This paper aims to determine the predictive relationships between achievement goals and learning approaches in the context of social studies teaching and to compare the goal orientation models ( 3x2, 2x2 ) in the context of their relationships with learning approaches. The study utilized the multi-factorial predictive correlational design. The study sample consists of 259 middle school students, who were selected by simple random sampling technique, studying in public schools in the central districts of Manisa, a province in the west of Turkey, in the 2018-2019. academic year. The data were collected by means of “ Social Studies Oriented Achievement Goal Scale” and “Social Studies Learning Approaches Scale ”. The study concludes that learning achievement goals positively predict deep learning approaches but negatively predict surface learning approaches. Also, performance-goal orientation negatively predicts deep learning approaches but positively predicts surface learning approaches. Compared to the 3x2 model, the 2x2 achievement goal model showed a better fit with the data in explaining the relationships between achievement goals and learning approaches. Findings revealed the complex structure of achievement goals specific to the subject area. The results of the research were discussed in the context of the effects of achievement goals on the learning process.
social studies, 3x2 achievement goals, 2x2 achievement goals, learning approaches, middle school students, structural equation model