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The Prevalence and Serogroup Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Meningococcal Carriage in Turkish Citizens Living in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands During Their Visits to Turkey

Year 2020, Volume 42, Issue 6, 639 - 644, 09.11.2020
https://doi.org/10.20515/otd.661310

Abstract

Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Epidemiological studies in Turkey have shown that serogroups B and W are the most prevalent serogroups associated with IMD cases and meningococcal carriage. Many Turkish citizens who live in Europe visit their homeland of Turkey every year. However, no data is available on meningococcal carriage in this population. In addition, the effects of the presence of these citizens on meningococcal epidemiology in Turkey are unknown. This study aimed to examine the presence of Neisseria meningitidis carriage and serogroup distribution in Turkish citizens who live in Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands and have visited Turkey. The study sample comprised 361 volunteers aged 2–85 who lived in Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands and arrived at the Eskisehir airport between June 1 and August 22, 2016. A polymerase chain reaction assay for N. meningitidis was performed on the nasopharyngeal samples of these participants. Of the 361 volunteers, the nasopharyngeal meningococcal carriage rate was 0.6% (two subjects from Belgium). Serogroup X was isolated in a 46-year-old man, and non-groupable N. meningitidis was isolated in an 18-year-old girl. Previous studies showed that serogroup W is the one of the predominant strain in Turkey, was associated with having participated in the Hajj and the Umrah, have been controlled with routine immunization before travel. In contrast, the meningococcal carriage rate was low among Turkish citizens arriving each year from European countries; therefore, these visitors had no effect on meningococcal seroepidemiology in Turkey.

References

  • 1. Acevedo R, Bai X, Borrow R, Caugant DA, Carlos J, Ceyhan M, et al. The Global Meningococcal Initiative meeting on prevention of meningococcal disease worldwide: epidemiology, surveillance, hypervirulent strains, antibiotic resistance and high-risk populations. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2019; 18: 15-30.
  • 2. Stephens DS, Greenwood B, Brandtzaeg P. Epidemic meningitis, meningococcaemia, and Neisseria meningitidis. Lancet. 2007; 369: 2196-2210.
  • 3. Jafri RZ, Ali A, Messonnier NE, Tevi-Benissan C, Durrheim D, Eskola J, et al. Global epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease. Popul Health Metr. 2013; 11: 17.
  • 4. Borrow R, Caugant DA, Ceyhan M, Christensen H, Dinleyici EC, Findlow J, et al.; Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI). Meningococcal disease in the Middle East and Africa: Findings and updates from the Global Meningococcal Initiative. J Infect. 2017; 75: 1-11.
  • 5. Dinleyici EC, Ceyhan M. The dynamic and changing epidemiology of meningococcal disease at the country-based level: the experience in Turkey. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2012; 11: 515-8.
  • 6. Caugant DA, Tzanakaki G, Kriz P. Lessons from meningococcal carriage studies. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2007; 31: 52-63.
  • 7. Read RC. Neisseria meningitidis; clones, carriage, and disease. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014; 20: 391-5.
  • 8. Ceyhan M, Celik M, Demir ET, Gurbuz V, Aycan AE, Unal S. Acquisition of meningococcal serogroup W-135 carriage in Turkish Hajj pilgrims who had received the quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013; 20: 66-8.
  • 9. Ceyhan M, Gürler N, Ozsurekci Y, Keser M, Aycan AE, Gurbuz V, et al. Meningitis caused by Neisseria Meningitidis, Hemophilus Influenzae Type B and Streptococcus Pneumoniae during 2005-2012 in Turkey. A multicenter prospective surveillance study. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014; 10: 2706-12.
  • 10. Ceyhan M, Ozsurekci Y, Gürler N, KaradagOncel E, Camcioglu Y, Salman N, et al. Bacterial agents causing meningitis during 2013-2014 in Turkey: A multi-center hospital-based prospective surveillance study. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016; 12: 2940-45.
  • 11. Ceyhan M, Ozsurekci Y, Bayhan C, Gurler N, Sali E, Keser-Emiroglu M, et al. The Changing Epidemiology of Bacterial Meningitis During 2015–2017 in Turkey: A Hospital-Based Prospective Surveillance Study. Open Forum Infect Dis 2018; 5(Suppl 1): S246.
  • 12. Ceyhan M, Dagan R, Sayiner A, Chernyshova L, Dinleyici EC, Hryniewicz W, et al. Surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in Central and Eastern Europe. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016; 12: 2124-34.
  • 13. Ceyhan M, Yildirim I, Balmer P, Borrow R, Dikici B, Turgut M, et al. A prospective study of etiology of childhood acute bacterial meningitis, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008; 14: 1089-96
  • 14. Tekin RT, Dinleyici EC, Ceyhan M, Karbuz A, Salman N, Sutçu M, et al. The prevalence, serogroup distribution and risk factors of meningococcal carriage in adolescents and young adults in Turkey. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017; 13: 1182-89.
  • 15. Annual number of tourist according to years in Turkey. http://yigm.kulturturizm.gov.tr/TR-201114/yillik-bultenler.html.
  • 16. Invasive meningococcal disease. https://ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/documents/Invasive%20meningococcal%20disease%20AER.pdf.,
  • 17. Yazdankhah SP, Caugant DA. Neisseria meningitidis: an overview of the carriage state. J Med Microbiol. 2004; 53(Pt 9): 821-32.
  • 18. Kepenekli Kadayifci E, Güneşer Merdan D, Soysal A, Karaaslan A, Atıcı S, et al. Prevalence of Neisseria meningitidis carriage: a small-scale survey in Istanbul, Turkey. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2016; 10: 413-7.
  • 19. Soriano-Gabarró M, Wolter J, Hogea C, Vyse A. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in Europe: a review of studies undertaken in the region. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011; 9: 761-74.
  • 20. Xie O, Pollard AJ, Mueller JE, Norheim G. Emergence of serogroup X meningococcal disease in Africa: need for a vaccine. Vaccine. 2013; 31: 2852–61.
  • 21. Dinleyici M, IseriNepesov M, Sipahi OR, Carman KB, Kilic O, Dinleyici EC. The attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge of health care professionals towards the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of bacterial meningitis in Turkey. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019; 15: 134-40.

