Research Article
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Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, 105 - 120, 01.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.17275/per.21.56.8.3

Abstract

References

  • Appelbaum, M. (2009). How to Handle Hard-to-handle Parents. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Benjamin, M. D. (2015). Teacher and parental influence on childhood learning outcomes (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Walden University, Minnesota.
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. doi: 10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.
  • Brink, H. I. L. (1993). Validity and reliability in qualitative research. Curationis, 16(2), 35-38.
  • Campbell, C. (2011). How to involve hard-to-reach parents: Encouraging meaningful parental involvement with schools. Nottingham: National College for Leadership of Schools and Children’s Services. Retrieved from https://dera.ioe.ac.uk/12136/1/download%3Fid=156367&filename=how-to-involve-hard-to-reach-parents-full-report.pdf
  • Cisneros-Chernour, E. J., Cisneros, A.A., and Moreno, R. P. (2000). Curriculum reform in Mexico: Kindergarten teachers’ challenges and dilemmas. Paper presented at the Lilian Katz Symposium, Illinois: Champaign.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publication.
  • Çakmak, Ö. Ç., Nesli̇türk, S., Asar, H. (2014). Okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin “veli” kavramına ilişkin metaforik algıları [The metaphoric perception of preschool teachers on the concept of parents]. Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, (18), 679-712. doi: 10.14520/adyusbd.794
  • Denzin, N.K. (1978). Sociological methods: A sourcebook. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Dukes, S. (1984). Phenomenological methodology in the human sciences. Journal of Religion and Health, 23(3), 197-203. doi: 0.1007/BF00990785
  • Egan, G. (1976). Interpersonal Living: A Skills/Contract Approach to Human Relations Training in Groups. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
  • Elsayed-Elkhouly, S. M. (1996), Styles of Handling Personal Conflict in Egypt. United States, Africa, and the Gulf States, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 3(1), 20-32.
  • Guo, S., & Pungur, L. (2008). Exploring teacher education in the context of Canada and China : A cross-cultural dialogue. Frontiers of Education in China, 3(2), 246–269. doi: 10.1007/s11516-008-0016-4
  • Guo, Y., Wu, X., & Liu, X. (2019). Challenges and Opportunities in Parent-Teacher Relationships in Contemporary China. Comparative and International Education, 47(2). doi:10.5206/cie-eci.v47i2.9331
  • Hedlin, M. (2019). ‘They only see their own child’: an interview study of preschool teachers’ perceptions about parents. Early Child Development and Care, 189(11), 1776–1785. doi:10.1080/03004430.2017.1412955
  • Knopf, T., H., Swick, J., K. (2007). How parents feel about their child’s teacher/school: Implications for early childhood professionals. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(4), 291-296. doi: 10.1007/s10643-006-0119-6
  • Landeros, M. (2011). Defining the “good mother” and the “professional teacher”: Parent-teacher relationships in an affluent school district. Gender and Education, 23(3), 247–262. doi: 10.1080/09540253.2010.491789
  • Lasater, K. (2016). Parent – teacher conflict related to student abilities : The impact on students and the family – school partnership. School Community Journal, 26(2), 237-262.
  • Lau, E. Y. H., & Ng, M. N. (2019). Are they ready for home-school partnership? Perspectives of kindergarten principals, teachers and parents. Children and Youth Services Review, 99, 10-17. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.01.019
  • Mahmood, S. (2013). First-Year preschool and kindergarten teachers: Challenges of working with parents. School Community Journal, 23(2), 55-86.
  • May, D. C., Chen, Y., Johnson, J., Hutchinson, L., & Ricketts, M. (2010). Exploring parental aggression toward teachers in a public school setting. Current Issues in Education, 13(1), 1–34.
  • Martin, A. (2014). Interpersonal relationships and students’ academic and non-academic development: What outcomes peers, parents and teachers do and do not impact. In D. Zandvliet, P. den Brok, T. Mainhard & J. van Tartwijk (Eds.), Interpersonal relationships in education: From theory to practice (5th ed., pp. 9-24). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  • Murray, S. B. (2000). Getting paid in smiles: The gendering of child care work. Symbolic Interaction, 23(2), 135–160. doi: 10.1525/si.2000.23.2.135
  • Mckenna, M. K., & Millen, J. (2013). Look ! Listen ! Learn ! Parent narratives and grounded theory models of parent voice, presence, and engagement in K – 12 education. School Community Journal, 23(1), 9–48.
  • Olweus, D. (2013). School bullying: Development and some important challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9(1), 751-780. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185516
  • Opić, S. (2016). Interpersonal relations in school. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 4(2), 9-21. doi: 10.5937/IJCRSEE1602009O
  • Papworth, B. A., Martin, A. J., Ginns, P., Liem, A. D. L., & Hawkes, T. F. (2012). The role of boarding school in the academic and non-academic outcomes of high school students. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting, Vancouver, Canada.
