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Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks

Year 2016, Volume 22, Issue 1, 31 - 38, 29.02.2016

Abstract

In order to obtain a proper powder injection molding the rheological behavior of feedstocks should be known. To determine the binder effect on the rheological behavior of 316L stainless steel powders feedstock two different feedstock were prepared. In the current experiments water atomized 316L stainless steel powders (-20 µm) were used. Two types of binders, one of which is mainly paraffin wax can be dissolved in heptane and the other Polietilenglikol (PEG) based and can be dissolved in water, were used. Polypropylene was used as binder and steric acid was used as lubricant for both binder systems as skeleton binder. Dry binder system were mixed for 30 min in a three dimensional Turbola. Capillary rheometer was used to characterize the rheological properties of feed stocks at 150-200 °C and a pressures of 0.165-2.069 MPa. Powder loading capacity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be %55 and %61 respectively. The lowest viscosity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be 304.707 Pa.s and 48.857 Pa.s respectively.

Keywords: PIM, Binder, Rheological properties

References

  • Raza Rafi M, Ahmad F, Omar MA, German RM. “Effects of Cooling Rate on Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Vacuum Sintered Powder Injection Molded 316L Stainless Steel”. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 212(1), 164-170, 2012.
  • Zlatkov BS, Griesmayer E, Loibl H, Aleksic OS, Danninger H, Gierl C, Lukic LS. “Recent advances in PIM Technology”. Science Sintering, 40, 79-88, 2008.
  • Gökmen U. Nikel Esaslı Metal Tozlarının Enjeksiyon Kalıplanabilmesi İçin Bağlayıcı Sisteminin Geliştirilmesi ve Sinterlenmesi. Doktora Tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara, Türkiye, 2014.
  • German RM, Bose A. Injection Molding of Metals and Ceramics. Princeton, NJ, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. 1997.
  • Barbosa APC. Development of the 2-Component-Injection Moulding for Metal Powders.127. Jülich, Germany, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 2011.
  • Kurgan N, Ünlü BS, Yılmaz SS, Varol R. “Sae 316l T/M Paslanmaz Çelik Malzemelerin Mikroyapı Özellikleri”. 5. Uluslararası İleri Teknolojiler Sempozyumu (IATS’09), Karabük, Türkiye, 13-15 Mayıs 2009.
  • Auzene D, Roberjot S. “Investigation into Water Soluble Binder Systems for Powder Injection Moulding”. Powder Injection Moulding International, 5(1), 54-57, 2011.
  • Sotomayor ME, Várez A, Levenfeld B. “Influence of Powder Particle Size Distribution on Rheological Properties of 316L Powder Injection Moulding Feedstocks”. Powder Technology, 200, 30-36, 2010.
  • Sotomayor ME, Levenfeld B, Várez A. “Powder Injection Moulding of Premixed Ferritic and Austenitic Stainless Steel Powders”, Materials Science and Engineering A, 528(9), 3480-3488, 2011.
  • Choi JP, Lyu HG, Lee WS, Lee JS. “Investigation of the Rheological Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel Micro-Nano Powder Feedstock for Micro Powder Injection Molding”. Powder Technology, 261, 201-209, 2014.
  • Gökmen U, Türker M. “IN718 Süperalaşım Tozunun Enjeksiyon Kalıplanabilmesi için İskelet Bağlayıcı Polipropilen Kullanılarak Hazırlanan Besleme Stoklarının Reolojik Özelliklerinin İncelenmesi”. Gazi Üniversitesi Mühendislik-Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi, 29(1), 165-174, 2014.
  • Karataş Ç, Sarıtaş S. “Toz Enjeksiyon Kalıplama: Bir Yüksek Teknoloji İmalat Metodu”. Journal of Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, 13(2), 193, 1998.
  • German RM. Powder Injection Molding. New Jersey, USA, Metal Powder Industries Federation, 1990.
  • Karataş Ç. Toz Enjeksiyon Kalıplamada Karışımın Reolojisi. Doktora Tezi. Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara, Türkiye, 1997.
  • Yang WW, Yang KY, Wang MC, Hon MH. “Solvent Debinding Mechanism for Alumina İnjection Molded Compacts with Water-Soluble Binders” Ceramics International, 29, 745-756, 2003.
  • Li D, Hou H, Tan Z, Lee K. “Metal Injection Molding of Pure Molybdenum” Advanced Powder Technology, 20(5), 480-487, 2009.
  • Raza MR, Ahmad F, Omar MA, German RM. “Binder Removal from Powder Injection Molded 316L Stainless Steel”. Journal of Applied Science, 11(11), 2042-2047, 2011.
  • Karataş Ç, Sarıtaş S. “Rheological Properties of Mixtures of 316L Stainless Stell Powders with Polyproplylen Based Binders”. Tübitak-Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 22(4), 353-363, 1998.
  • Bakan HI, Heaney D, German RM. “Effect of Nickel Boride and Boron Additions on Sintering Characteristics of İnjection Moulded 316l Powder Using Water Soluble Binder System”. Powder Metallurgy, (44)3, 235-242, 2001.
  • Amin SYM, Jamaludin KR, Muhamad N. “Rheological properties of SS316L MIM Feedstock Prepared with Different Particle Sizes and Powder Loading”. Journal-The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia, 71(2), 59-63, 2009.
  • Song M, Park MS, Kim JK. “Water-Soluble Binder with High Flexural Modulus for Powder Injection Molding”. Journal of Materials Science, 40, 1105-1109, 2005.
  • Gökten M. Steatit ve 316L Paslanmaz Çelik Tozlan ile Peg Ağırlıklı Reçinelerden Meydana Gelen Besleme Stoklarının Reolojik Özelliklerinin İncelenmesi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara, Türkiye, 2003.
  • Huang MS, Hsu HC. “Effect of Backbone Polymer on Properties of 316L Stainless Steel MIM Compact”. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 209(15-16), 5527–5535, 2009.
  • Ibrahim MHI, Muhamad N, Sulong AB. “Rheological Investigation of Water Atomised Stainless Steel Powder for Micro Metal Injection Molding”. International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering (IJMME), 4(1), 1-8, 2009.
  • Rhee BO. "Processing Behavior of Powder/Binder Mixtures in Powder Injection Molding-Binder Separation and Quick Freezing". PhD Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York, USA, 1992.
  • Zaky MT. Soliman FS. Farag AS. “Influence of Paraffin wax Characteristics on the Formulation of Wax-Basedbinders and Their Debinding from Green Molded Parts using Two comparative Techniques” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 209(18-19), 5981-5989, 2009.

