Volume: 19 - Issue: 46

Year: 2022

Research Articles

OPUS Journal of Society Research (JSR) brings a range of different fields of theory, practice, and research in the quest for understanding human behavior in its social environment. The Interdisciplinary perspective provides the groundwork to present and establish a holistic relationship with other disciplines, concepts and methods. The OPUS JSR provides a medium for researchers to incorporate of an interdisciplinary approach for bringing forward different interpretations which could potentially lead to amplifying or conflicting statements. It is not only the intersection of categories, but the theoretical framework that analyses and interprets the subject under study. This framing often leads to an analysis of multiple and even conflicting social dynamics that enable certain kinds of social understanding that are otherwise invisible when scholars focus on a single set of theoretical dynamics. OPUS JSR reflects more than 10 years of journal sponsorship by ADAMOR Society Research Center and its partner organizations, the Institute of Urban Studies. The OPUS Journal of Society Research is the direct successor of two previously published journals: OPUS Turkish Journal of Social Policies and Work Life Studies: OPUS International Journal of Society Research.

OPUS Journal of Society Research (JSR) brings a range of different fields of theory, practice, and research in the quest for understanding human behavior in its social environment. The Interdisciplinary perspective provides the groundwork to present and establish a holistic relationship with other disciplines, concepts and methods. The OPUS JSR provides a medium for researchers to incorporate of an interdisciplinary approach for bringing forward different interpretations which could potentially lead to amplifying or conflicting statements. It is not only the intersection of categories, but the theoretical framework that analyses and interprets the subject under study. This framing often leads to an analysis of multiple and even conflicting social dynamics that enable certain kinds of social understanding that are otherwise invisible when scholars focus on a single set of theoretical dynamics. OPUS JSR reflects more than 10 years of journal sponsorship by ADAMOR Society Research Center and its partner organizations, the Institute of Urban Studies. The OPUS Journal of Society Research is the direct successor of two previously published journals: OPUS Turkish Journal of Social Policies and Work Life Studies: OPUS International Journal of Society Research.

General
The journal follows the APA (Seventh Edition) recommendations in general, and contributors are encouraged to consult this publication. The research mentioned in the manuscripts should be ethically sound. Subjects' and participants' anonymity must be maintained, and identifying information should be removed from the manuscript.

Manuscript Submission
All creators ought to yield their compositions online. Manuscript submissions to the Journal should be arranged electronically and submitted in a standard word preparing format.

Suggested Reviewers
Authors are required to supply the names and contact information for 4 to 6 possible reviewers of their paper. When uploading a paper to the Opus site, authors must provide total contact data for each recommended reviewer, beside a specific reason for your recommendation within the comments box for each person. In spite of the fact that there's no guarantee that the editorial office will use your proposed reviewers, your help is appreciated and may speed up the choice of appropriate reviewers.

Publication Policies
The Journal considers manuscripts for publication with the understanding that they represent original material and have not been published, submitted or accepted somewhere else, either in whole or in any substantial part. Each manuscript should report adequate new data that produces a significant contribution to its field of research. Authors can expect an initial decision within approximately 8 to 10 weeks.

Double-Blind Peer Review
Authors can expect an initial decision within roughly 8 to 10 weeks. Reviewers' comments are sent with the decision of the assigned editor. Accepted papers are subject to editorial revisions and copyediting. When you are ready to submit a manuscript please be sure to upload these 2 separate files to ensure timely processing and review of your paper:
• A title page with running head, manuscript title, and complete author information. Followed by the Abstract page with keywords and highlights section.
• The blinded manuscript containing no clues to the authors’ identity (no name, no affiliation, and so forth).

Abstract
The abstract should follow APA-format and should be not more than 250 words. It should be a concise and complete summary of the contents of the manuscript, without reference to the body of the paper. Abstracts should cover key aspects of the literature review, the problem or research question(s), hypotheses, methods used, results and implications.

Key Words
A list of 5 key words, is to be provided directly below the abstract. Key words should address essential paper elements.

Text
Text should follow APA style. Authors are advised to spell out all abbreviations the first time they are used. When using direct quotations from another publication, cite the page number for the quotation in the text, immediately after the quotation. When reporting statistically significant results, include the statistical test used, the value of the test statistic, degrees of freedom, and p values. In the discussion include an evaluation of implications. Also, discuss limitations in study design or execution that may limit interpretation of the data and generalizability of the findings.

