Research Article
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The Role of Emotional Distress in the Relationship between COVID-19 Burnout and Academic Burnout in University Students

Year 2022, Volume 19, Issue 46, 340 - 353, 30.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.26466/opusjsr.1065787

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to determine whether COVID-19 burnout and emotional distress predicted academic burnout, and to assess the mediating role of emotional distress, on the relationship between COVID-19 burnout and academic burnout in university students. The sample consisted of 311 (259 female and 52 male) students enrolled in undergraduate (87.1%), master/doctorate programs (12.9%). Students completed the COVID-19 Burnout Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory – Student Scale (MBI-SS), and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a significant positive relationship between COVID-19 burnout, academic burnout, and emotional distress. COVID-19 burnout and emotional distress predicted academic burnout, also COVID-19 burnout and the depression scale of the DASS-21 predicted academic burnout. In a mediaton model, emotional distress partially mediated the relationship between COVID-19 burnout and academic burnout. When the model was tested with thedepression scale of the DASS-21, the relationship between COVID-19 burnout and academic burnout was partially mediated only by the depression scale.

References

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  • Arslan, G., & Yıldırım, M. (2021). Coronavirus stress, meaningful living, optimism, and depressive symptoms: A study of moderated mediation model. Australian Journal of Psychology, 73(2), 113-124.
  • Babicka-Wirkus, A., Wirkus, L., Stasiak, K., & Kozłowski, P. (2021). University students’ strategies of coping with stress during the coronavirus pandemic: Data from Poland. PLOS ONE 16(7), e0255041.
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  • Capone, V., Marino, L., & Park, M. S. (2021). Perceived employability, academic commitment, and competency of university students during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An exploratory study of student well-being. Frontiers in Psychology, 17(12), 788387.
  • Ceviz, N., Tektaş, N., Basmacı, G., & Tektaş, M. (2020). Covid 19 pandemi sürecinde üniversite öğrencilerinin kaygı düzeylerini etkileyen değişkenlerin analizi. International Journal of Scholars in Education, 3(2), 312-329.
  • Chen, S. (2021). Academic burnout and its association with cognitive emotion regulation strategies among adolescent girls and boys. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 101698.
  • Copeland, W. E., McGinnis, E., Bai, Y., Adams, Z., Nardone, H., Devadanam, V., Rettew, J., & Hudziak, J. J. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on college student mental health and wellness. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 60(1), 134-141.
  • Çapri, B., Gündüz, B., & Gökçakan, Z. (2011). Maslach tükenmişlik envanteri-öğrenci formu'nun (MTÖ-ÖF) Türkçe'ye uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Çukurova Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 40(1), 134-147.
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  • Kimter, N. (2020). Covid-19 günlerinde bireylerin psikolojik sağlamlık düzeylerinin bazı değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Özel Sayı, 574-605.
  • Koob, C., Schröpfer, K., Coenen, M., Kus, S., & Schmidt, N. (2021) Factors influencing study engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study among health and social professions students. PLOS ONE 16(7), 0255191.
  • Koutsimani, P., Montgomery, A., & Georgant, K. (2019). The relationship between burnout, depression, and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 13(10), 284.
  • Kul, A. Demir, R., & Katmer, A. N. (2020). Covid-19 salgını döneminde psikolojik sağlamlığın yordayıcısı olarak yaşam anlamı ve kaygı. Turkish Studies, 15(6), 695-719. https://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.44419
  • Li, H., Hafeez, H., & Zaheer, M. A. (2020). COVID-19 and pretentious psychological well-being of students: A threat to educational sustainability. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 4034.
  • Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour research and therapy, 33(3), 335-343.
  • Malach-Pines, A. (2005). The burnout measure, short version. International Journal of Stress Management, 12(1), 78.
  • Malik, M., Javed, S. (2021). Perceived stress among university students in Oman during COVID-19-induced e-learning. Middle East Current Psychiatry 28(49)
  • Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99-113.
  • Marčinko, D., Jakovljević, M., Jakšić, N., Bjedov, S., & Mindoljević Drakulić, A. (2020). The importance of psychodynamic approach during COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatria Danubina, 32(1), 15-21.
  • Marler, E. K., Bruce, M. J., Abaoud, A., Henrichsen, C., Suksatan, W., Homvisetvongsa, S., & Matsuo, H. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on university students’ academic motivation, social connection, and psychological well-being. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Advance online publication, -11.
  • Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2016). Understanding the burnout experience: Recent research and its implications for psychiatry. World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 15(2), 103–111.
  • Mishra, L., & Kumar, N. P. (2021). Higher education students’ behaviour and mental health during Covid-19 lockdown: a pilot study. Journal of Public Health, 17(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0262562
  • Moroń, M., Yildirim, M., Jach, Ł., Nowakowska, J., & Atlas, K. (2021). Exhausted due to the pandemic: Validation of coronavirus stress measure and COVID-19 burnout scale in a Polish sample. Current Psychology, 2021, 1-10. Neumann, Y., Finaly-Neumann, E., & Reichel, A. (1990). Determinants and consequences of students’ burnout in universities. The Journal of Higher Education, 61(1), 20–31.
  • Post, D., Vitry, A., & Baldock, K. L. (2021). Evaluating changes in student health, wellbeing and social circumstances before and during COVID-19 pandemic restrictions in Australia. PeerJ, 9, e12078.
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  • Slivar, B. (2001). The syndrome of burnout, self-image, and anxiety with grammar school students. Horizons of Psychology, 10, 21–32.
  • Son, C., Hegde, S., Smith, A., Wang, X., & Sasangohar, F. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on college students’ mental health in the United States: Interview survey study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(9), e21279.
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Year 2022, Volume 19, Issue 46, 340 - 353, 30.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.26466/opusjsr.1065787