  • Park, S., Mathieu, J. E., & Grosser, T. J. (2020). A network conceptualization of team conflict. Academy of Management Review, 45(2), 352–375. doi: 10.5465/amr.2016.0472
  • Park, A., Ickes, W., & Robinson, R. L. (2014). More f#!%ing rudeness: reliable personality predictors of verbal rudeness and other ugly confrontational behaviors. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 6(1), 26-43. doi: 10.1108/JACPR-04-2013-0009
  • Pepe, A., & Addimando, L. (2014). Teacher-parent relationships : influence of gender and education on organizational parents’ counterproductive behaviors, European Journal of Psychology of Education, 29(3), 503 – 519. doi: 10.1007/s10212-014-0210-0
  • Prakke, B., van Peet, A., & van der Wolf, K. (2007). Challenging parents, teacher occupational stress and health in Dutch primary schools. International Journal about Parents in Education, 1(0), 36–44.
  • Petani, R., & Krajinovic, N. (2019). Dimensions of interpersonal teachers’ skills in school environment. In L. G. Chova, A. L. Martínez, I. C. Torres (Ed.), EDULEARN19 Conference Proceedings: 11th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (1126-1136). Spain: IATED Academy.
  • Pushor, D., Ruitenberg, C., with co-researchers from Princess Alexandra Community School. (2005, November). Parent engagement and leadership. Research report, project #134, Dr. Stirling McDowell Foundation for Research into Teaching, Saskatoon, SK, 79 pp.
  • Pushor, D. (2007, January). Parent Engagement : Creating a Shared World. Paper presented at the 2nd Annual Ontario Ministry of Education Research Symposium, Toronto, Ontario. Retrieved from https://www.horizonsd.ca/Services/Literacy/Documents/Pushor-Parent Engagement 2007.pdf
  • Reay, D. (2008). Psychosocial Aspects of White Middle-Class Identities. Sociology, 42(6), 1072–1088. doi: 10.1177/0038038508096934
  • Reddy, L. A., Espelage, D., McMahon, S. D., Anderman, E. M., Lane, K. L., Brown, V. E., Reynolds, C. R., Jones, A., & Kanrich, J. (2013). Violence against teachers: case studies from the APA Task Force. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 1(4), 231-245. doi: 10.1080/21683603.2013.837019
  • Saçkes, M. (2013). Priorities for developmental areas in early childhood education : a comparison of parents’ and teachers’ priorities. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 13(3), 1684–1690. doi: 10.12738/estp.2013.3.1634
  • Seligman, M. (2000). Conducting effective conferences with parents of children with disabilities. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Seymour, R. G. (2012). Drawing and verifying conclusions. In Handbook of Research Methods on Social Entrepreneurship (pp. 218-228). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. doi: 10.4337/9781781001059.00018
  • Sverdlov, A., & Aram, D. (2016). What are the goals of kindergarten ? Teachers’ beliefs and their perceptions of the beliefs of parents and of agents of the education system. Early Education and Development, 27(3), 352-371. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2015.1060150
  • Swain, J. (2018). A hybrid approach to thematic analysis in qualitative research: Using a practical example. SAGE Research Methods Cases. doi: 10.4135/9781526435477
  • Shelton, L. G. (2019). The Bronfenbrenner Primer: A Guide to Develecology. New York: Routledge Press.
  • Wubbels, T., Brekelmans, M., den Brok, P. J., & van Tartwijk, J. (2006). An interpersonal perspective on Classroom Management in Secondary Classrooms in the Netherlands. Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues, (pp. 1161-1191). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • van der Wolf, K., & Beukering, K. (2011). Working with challenging parents within the framework of inclusive education. In Smith, F., van der Wolf, K., & Sleegers, P. (Eds.), A bridge to the future. Collaboration between parents, schools and community (pp.149-156). Nijmegen/Amsterdam: ITS/SCO‐Kohnstamm Instituut.
  • Wolf, S. (2020). “Me I don’t really discuss anything with them” : Parent and teacher perceptions of early childhood education and parent-teacher relationships in Ghana. International Journal of Educational Research, 99, 1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.ijer.2019.101525
  • Wyness, M. (2019). The responsible parent and networks of support : A case study of school engagement in a challenging environment. British Educational Research Journal, 46(1), 1-16. doi: 0.1002/berj.3573
  • Zembat, R. (2012). A study on preschool teachers’ perceived conflict with school administrators, colleagues and parents. Education and Science, 37(163), 203 – 215.
  • Zandvliet, D., den Brok, P., Mainhard, T., & van Tartwijk, J. (2014). Interpersonal relationships in education: From theory to practice. In D. Zandvliet, P. den Brok, T. Mainhard, & J. van Tartwijk, Interpersonal relationships in education: From theory to practice (5th ed., pp. 1-8). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  • Zhang, L., & Yu, S. (2017). “I am not a babysitter”: A case study of five Chinese mainland early childhood teachers’ identity. Journal of Education for Teaching, 43(1), 117–119. doi: 10.1080/02607476.2016.1182374
  • Zuoyu, Z. (2002). “The Teaching Profession : To be or to do?”, Journal of Education for Teaching : International research and pedagogy The Teaching Profession, 28(3), 37–41. doi: 10.1080/0260747022000021322
  • VERBI Software. (2019). MAXQDA 2020 [computer software]. Berlin, Germany: VERBI Software. Available from maxqda.com.