Belçika, Almanya ve Hollanda'da Yaşayan Türk Vatandaşlarının Türkiye'ye Seyahatleri Sırasında Nazofaringeal Meningokokkal Taşıyıcılık Prevalansı ve Serogrup Dağılımı

Year 2020, Volume 42, Issue 6, 639 - 644, 09.11.2020
https://doi.org/10.20515/otd.661310

Abstract

İnvaziv meningokok enfeksiyonları, tüm dünyada önemli morbidite ve mortalite nedenleri arasında yer almaktadır. Türkiye’de yapılan epidemiyolojik çalışmalarda, invaziv meningokok enfeksiyonu ve taşıyıcılık için en sık görülen serogrupların B ve W olduğu gösterilmiştir. Avrupa’da yaşayan birçok Türk vatandaşı her yıl Türkiye’yi ziyarete gelmektedir. Ancak bu kişilerde meningokok taşıyıcılığı ile ilgili çalışma bulunmamaktadır. Buna ek olarak, bu taşıyıcılığın, Türkiye’de meningokok epidemiyolojisi üzerine etkisi ile ilgili de veri bulunmamaktadır. Bu çalışmada, Almanya, Belçika ve Hollanda’da yaşayan ve Türkiye’ye ziyarete gelenlerde, Neisseria meningitidis taşıyıcılığı ve serogrup dağılımının değerlendirilmesi planlandı. Çalışmaya 1 Haziran- 22 Ağustos 2016 tarihleri arasında Almanya, Belçika ve Hollanda’dan Eskişehir Havalimanı’na gelen 2-85 yaş arasında 361 gönüllü dahil edildi. Nazofaringeal örneklerde N. meningitidis polimeraz zincir reaksiyonu ile değerlendirildi. Çalışmaya dahil edilen 361 gönüllüde, meningokok taşıyıcılığı %0.6 (Belçika’dan gelen iki olguda) olarak saptandı. 46 yaşında bir erkekte serogrup X, 18 yaşında bir kadında da gruplandırılamayan N. meningitidis saptandı. Daha önceki çalışmalarda serogrup W, Türkiye’de en sık saptanan etkenlerden biri olup, Hac ve Umre ile ilişkili olduğu düşünülmüştür ve seyahat öncesi rutin aşılama ile kontrol altına alınmıştır. Bunun aksine Avrupa ülkelerinden her yıl Türkiye’ye çok sayıda Türk vatandaşı gelmesine rağmen, bu çalışmada bu ziyaretçilerin Türkiye’de meningokok seroepidemiyolojisine etkisi saptanmamıştır.