Abstract

References

  • Akbaşlı, S., Arastaman, G., Gün, F., & Turabik, T. (2019). School engagement as a predictor of burnout in university students. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 45, 293-309.
  • Arslan, G., & Yıldırım, M. (2021). Coronavirus stress, meaningful living, optimism, and depressive symptoms: A study of moderated mediation model. Australian Journal of Psychology, 73(2), 113-124.
  • Babicka-Wirkus, A., Wirkus, L., Stasiak, K., & Kozłowski, P. (2021). University students’ strategies of coping with stress during the coronavirus pandemic: Data from Poland. PLOS ONE 16(7), e0255041.
  • Best, J.W. & Kahn, J.V. (2007). Research in education, New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Private.
  • Capone, V., Marino, L., & Park, M. S. (2021). Perceived employability, academic commitment, and competency of university students during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An exploratory study of student well-being. Frontiers in Psychology, 17(12), 788387.
  • Ceviz, N., Tektaş, N., Basmacı, G., & Tektaş, M. (2020). Covid 19 pandemi sürecinde üniversite öğrencilerinin kaygı düzeylerini etkileyen değişkenlerin analizi. International Journal of Scholars in Education, 3(2), 312-329.
  • Chen, S. (2021). Academic burnout and its association with cognitive emotion regulation strategies among adolescent girls and boys. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 101698.
  • Copeland, W. E., McGinnis, E., Bai, Y., Adams, Z., Nardone, H., Devadanam, V., Rettew, J., & Hudziak, J. J. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on college student mental health and wellness. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 60(1), 134-141.
  • Çapri, B., Gündüz, B., & Gökçakan, Z. (2011). Maslach tükenmişlik envanteri-öğrenci formu'nun (MTÖ-ÖF) Türkçe'ye uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Çukurova Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 40(1), 134-147.
  • Çelik, M. Y. (2021). Üniversite sınavına hazırlanan gençlerin Covid-19 korkusunun öğrencilerin tükenmişlik ve anksiyetelerine etkisi. Van Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 14(1), 19-28.
  • David, A. (2010). Examining the relationship of personality and burnout in college students: The role of academic motivation. Educational measurement and evaluation review, 1, 90-104.
  • Denning, M., Goh, E. T., Tan, B., Kanneganti, A., Almonte, M., Scott, A., ... & Kinross, J. (2021). Determinants of burnout and other aspects of psychological well-being in healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A multinational cross-sectional study. Plos one, 16(4), e0238666. Elmer, T., Mepham, K., Stadtfeld, C., & Capraro, V. (2020). Students under lockdown: Comparisons of students’ social networks and mental health before and during the COVID-19 crisis in Switzerland. PLoS One, 15(7), e0236337.
  • Eriş, H. ve Barut, S. (2020). The effect of feeling of loneliness on burnout levels in university students. Kuramsal Eğitim Bilim Dergisi, 13(2), 369-383.
  • Fila-Witecka, K., Senczyszyn, A., Kołodziejczyk, A., Ciułkowicz, M., Maciaszek, J., Misiak, B., ... & Rymaszewska, J. (2021). Lifestyle Changes among Polish University Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(18), 9571. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189571
  • Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Gawrych, M., Cichoń, E., & Kiejna, A. (2021). COVID-19 pandemic fear, life satisfaction and mental health at the initial stage of the pandemic in the largest cities in Poland. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 26(1), 107-113.