Bağlayıcı sistemi ve sıcaklığın su atomize 316L toz enjeksiyon kalıplama besleme stoklarının reolojik özelliklerine etkisi

Year 2016, Volume 22, Issue 1, 31 - 38, 29.02.2016

Abstract

Hatasız toz enjeksiyon kalıplama (TEK) işlemi için besleme stoklarının reolojik özellikleri iyi bilinmelidir. Bu çalışmada 316L paslanmaz çelik tozunun reolojik özelliklerine bağlayıcı sisteminin etkisini belirlemek amacıyla 2 farklı bağlayıcı sistemi kullanılarak besleme stokları hazırlanmıştır. Deneysel çalışmalarda 20 mikron altı su atomize 316L paslanmaz çelik tozu kullanılmıştır. Heptan içerisinde çözünebilen parafin wax (PW) esaslı ve su içerisinde çözünebilen polietilenglikol (PEG) esaslı iki farklı bağlayıcı sistemi hazırlanmıştır. Her iki bağlayıcı sistemi içerisinde iskelet bağlayıcı olarak polipropilen (PP) ve yağlayıcı olarak stearik asit (SA) kullanılmıştır. Bağlayıcı sistemleri kuru olarak turbula marka 3 boyutlu karıştırıcıda 30 dakika karıştırılarak hazırlanmıştır. Toz ve bağlayıcı sistemleri kullanılarak hazırlanan besleme stoklarının reolojik özellikleri kılcal reometre kullanılarak karakterize edilmiştir. Kılcal reometrenin sıcaklığı 150-200 °C aralığında basınç değerleri ise 0.165-2.069 MPa arasında değiştirilmiştir. PEG esaslı bağlayıcı sistemi kullanılarak hazırlanan besleme stoklarında toz taşıma kapasitesi hacimce %55’e, PW esaslı bağlayıcı sistemi kullanılarak hazırlanan besleme stoklarında ise %61’e çıkartılmıştır. PEG esaslı besleme stoklarında en düşük viskozite değeri 304.707 Pa.s olarak, PW esaslı besleme stoklarında en düşük viskozite değeri 48.857 Pa.s olarak elde edilmiştir.