“Let me have a seat and see what's going on in this class”: Perspectives of Early Childhood Teachers about Parental Confrontation

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, 105 - 120, 01.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.17275/per.21.56.8.3

Abstract

Interpersonal relations are identified as affiliation and connections between teachers and parents in the context of education. Although the number of studies on the nature of interpersonal relations between these two counterparts have increased in recent years, the studies conducted about confrontational situations, especially in the early childhood educational context, are scarce. Whereas confrontational behaviors, which are intense and unexpected, may set barriers for a strong and quality parent-teacher dyad. Within this context, this study explored how early childhood teachers perceive the confrontational behaviors of parents. Interpretive phenomenological approach draws upon data from twelve semi-structured interviews. The data acquired from the participants was subjected to thematic analysis using MAXQDA. The analysis revealed three main themes regarding teachers' perceptions of parental confrontation: deprecation for early childhood education, incongruity of the parents’ actions and the modus operandi of the school, and parental violence against teachers. Indeed, the participants reported a wide-ranging confrontational behaviors of parents varying from the self-ordained to violent behaviors. The participants stated that they felt being frustrated, blamed and manipulated by parents. Although the presence of both psychological and physical violence was mentioned in the interviews, psychological violence like insulting, mocking, and deliberate insolence was more prevalent. In conclusion, this study revealed a need for the construction of professionalism in early childhood education settings within the societal perspective

