Teutsch, David A. “Value-Based Decision Making”. A Guide to Jewish Practice: Everyday Living, ed. David A. Teutsch, Wyncote: Reconstructionist Rabbinical College Press, 2011, 1: 551-563.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Religion
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Mahmut SALİHOGLU>
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İLAHİYAT FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-2379-3712
Türkiye


Şefaat BEDİR> (Primary Author)
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İLAHİYAT FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-6220-9972
Türkiye

Publication Date December 31, 2019
Application Date December 4, 2019
Acceptance Date December 16, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 1, Issue 2

Cite

ISNAD Salihoglu, Mahmut , Bedir, Şefaat . "Mordecai Kaplan’ın Yahudi Dinî Hayatında Yaptığı Yenilikler". Oksident 1 / 2 (December 2019): 171-192 . https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3582402