References

  • Raza Rafi M, Ahmad F, Omar MA, German RM. “Effects of Cooling Rate on Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Vacuum Sintered Powder Injection Molded 316L Stainless Steel”. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 212(1), 164-170, 2012.
  • Zlatkov BS, Griesmayer E, Loibl H, Aleksic OS, Danninger H, Gierl C, Lukic LS. “Recent advances in PIM Technology”. Science Sintering, 40, 79-88, 2008.
  • Gökmen U. Nikel Esaslı Metal Tozlarının Enjeksiyon Kalıplanabilmesi İçin Bağlayıcı Sisteminin Geliştirilmesi ve Sinterlenmesi. Doktora Tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara, Türkiye, 2014.
  • German RM, Bose A. Injection Molding of Metals and Ceramics. Princeton, NJ, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. 1997.
  • Barbosa APC. Development of the 2-Component-Injection Moulding for Metal Powders.127. Jülich, Germany, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 2011.
  • Kurgan N, Ünlü BS, Yılmaz SS, Varol R. “Sae 316l T/M Paslanmaz Çelik Malzemelerin Mikroyapı Özellikleri”. 5. Uluslararası İleri Teknolojiler Sempozyumu (IATS’09), Karabük, Türkiye, 13-15 Mayıs 2009.
  • Auzene D, Roberjot S. “Investigation into Water Soluble Binder Systems for Powder Injection Moulding”. Powder Injection Moulding International, 5(1), 54-57, 2011.
  • Sotomayor ME, Várez A, Levenfeld B. “Influence of Powder Particle Size Distribution on Rheological Properties of 316L Powder Injection Moulding Feedstocks”. Powder Technology, 200, 30-36, 2010.
  • Sotomayor ME, Levenfeld B, Várez A. “Powder Injection Moulding of Premixed Ferritic and Austenitic Stainless Steel Powders”, Materials Science and Engineering A, 528(9), 3480-3488, 2011.
  • Choi JP, Lyu HG, Lee WS, Lee JS. “Investigation of the Rheological Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel Micro-Nano Powder Feedstock for Micro Powder Injection Molding”. Powder Technology, 261, 201-209, 2014.
  • Gökmen U, Türker M. “IN718 Süperalaşım Tozunun Enjeksiyon Kalıplanabilmesi için İskelet Bağlayıcı Polipropilen Kullanılarak Hazırlanan Besleme Stoklarının Reolojik Özelliklerinin İncelenmesi”. Gazi Üniversitesi Mühendislik-Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi, 29(1), 165-174, 2014.
  • Karataş Ç, Sarıtaş S. “Toz Enjeksiyon Kalıplama: Bir Yüksek Teknoloji İmalat Metodu”. Journal of Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, 13(2), 193, 1998.
  • German RM. Powder Injection Molding. New Jersey, USA, Metal Powder Industries Federation, 1990.
  • Karataş Ç. Toz Enjeksiyon Kalıplamada Karışımın Reolojisi. Doktora Tezi. Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara, Türkiye, 1997.
  • Yang WW, Yang KY, Wang MC, Hon MH. “Solvent Debinding Mechanism for Alumina İnjection Molded Compacts with Water-Soluble Binders” Ceramics International, 29, 745-756, 2003.
  • Li D, Hou H, Tan Z, Lee K. “Metal Injection Molding of Pure Molybdenum” Advanced Powder Technology, 20(5), 480-487, 2009.
  • Raza MR, Ahmad F, Omar MA, German RM. “Binder Removal from Powder Injection Molded 316L Stainless Steel”. Journal of Applied Science, 11(11), 2042-2047, 2011.
  • Karataş Ç, Sarıtaş S. “Rheological Properties of Mixtures of 316L Stainless Stell Powders with Polyproplylen Based Binders”. Tübitak-Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 22(4), 353-363, 1998.
  • Bakan HI, Heaney D, German RM. “Effect of Nickel Boride and Boron Additions on Sintering Characteristics of İnjection Moulded 316l Powder Using Water Soluble Binder System”. Powder Metallurgy, (44)3, 235-242, 2001.
  • Amin SYM, Jamaludin KR, Muhamad N. “Rheological properties of SS316L MIM Feedstock Prepared with Different Particle Sizes and Powder Loading”. Journal-The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia, 71(2), 59-63, 2009.
  • Song M, Park MS, Kim JK. “Water-Soluble Binder with High Flexural Modulus for Powder Injection Molding”. Journal of Materials Science, 40, 1105-1109, 2005.
  • Gökten M. Steatit ve 316L Paslanmaz Çelik Tozlan ile Peg Ağırlıklı Reçinelerden Meydana Gelen Besleme Stoklarının Reolojik Özelliklerinin İncelenmesi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara, Türkiye, 2003.
  • Huang MS, Hsu HC. “Effect of Backbone Polymer on Properties of 316L Stainless Steel MIM Compact”. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 209(15-16), 5527–5535, 2009.
  • Ibrahim MHI, Muhamad N, Sulong AB. “Rheological Investigation of Water Atomised Stainless Steel Powder for Micro Metal Injection Molding”. International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering (IJMME), 4(1), 1-8, 2009.
  • Rhee BO. "Processing Behavior of Powder/Binder Mixtures in Powder Injection Molding-Binder Separation and Quick Freezing". PhD Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York, USA, 1992.
  • Zaky MT. Soliman FS. Farag AS. “Influence of Paraffin wax Characteristics on the Formulation of Wax-Basedbinders and Their Debinding from Green Molded Parts using Two comparative Techniques” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 209(18-19), 5981-5989, 2009.