References

  • Appelbaum, M. (2009). How to Handle Hard-to-handle Parents. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Benjamin, M. D. (2015). Teacher and parental influence on childhood learning outcomes (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Walden University, Minnesota.
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. doi: 10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.
  • Brink, H. I. L. (1993). Validity and reliability in qualitative research. Curationis, 16(2), 35-38.
  • Campbell, C. (2011). How to involve hard-to-reach parents: Encouraging meaningful parental involvement with schools. Nottingham: National College for Leadership of Schools and Children’s Services. Retrieved from https://dera.ioe.ac.uk/12136/1/download%3Fid=156367&filename=how-to-involve-hard-to-reach-parents-full-report.pdf
  • Cisneros-Chernour, E. J., Cisneros, A.A., and Moreno, R. P. (2000). Curriculum reform in Mexico: Kindergarten teachers’ challenges and dilemmas. Paper presented at the Lilian Katz Symposium, Illinois: Champaign.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publication.
  • Çakmak, Ö. Ç., Nesli̇türk, S., Asar, H. (2014). Okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin “veli” kavramına ilişkin metaforik algıları [The metaphoric perception of preschool teachers on the concept of parents]. Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, (18), 679-712. doi: 10.14520/adyusbd.794
  • Denzin, N.K. (1978). Sociological methods: A sourcebook. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Dukes, S. (1984). Phenomenological methodology in the human sciences. Journal of Religion and Health, 23(3), 197-203. doi: 0.1007/BF00990785
  • Egan, G. (1976). Interpersonal Living: A Skills/Contract Approach to Human Relations Training in Groups. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
  • Elsayed-Elkhouly, S. M. (1996), Styles of Handling Personal Conflict in Egypt. United States, Africa, and the Gulf States, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 3(1), 20-32.
  • Guo, S., & Pungur, L. (2008). Exploring teacher education in the context of Canada and China : A cross-cultural dialogue. Frontiers of Education in China, 3(2), 246–269. doi: 10.1007/s11516-008-0016-4
  • Guo, Y., Wu, X., & Liu, X. (2019). Challenges and Opportunities in Parent-Teacher Relationships in Contemporary China. Comparative and International Education, 47(2). doi:10.5206/cie-eci.v47i2.9331
  • Hedlin, M. (2019). ‘They only see their own child’: an interview study of preschool teachers’ perceptions about parents. Early Child Development and Care, 189(11), 1776–1785. doi:10.1080/03004430.2017.1412955
  • Knopf, T., H., Swick, J., K. (2007). How parents feel about their child’s teacher/school: Implications for early childhood professionals. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(4), 291-296. doi: 10.1007/s10643-006-0119-6
  • Landeros, M. (2011). Defining the “good mother” and the “professional teacher”: Parent-teacher relationships in an affluent school district. Gender and Education, 23(3), 247–262. doi: 10.1080/09540253.2010.491789
  • Lasater, K. (2016). Parent – teacher conflict related to student abilities : The impact on students and the family – school partnership. School Community Journal, 26(2), 237-262.
  • Lau, E. Y. H., & Ng, M. N. (2019). Are they ready for home-school partnership? Perspectives of kindergarten principals, teachers and parents. Children and Youth Services Review, 99, 10-17. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.01.019
  • Mahmood, S. (2013). First-Year preschool and kindergarten teachers: Challenges of working with parents. School Community Journal, 23(2), 55-86.
  • May, D. C., Chen, Y., Johnson, J., Hutchinson, L., & Ricketts, M. (2010). Exploring parental aggression toward teachers in a public school setting. Current Issues in Education, 13(1), 1–34.
  • Martin, A. (2014). Interpersonal relationships and students’ academic and non-academic development: What outcomes peers, parents and teachers do and do not impact. In D. Zandvliet, P. den Brok, T. Mainhard & J. van Tartwijk (Eds.), Interpersonal relationships in education: From theory to practice (5th ed., pp. 9-24). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  • Murray, S. B. (2000). Getting paid in smiles: The gendering of child care work. Symbolic Interaction, 23(2), 135–160. doi: 10.1525/si.2000.23.2.135
  • Mckenna, M. K., & Millen, J. (2013). Look ! Listen ! Learn ! Parent narratives and grounded theory models of parent voice, presence, and engagement in K – 12 education. School Community Journal, 23(1), 9–48.
  • Olweus, D. (2013). School bullying: Development and some important challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9(1), 751-780. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185516
  • Opić, S. (2016). Interpersonal relations in school. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 4(2), 9-21. doi: 10.5937/IJCRSEE1602009O
  • Papworth, B. A., Martin, A. J., Ginns, P., Liem, A. D. L., & Hawkes, T. F. (2012). The role of boarding school in the academic and non-academic outcomes of high school students. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting, Vancouver, Canada.
  • Park, S., Mathieu, J. E., & Grosser, T. J. (2020). A network conceptualization of team conflict. Academy of Management Review, 45(2), 352–375. doi: 10.5465/amr.2016.0472
  • Park, A., Ickes, W., & Robinson, R. L. (2014). More f#!%ing rudeness: reliable personality predictors of verbal rudeness and other ugly confrontational behaviors. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 6(1), 26-43. doi: 10.1108/JACPR-04-2013-0009
  • Pepe, A., & Addimando, L. (2014). Teacher-parent relationships : influence of gender and education on organizational parents’ counterproductive behaviors, European Journal of Psychology of Education, 29(3), 503 – 519. doi: 10.1007/s10212-014-0210-0