Manuscript evaluation and publication processes in OPUS lead to development and spread of knowledge in an impartial and valued way. Accordingly, these processes directly affect the quality of the articles of authors and the reputation of the institutions supporting those authors. At this point, it is important for all stakeholders (authors, readers and researchers, publisher, referees and editors) to comply with ethical criteria.
OPUS, within the scope of publication ethics, expects all stakeholders to bear ethical responsibilities below. The ethical duties and responsibilities below are prepared pursuant to guidelines and policies published by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) as an open-access way.
Authors' Ethical Responsibilities
The author (s) who submitted their manuscripts to OPUS are expected to comply with the following ethical responsibilities:
The manuscript submitted should be original and authors should cite or /and make reference to other studies used in a complete and correct manner.
Authors should mention and explain if there is a conflict of interest regarding the manuscript submitted for the publication.
The authors may be asked to present raw data about their manuscripts during the evaluation process. In such a situation, the authors should be able to provide expected data and information to the editorial board and scientific board.
Authors should have necessary certificates showing that they have right to use data, have permissions to conduct research/analysis or Institutional Review Board permission to conduct research on the subjects.
The author (s) has an obligation to inform the editor or publisher in case of noticing a mistake about their manuscripts that are published, in early preview stage or during evaluation process; and to cooperate with the editor for corrections or withdrawal.
Authors cannot submit their manuscripts more than one journal simultaneously. Each application can be started following the completion of previous application. Manuscripts published in somewhere else cannot be submitted to OPUS- International Journal of Society Research.
Changes in authorship responsibilities (i.e adding an author, changing authors’ name orders, omitting an author) cannot be offered for the manuscripts after their evaluation process started.
Duties and Responsibilities of Editors and Field Editors
The editors and the field editors of OPUS is expected to carry our the duties and responsibilities based on “COPE Code of Conduct and Best Practices Guidelines for Journal Editors” and “COPE Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors” published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) below:
General Duties and Responsibilities
Editors are responsible for each article published in OPUS. With this regard, editors have the roles and responsibilities below:
Making efforts to meet the information needs of the readers and the authors,
Ensuring the continuing development of the journal,
Conducting and managing processes to improve the quality of published articles,
Supporting freedom of thought
Ensuring academic integrity
Maintaining publication processes without compromising from intellectual property rights and ethical standard,
Being clear and transparent on the issues that require correction and explanation in terms of publication.
Relations with the Readers
Editors must make decisions by taking the readers, researchers and practitioners’ expectations in terms of information, skills and experiences into account.
They should ensure that the published articles are original and make a contribution to readers, researchers, practitioners and the scientific area.
Also, editors have the responsibility to pay attention to the feedbacks from readers, editors and practitioners, and to report back in an explanatory and informative way.
Relations with Authors
Editors must accept or decline the manuscripts based on their importance, originality, clarity and the aims of the journal.
Editors must start preliminary examination process of the manuscript unless they do not have a major problem.
Editors must take positive comments from referees into consideration if there is not a major problem regarding the manuscript.
New editors should not make changes in decisions taken by previous editors about the manuscripts if there is not a serious problem.
“Blind Review and Evaluation Process” must be published and editors must put all their efforts to prevent deviations from pre-determined processes.
Editors must publish a “ Author Guidelines” which explains all author duties in details. This guideline must be updated periodically.
Editors must provide explanatory and informative notifications and feedbacks to the authors.
Relations with the Referees
The duties and responsibilities of the editors towards the referees are as followings:
Determining referees in conformity with the topic of the manuscript.
Providing information and guidance that referees will need in the evaluation phase.
Considering whether there is a conflict of interest between the authors and the referees.
Editors should keep the referee’s credentials confidential in the context of blind review process.
Editors should encourage referees to evaluate the manuscripts in an impartial, scientific and objective manner.
Editors should evaluate referees according to their performance and ability provide feedback on time.
Editors should determine policies and practices that enhance referees’ performance.
Editors should take steps to update the referee pool continuously and dynamically.
Editors should prevent imprudent and non-scientific evaluations.
Editors should take steps to ensure that the pool of referees consists of wide range of experts.
Relations with the International Advisory Board
Editors must ensure that all members of the advisory board act in accordance with the publication processes and instructions.
Editors must inform the advisory board members about the publication policies and recent developments.
Editor must ensure that Advisory Board members evaluate the articles impartially and independently.
Editors should determine new advisory board members based on their contributions and qualities.
Editors should send articles to advisory board members that match to their area of expertise.
Editors should contact with the advisory board members periodically.
Editors should arrange meetings with Advisory Board members to discuss publication policies and to evaluate on the journal’s achievements periodically.
Relations with owner and publisher
The relationship between editors (chief editor and chapter editors) and the publisher is based on the editorial independence principle. In accordance with the written agreement between the editors and the publisher, all the decisions of the editors are independent of the publisher and the journal owner.
Editorial and Blind Review Processes
Editors are responsible for applying “Blind Review and Evaluation Process” that is written in Journal’s publishing policies. In this regard, editors ensure that evaluation process for each manuscript is completed fairly, impartially and on time.
Quality assurance
Editors are responsible for publishing every article published in the journal in accordance with journal publishing policies and international standards.
Protection of personal data
Editors are responsible to protect personal data on the subjects in the articles or visuals used in the manuscripts. Editors must decline the manuscripts in which the explicit consent of the subjects used in the researches are not documented. Also, editors are responsible to protect personal data of authors, referees and readers.
Ethics Committee, Rights of the Human and Animal Subjects
Editors must ensure the protection of human and animal rights experimented in the articles submitted to journal for assessment. In case of lacking ethics committee approval or permissions for conducting experiments, editors are expected to decline the article.
Measures against possible abuses and misconducts
Editors are liable to take necessary measures against the possible abuses and misconducts. In addition to make a detailed and an objective investigation to determine and evaluate reports on abuse and misconduct, editors are responsible to share the evidence about the issue.
Protecting Academic Publication Integrity
Editors must ensure quickly to correct the judgments that are erroneous, inconsistent or misleading in the articles.
Protecting intellectual property rights
Editors are responsible to protect intellectual propery rights of the articles published and to defend rights of the author(s) and the journal in case of the violation of such rights.
Also, editors are liable to take necessary measures to prevent published articles to violate other publications’ intellectual property rights.
Being constructive and open to discussion
Editors must take convincing criticisms against published articles into consideration and must present a constructive attitude against such criticisms.
Editors must grant authors right to reply to the criticisms against their articles.
Editors should nor ignore or exclude articles containing negative results.
Complaints
Editors are responsible to examine auhors’, referees’ or readers’ complaints carefully and to reply to those complaints in an enlightening and explanatory manner.
Conflicts of interest
Editors guarantee the completion of publication processes of the manuscripts independently and impartially.
Ethical Responsibilities of the Referees
The quality of a publication depends on the blind review process, which provides the objectivity and independent evaluation of the publication. OPUS-International Journal of Social Research evaluation process is carried out with the principle of double blind peer review. The referees cannot contact the authors directly. Instead, the feedbacks and comments are conveyed through management system of the journal. In this process, the feedbacks and comments of the referees are sent to the author (s) through the editor. In this context, the referees of the Journal of OPUS-International Community Research are expected to have the following ethical responsibilities:
• The referees should only evaluate the manuscript related to their field of expertise.
• They should evaluate in impartiality and confidentiality.
• If the referees think that there is a conflict of interest in the evaluation process, they should refuse to review the manuscript, and immediately inform the editor of the journal.
• The referees cannot cite or use the manuscript unless it is published.
• The evaluation process should be objective and free from the authors’/referees’ nationality, gender, religious and political beliefs and commercial interests.
• All comments should be constrictive and gentle, also not include any humiliating phrases including hostility, slander and insults.
• All referees should submit their evaluation on time and respect the aforementioned ethical responsibilities
Ethical Responsibilities of the Publisher
OPUS’a publisher ADAMOR Society Research Center, and OPUS’s Editorial Board act upon the ethical responsibilities below:
Editors are responsible for the all publication processes of the manuscripts submitted to OPUS-International Journal of Society Research. Within this framework, editor-in-chief and Area Editors are the decision-makers without financial or political rewards.
It ensures independent editorial decisions.
The Publisher protects intellectual property rights and copyrights of the each articles published in OPUS-International Journal of Society Research, and assume liability to save a copy.
The publisher has the responsibility to take all measures against scientific abuse, citation gangs and plagiarism towards the editors.
In case you notice an unethical conduct:
Please sent us your complaints via e-mail to editorial@opusjournal.net address if you notice an unethical conduct or content published in OPUS- International Journal of Social Research apart from ethical responsibilities mentioned above.