References

  • 1. Acevedo R, Bai X, Borrow R, Caugant DA, Carlos J, Ceyhan M, et al. The Global Meningococcal Initiative meeting on prevention of meningococcal disease worldwide: epidemiology, surveillance, hypervirulent strains, antibiotic resistance and high-risk populations. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2019; 18: 15-30.
  • 2. Stephens DS, Greenwood B, Brandtzaeg P. Epidemic meningitis, meningococcaemia, and Neisseria meningitidis. Lancet. 2007; 369: 2196-2210.
  • 3. Jafri RZ, Ali A, Messonnier NE, Tevi-Benissan C, Durrheim D, Eskola J, et al. Global epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease. Popul Health Metr. 2013; 11: 17.
  • 4. Borrow R, Caugant DA, Ceyhan M, Christensen H, Dinleyici EC, Findlow J, et al.; Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI). Meningococcal disease in the Middle East and Africa: Findings and updates from the Global Meningococcal Initiative. J Infect. 2017; 75: 1-11.
  • 5. Dinleyici EC, Ceyhan M. The dynamic and changing epidemiology of meningococcal disease at the country-based level: the experience in Turkey. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2012; 11: 515-8.
  • 6. Caugant DA, Tzanakaki G, Kriz P. Lessons from meningococcal carriage studies. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2007; 31: 52-63.
  • 7. Read RC. Neisseria meningitidis; clones, carriage, and disease. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014; 20: 391-5.
  • 8. Ceyhan M, Celik M, Demir ET, Gurbuz V, Aycan AE, Unal S. Acquisition of meningococcal serogroup W-135 carriage in Turkish Hajj pilgrims who had received the quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013; 20: 66-8.
  • 9. Ceyhan M, Gürler N, Ozsurekci Y, Keser M, Aycan AE, Gurbuz V, et al. Meningitis caused by Neisseria Meningitidis, Hemophilus Influenzae Type B and Streptococcus Pneumoniae during 2005-2012 in Turkey. A multicenter prospective surveillance study. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014; 10: 2706-12.
  • 10. Ceyhan M, Ozsurekci Y, Gürler N, KaradagOncel E, Camcioglu Y, Salman N, et al. Bacterial agents causing meningitis during 2013-2014 in Turkey: A multi-center hospital-based prospective surveillance study. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016; 12: 2940-45.
  • 11. Ceyhan M, Ozsurekci Y, Bayhan C, Gurler N, Sali E, Keser-Emiroglu M, et al. The Changing Epidemiology of Bacterial Meningitis During 2015–2017 in Turkey: A Hospital-Based Prospective Surveillance Study. Open Forum Infect Dis 2018; 5(Suppl 1): S246.
  • 12. Ceyhan M, Dagan R, Sayiner A, Chernyshova L, Dinleyici EC, Hryniewicz W, et al. Surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in Central and Eastern Europe. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016; 12: 2124-34.
  • 13. Ceyhan M, Yildirim I, Balmer P, Borrow R, Dikici B, Turgut M, et al. A prospective study of etiology of childhood acute bacterial meningitis, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008; 14: 1089-96
  • 14. Tekin RT, Dinleyici EC, Ceyhan M, Karbuz A, Salman N, Sutçu M, et al. The prevalence, serogroup distribution and risk factors of meningococcal carriage in adolescents and young adults in Turkey. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017; 13: 1182-89.
  • 15. Annual number of tourist according to years in Turkey. http://yigm.kulturturizm.gov.tr/TR-201114/yillik-bultenler.html.
  • 16. Invasive meningococcal disease. https://ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/documents/Invasive%20meningococcal%20disease%20AER.pdf.,
  • 17. Yazdankhah SP, Caugant DA. Neisseria meningitidis: an overview of the carriage state. J Med Microbiol. 2004; 53(Pt 9): 821-32.
  • 18. Kepenekli Kadayifci E, Güneşer Merdan D, Soysal A, Karaaslan A, Atıcı S, et al. Prevalence of Neisseria meningitidis carriage: a small-scale survey in Istanbul, Turkey. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2016; 10: 413-7.
  • 19. Soriano-Gabarró M, Wolter J, Hogea C, Vyse A. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in Europe: a review of studies undertaken in the region. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011; 9: 761-74.
  • 20. Xie O, Pollard AJ, Mueller JE, Norheim G. Emergence of serogroup X meningococcal disease in Africa: need for a vaccine. Vaccine. 2013; 31: 2852–61.
  • 21. Dinleyici M, IseriNepesov M, Sipahi OR, Carman KB, Kilic O, Dinleyici EC. The attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge of health care professionals towards the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of bacterial meningitis in Turkey. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019; 15: 134-40.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section ORİJİNAL MAKALE
Authors

Pınar GÖRÜNMEZ This is me
ESKISEHIR OSMANGAZI UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF MEDICINE
0000-0002-8845-6410
Türkiye


Ener Cagri DINLEYICI (Primary Author)
Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi
0000-0002-0339-0134
Türkiye


M CEYHAN
HACETTEPE UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF MEDICINE
0000-0003-4530-0149
Türkiye


Uğur BİLGE
ESKISEHIR OSMANGAZI UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF MEDICINE
0000-0002-9310-3070
Türkiye