  • Prakke, B., van Peet, A., & van der Wolf, K. (2007). Challenging parents, teacher occupational stress and health in Dutch primary schools. International Journal about Parents in Education, 1(0), 36–44.
  • Petani, R., & Krajinovic, N. (2019). Dimensions of interpersonal teachers’ skills in school environment. In L. G. Chova, A. L. Martínez, I. C. Torres (Ed.), EDULEARN19 Conference Proceedings: 11th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (1126-1136). Spain: IATED Academy.
  • Pushor, D., Ruitenberg, C., with co-researchers from Princess Alexandra Community School. (2005, November). Parent engagement and leadership. Research report, project #134, Dr. Stirling McDowell Foundation for Research into Teaching, Saskatoon, SK, 79 pp.
  • Pushor, D. (2007, January). Parent Engagement : Creating a Shared World. Paper presented at the 2nd Annual Ontario Ministry of Education Research Symposium, Toronto, Ontario. Retrieved from https://www.horizonsd.ca/Services/Literacy/Documents/Pushor-Parent Engagement 2007.pdf
  • Reay, D. (2008). Psychosocial Aspects of White Middle-Class Identities. Sociology, 42(6), 1072–1088. doi: 10.1177/0038038508096934
  • Reddy, L. A., Espelage, D., McMahon, S. D., Anderman, E. M., Lane, K. L., Brown, V. E., Reynolds, C. R., Jones, A., & Kanrich, J. (2013). Violence against teachers: case studies from the APA Task Force. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 1(4), 231-245. doi: 10.1080/21683603.2013.837019
  • Saçkes, M. (2013). Priorities for developmental areas in early childhood education : a comparison of parents’ and teachers’ priorities. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 13(3), 1684–1690. doi: 10.12738/estp.2013.3.1634
  • Seligman, M. (2000). Conducting effective conferences with parents of children with disabilities. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Seymour, R. G. (2012). Drawing and verifying conclusions. In Handbook of Research Methods on Social Entrepreneurship (pp. 218-228). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. doi: 10.4337/9781781001059.00018
  • Sverdlov, A., & Aram, D. (2016). What are the goals of kindergarten ? Teachers’ beliefs and their perceptions of the beliefs of parents and of agents of the education system. Early Education and Development, 27(3), 352-371. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2015.1060150
  • Swain, J. (2018). A hybrid approach to thematic analysis in qualitative research: Using a practical example. SAGE Research Methods Cases. doi: 10.4135/9781526435477
  • Shelton, L. G. (2019). The Bronfenbrenner Primer: A Guide to Develecology. New York: Routledge Press.
  • Wubbels, T., Brekelmans, M., den Brok, P. J., & van Tartwijk, J. (2006). An interpersonal perspective on Classroom Management in Secondary Classrooms in the Netherlands. Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues, (pp. 1161-1191). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • van der Wolf, K., & Beukering, K. (2011). Working with challenging parents within the framework of inclusive education. In Smith, F., van der Wolf, K., & Sleegers, P. (Eds.), A bridge to the future. Collaboration between parents, schools and community (pp.149-156). Nijmegen/Amsterdam: ITS/SCO‐Kohnstamm Instituut.
  • Wolf, S. (2020). “Me I don’t really discuss anything with them” : Parent and teacher perceptions of early childhood education and parent-teacher relationships in Ghana. International Journal of Educational Research, 99, 1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.ijer.2019.101525
  • Wyness, M. (2019). The responsible parent and networks of support : A case study of school engagement in a challenging environment. British Educational Research Journal, 46(1), 1-16. doi: 0.1002/berj.3573
  • Zembat, R. (2012). A study on preschool teachers’ perceived conflict with school administrators, colleagues and parents. Education and Science, 37(163), 203 – 215.
  • Zandvliet, D., den Brok, P., Mainhard, T., & van Tartwijk, J. (2014). Interpersonal relationships in education: From theory to practice. In D. Zandvliet, P. den Brok, T. Mainhard, & J. van Tartwijk, Interpersonal relationships in education: From theory to practice (5th ed., pp. 1-8). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  • Zhang, L., & Yu, S. (2017). “I am not a babysitter”: A case study of five Chinese mainland early childhood teachers’ identity. Journal of Education for Teaching, 43(1), 117–119. doi: 10.1080/02607476.2016.1182374
  • Zuoyu, Z. (2002). “The Teaching Profession : To be or to do?”, Journal of Education for Teaching : International research and pedagogy The Teaching Profession, 28(3), 37–41. doi: 10.1080/0260747022000021322
  • VERBI Software. (2019). MAXQDA 2020 [computer software]. Berlin, Germany: VERBI Software. Available from maxqda.com.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Rabia FİLİK-UYANIK (Primary Author)
ORTA DOĞU TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-2763-4823
Türkiye


H. Özlen DEMİRCAN
MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-3536-4643
Türkiye


Gözdenur IŞIKCI-BAŞKAYA This is me
BIRUNI UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-3377-3969
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Yok
Project Number Yok
Thanks The authors would like to thank Tuba Mumcu, Rabia Kıvanç, Şeyda Gül, Zeliha Demirci for their valuable assistance in data collection process. The ideas and opinions expressed herein are those of the authors alone, and endorsement by the authors’ institutions is not intended and should not be inferred.
Publication Date August 1, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3

Cite

APA Filik-uyanık, R. , Demircan, H. Ö. & Işıkcı-başkaya, G. (2021). “Let me have a seat and see what's going on in this class”: Perspectives of Early Childhood Teachers about Parental Confrontation . Participatory Educational Research , 8 (3) , 105-120 . DOI: 10.17275/per.21.56.8.3