General Information on Price Setting
OPUS publishes all its articles in full open access, meaning unlimited use and reuse of articles, in addition to giving credit to the authors. OPUS publishes journal articles under the Open access articles whose publication is funded by payments that are made by authors, their institution or funding bodies, commonly known as Article Publishing Charges.
Article Charges
Irrespective of the publishing model chosen by the author, our goal is to ensure articles are published as quickly as possible, subject to appropriate quality controls, and widely disseminated. Where an author has chosen to publish open access, which typically involves the upfront payment of an article publishing charge, we will also make their article immediately and freely available upon publication on dergipark.org.tr and Opusjournal.net, in perpetuity, with the author’s chosen user license attached to it. Opus’s publishing prices are set on a per article basis, fees range between
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500 US Dollars.
Authors pay a one-time Article Processing Charge (100) to cover the costs of peer review (payment for reviewers) administration and Article Publication Charge (400) to cover the cost of management, professional production of articles in PDF and other formats, and dissemination of published papers in various venues, in addition to other publishing functions.
Please note that the option to process an advance payment of Article Processing Charge (100) remains but does not guarantee acceptance of manuscripts. After the editorial processes and acceptance of article for publication, corresponding author are supposed to provide Article Publication Charge (400).
Editorial Fees
OPUS pays to all Field Editors and reviewers and a share of revenue to the societies whose journals it publishes.
Discounts and Waivers
OPUS waives 15%–20% of its content every year. We are committed to supporting the transition of all research to full open access, so offer Article Publication Charge waivers or discounts to some authors.
For authors from low- and middle-income countries, waivers or discounts may be granted on a case-by-case basis. Applications submitted before article submission are assessed based on the quality of the research article and the authors’ ability to pay.
To ensure that editorial decisions are never influenced by ability to pay, it is OPUS policy that editors are not involved in correspondence with authors regarding payment of Article Publication Charges. The automatic waiver system will be managed by administrative staff not involved in decisions regarding article acceptance. We ask authors not to discuss any issues concerning payment with editors.
OPUS enables research from authors from low- and middle-income countries to be published open access by providing automatic waivers and discounts on Article Publication Charges for authors accepted to publish in Opus.