İlhami ÜNLÜOĞLU
ESKISEHIR OSMANGAZI UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF MEDICINE
0000-0001-8130-1443
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırmalar Projesi
Publication Date November 9, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 42, Issue 6

Cite

Bibtex @research article { otd661310, journal = {Osmangazi Tıp Dergisi}, issn = {1305-4953}, eissn = {2587-1579}, address = {}, publisher = {Eskişehir Osmangazi University}, year = {2020}, volume = {42}, pages = {639 - 644}, doi = {10.20515/otd.661310}, title = {The Prevalence and Serogroup Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Meningococcal Carriage in Turkish Citizens Living in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands During Their Visits to Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Görünmez, Pınar and Dınleyıcı, Ener Cagri and Ceyhan, M and Bilge, Uğur and Ünlüoğlu, İlhami} }
APA Görünmez, P. , Dınleyıcı, E. C. , Ceyhan, M. , Bilge, U. & Ünlüoğlu, İ. (2020). The Prevalence and Serogroup Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Meningococcal Carriage in Turkish Citizens Living in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands During Their Visits to Turkey . Osmangazi Tıp Dergisi , 42 (6) , 639-644 . DOI: 10.20515/otd.661310
MLA Görünmez, P. , Dınleyıcı, E. C. , Ceyhan, M. , Bilge, U. , Ünlüoğlu, İ. "The Prevalence and Serogroup Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Meningococcal Carriage in Turkish Citizens Living in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands During Their Visits to Turkey" . Osmangazi Tıp Dergisi 42 (2020 ): 639-644 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/otd/issue/57164/661310>
Chicago Görünmez, P. , Dınleyıcı, E. C. , Ceyhan, M. , Bilge, U. , Ünlüoğlu, İ. "The Prevalence and Serogroup Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Meningococcal Carriage in Turkish Citizens Living in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands During Their Visits to Turkey". Osmangazi Tıp Dergisi 42 (2020 ): 639-644
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Prevalence and Serogroup Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Meningococcal Carriage in Turkish Citizens Living in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands During Their Visits to Turkey AU - Pınar Görünmez , Ener Cagri Dınleyıcı , M Ceyhan , Uğur Bilge , İlhami Ünlüoğlu Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.20515/otd.661310 DO - 10.20515/otd.661310 T2 - Osmangazi Tıp Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 639 EP - 644 VL - 42 IS - 6 SN - 1305-4953-2587-1579 M3 - doi: 10.20515/otd.661310 UR - https://doi.org/10.20515/otd.661310 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Osmangazi Journal of Medicine The Prevalence and Serogroup Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Meningococcal Carriage in Turkish Citizens Living in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands During Their Visits to Turkey %A Pınar Görünmez , Ener Cagri Dınleyıcı , M Ceyhan , Uğur Bilge , İlhami Ünlüoğlu %T The Prevalence and Serogroup Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Meningococcal Carriage in Turkish Citizens Living in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands During Their Visits to Turkey %D 2020 %J Osmangazi Tıp Dergisi %P 1305-4953-2587-1579 %V 42 %N 6 %R doi: 10.20515/otd.661310 %U 10.20515/otd.661310
ISNAD Görünmez, Pınar , Dınleyıcı, Ener Cagri , Ceyhan, M , Bilge, Uğur , Ünlüoğlu, İlhami . "The Prevalence and Serogroup Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Meningococcal Carriage in Turkish Citizens Living in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands During Their Visits to Turkey". Osmangazi Tıp Dergisi 42 / 6 (November 2020): 639-644 . https://doi.org/10.20515/otd.661310
AMA Görünmez P. , Dınleyıcı E. C. , Ceyhan M. , Bilge U. , Ünlüoğlu İ. The Prevalence and Serogroup Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Meningococcal Carriage in Turkish Citizens Living in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands During Their Visits to Turkey. Osmangazi Tıp Dergisi. 2020; 42(6): 639-644.
Vancouver Görünmez P. , Dınleyıcı E. C. , Ceyhan M. , Bilge U. , Ünlüoğlu İ. The Prevalence and Serogroup Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Meningococcal Carriage in Turkish Citizens Living in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands During Their Visits to Turkey. Osmangazi Tıp Dergisi. 2020; 42(6): 639-644.
IEEE P. Görünmez , E. C. Dınleyıcı , M. Ceyhan , U. Bilge and İ. Ünlüoğlu , "The Prevalence and Serogroup Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Meningococcal Carriage in Turkish Citizens Living in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands During Their Visits to Turkey", Osmangazi Tıp Dergisi, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 639-644, Nov. 2020, doi:10.20515/otd.661310

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