  • Gezer, E. & Yenel, F. (2009). Stres veren yaşam olaylarının öğretim elemanlarının depresyon ve tükenmişlik düzeylerine etkisi. Gazi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 9(4), 1-13.
  • Ghorpade, J., Lackritz, J., & Singh, G. (2007). Burnout and personality: Evidence from academia. Journal of Career Assessment, 15(2), 240–256.
  • Green, Z. A., Faizi, F., Jalal, R., & Zadran, Z. (2021). Emotional support received moderates academic stress and mental well-being in a sample of Afghan university students amid COVID-19. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 00(0), 1-8.
  • Hanson, W. E., Creswell, J. W., Clark, V. L. P., Petska, K. S., & Creswell, J. D. (2005). Mixed methods research designs in counseling psychology. Journal of counseling psychology, 52(2), 224.
  • Hayes, A. F. (2012). Process: A versatile computational tool for observed variable. Mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling. Retrieved October 20, 2021 from
  • Hayes, A. F. (2018). Partial, conditional, and moderated moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Communication monographs, 85(1), 4-40. Hassanzadeh, A., Heidari, Z., Feizi, A., Hassanzadeh Keshteli, A., Roohafza, H., Afshar, H., & Adibi, P. (2017). Association of stressful life events with psychological problems: A large-scale community-based study using grouped outcomes latent factor regression with latent predictors. Computational and mathematical methods in medicine, 2017, 3457103.
  • Jang, Y., You, M., Lee, H., Lee, M., Lee, Y., Han, J-O., & Oh, J. H. (2021). Burnout and peritraumatic distress of healthcare workers in the COVID-19 pandemic. BMC Public Health, 21, 2075. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11978-0
  • Kasapoğlu, F. (2020). COVID-19 salgını sürecinde kaygı ile maneviyat, psikolojik sağlamlık ve belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlük arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesi. Turkish Studies, 15(4), 44284.
  • Kılıç, O. H., Anıl, M., Varol, U., Sofuoğlu, Z., Çoban, İ., Gülmez, H., Güvendi, G., & Mete, B. D. (2021). Factors affecting burnout in physicians during COVID-19 pandemic. Ege Journal of Medicine, 60(2), 136-144.
  • Kimter, N. (2020). Covid-19 günlerinde bireylerin psikolojik sağlamlık düzeylerinin bazı değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Özel Sayı, 574-605.
  • Koob, C., Schröpfer, K., Coenen, M., Kus, S., & Schmidt, N. (2021) Factors influencing study engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study among health and social professions students. PLOS ONE 16(7), 0255191.
  • Koutsimani, P., Montgomery, A., & Georgant, K. (2019). The relationship between burnout, depression, and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 13(10), 284.
  • Kul, A. Demir, R., & Katmer, A. N. (2020). Covid-19 salgını döneminde psikolojik sağlamlığın yordayıcısı olarak yaşam anlamı ve kaygı. Turkish Studies, 15(6), 695-719. https://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.44419
  • Li, H., Hafeez, H., & Zaheer, M. A. (2020). COVID-19 and pretentious psychological well-being of students: A threat to educational sustainability. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 4034.
  • Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour research and therapy, 33(3), 335-343.
  • Malach-Pines, A. (2005). The burnout measure, short version. International Journal of Stress Management, 12(1), 78.
  • Malik, M., Javed, S. (2021). Perceived stress among university students in Oman during COVID-19-induced e-learning. Middle East Current Psychiatry 28(49)
  • Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99-113.
  • Marčinko, D., Jakovljević, M., Jakšić, N., Bjedov, S., & Mindoljević Drakulić, A. (2020). The importance of psychodynamic approach during COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatria Danubina, 32(1), 15-21.
  • Marler, E. K., Bruce, M. J., Abaoud, A., Henrichsen, C., Suksatan, W., Homvisetvongsa, S., & Matsuo, H. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on university students’ academic motivation, social connection, and psychological well-being. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Advance online publication, -11.
  • Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2016). Understanding the burnout experience: Recent research and its implications for psychiatry. World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 15(2), 103–111.
  • Mishra, L., & Kumar, N. P. (2021). Higher education students’ behaviour and mental health during Covid-19 lockdown: a pilot study. Journal of Public Health, 17(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0262562
  • Moroń, M., Yildirim, M., Jach, Ł., Nowakowska, J., & Atlas, K. (2021). Exhausted due to the pandemic: Validation of coronavirus stress measure and COVID-19 burnout scale in a Polish sample. Current Psychology, 2021, 1-10. Neumann, Y., Finaly-Neumann, E., & Reichel, A. (1990). Determinants and consequences of students’ burnout in universities. The Journal of Higher Education, 61(1), 20–31.
  • Post, D., Vitry, A., & Baldock, K. L. (2021). Evaluating changes in student health, wellbeing and social circumstances before and during COVID-19 pandemic restrictions in Australia. PeerJ, 9, e12078.
  • Sahu, P. (2020). Closure of universities due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Impact on education and mental health of students and academic staff. Cureus, 12(4). http://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7541
  • Salmela-Aro, K., Kiuru, N., Leskinen, E., & Nurmi, J. E. (2009). School Burnout Inventory (SBI): Reliability and validity. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25(1), 48–57. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759.25.1.48 Savage, M. J., Hennis, P. J., Magistro, D., Donaldson, J., Healy, L. C., & James, R. M. (2021). Nine months into the CoViD-19 pandemic: A longitudinal study showing mental health and movement behaviours are impaired in UK students. International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(6), 2930.
  • Schaufeli, W. B., Martinez, M. I., Pinto, A. M., Salanova, M., & Bakker, A.B. (2002). Burnout and engagement in university students - a cross national study, MBI-SS. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33(5), 464-481.
  • Slivar, B. (2001). The syndrome of burnout, self-image, and anxiety with grammar school students. Horizons of Psychology, 10, 21–32.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Aslı Burçak TAŞÖREN (Primary Author)
İSTANBUL MEDİPOL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5864-6475
Türkiye


Sumeyye BURHAN
İSTANBUL MEDİPOL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-0140-1466
Türkiye

Early Pub Date March 25, 2022
Publication Date March 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 19, Issue 46

Cite

APA Taşören, A. B. & Burhan, S. (2022). The Role of Emotional Distress in the Relationship between COVID-19 Burnout and Academic Burnout in University Students . OPUS Journal of Society Research , 19 (46) , 340-353 . DOI: 10.26466/opusjsr.1065787