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Uğur GÖKMEN
0000-0002-6903-0297


Mehmet TÜRKER


Hanifi ÇİNİCİ

Publication Date February 29, 2016
Published in Issue Year 2016, Volume 22, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @ { pajes219168, journal = {Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {1300-7009}, eissn = {2147-5881}, address = {}, publisher = {Pamukkale University}, year = {2016}, volume = {22}, pages = {31 - 38}, doi = {}, title = {Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks}, key = {cite}, author = {Gökmen, Uğur and Türker, Mehmet and Çinici, Hanifi} }
APA Gökmen, U. , Türker, M. & Çinici, H. (2016). Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks . Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi , 22 (1) , 31-38 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/pajes/issue/20565/219168
MLA Gökmen, U. , Türker, M. , Çinici, H. "Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks" . Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi 22 (2016 ): 31-38 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/pajes/issue/20565/219168>
Chicago Gökmen, U. , Türker, M. , Çinici, H. "Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks". Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi 22 (2016 ): 31-38
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks AU - Uğur Gökmen , Mehmet Türker , Hanifi Çinici Y1 - 2016 PY - 2016 N1 - DO - T2 - Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 31 EP - 38 VL - 22 IS - 1 SN - 1300-7009-2147-5881 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Pamukkale University Journal of Engineering Sciences Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks %A Uğur Gökmen , Mehmet Türker , Hanifi Çinici %T Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks %D 2016 %J Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi %P 1300-7009-2147-5881 %V 22 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Gökmen, Uğur , Türker, Mehmet , Çinici, Hanifi . "Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks". Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi 22 / 1 (February 2016): 31-38 .
AMA Gökmen U. , Türker M. , Çinici H. Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi. 2016; 22(1): 31-38.
Vancouver Gökmen U. , Türker M. , Çinici H. Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi. 2016; 22(1): 31-38.
IEEE U. Gökmen , M. Türker and H. Çinici , "Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks", Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 31-38, Feb. 2016

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