Automatic Waivers
Corresponding authors based in the following countries are eligible to receive an automatic waiver for Article Publication Charges when publishing in Opus journal:
*Automatic waivers for Article Publication Charges will only be applied if the corresponding author requests a waiver during article submission.
Afghanistan
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Central African Republic
Chad
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gambia, The
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Korea, Dem. People's Rep.
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Rwanda
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Sudan
Sudan
Syrian Arab Republic
Togo
Uganda
Yemen, Rep.
https://data.worldbank.org/income-level/low-income
Automatic Discounts
Corresponding authors based in the following countries are eligible to receive a 50% discount on Article Processing Charge (
100
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P
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(
400) when publishing in Opus journal:
*Automatic discounts can only be applied if the corresponding author selects to pay directly or arrange for payment at the payment step during article submission.

Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belize
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia And Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Cabo Verde
Cambodia
Cameroon
China
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Cote D'ivoire
Cuba
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eswatini
Fiji
Gabon
Georgia
Ghana
Grenada
Guatemala
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Jamaica
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kosovo
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao Pdr
Lebanon
Lesotho
Libya
Malaysia
Maldives
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Moldova
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Nigeria
North Macedonia
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Romania
Russian Federation
Samoa
Sao Tome And Principe
Senegal
Serbia
Solomon Islands
South Africa
Sri Lanka
St. Lucia
St. Vincent And The Grenadines
Suriname
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Tonga
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Vietnam
West Bank And Gaza
Zambia
Zimbabwe
https://data.worldbank.org/income-level/middle-income