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Year 2023, Volume: 10 Issue: 2, 156 - 173, 30.03.2023
https://doi.org/10.17275/per.23.34.10.2

Abstract

References

  • Al-Mahdy, Y. F. H., & Alazmi, A. A. (2021). Principal support and teacher turnover intention in Kuwait: Implications for policymakers. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 22(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2021.1879168
  • Baer, M., & Frese, M. (2003). Innovation is not enough: Climates for initiative and psychological safety, process innovations, and firm performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 24(1), 45-68. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.179
  • Bailey, C., Madden, A., Alfes, K., Shantz, A., & Soane, E. (2017). The mismanaged soul: Existential labor and the erosion of meaningful work. Human Resource Management Review, 27(3), 416-430. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2016.11.001
  • Baroudi, S., Tamim, R., & Hojeij, Z. (2022). A quantitative investigation of intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing teachers’ job satisfaction in Lebanon. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 21(2), 127-146. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2020.1734210
  • Bashir, L. (2017). Job satisfaction of teachers in relation to professional commitment. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 4(4), 52–59. DOI: 10.25215/0404.007
  • Bibi, A., Khalid, M. A., & Hussain, A. (2019). Perceived organizational support and organizational commitment among special education teachers in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Management, 33(5), 848-859. DOI 10.1108/IJEM-12-2017-0365
  • Bilal, A. R., Fatima, T., & Imran, M. K. (2019). Does shared leadership fosters taking charge behaviors? A post-heroic leadership perspective in the public sector higher educational institutes. International Journal of Public Leadership, 15(3), 137-154. DOI 10.1108/IJPL-04-2019-0016
  • Bogler, R., & Nir, A. E. (2012). The importance of teachers' perceived organizational support to job satisfaction: What's empowerment got to do with it?. Journal of Educational Administration, 50(3), 287-306. DOI 10.1108/09578231211223310
  • Bowling, N. A., Beehr, T. A., Wagner, S. H., & Libkuman, T. M. (2005). Adaptation-level theory, opponent process theory, and dispositions: An integrated approach to the stability of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1044-1053. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1044
  • Burnett, M. F., Chiaburu, D. S., Shapiro, D. L., & Li, N. (2015). Revisiting how and when perceived organizational support enhances taking charge: An inverted U-shaped perspective. Journal of Management, 41(7), 1805-1826. DOI: 10.1177/0149206313493324
  • Durnalı, M., & Ayyıldız, P. (2019). The relationship between faculty members’ job satisfaction and perceptions of organizational politics. Participatory Educational Research, 6(2), 169-188. https://doi.org/10.17275/per.19.20.6.2
  • Duyar, I., Kurt, T., & Taneiyi, S. O. (2016). Teachers' dispositions toward change in a climate of uncertainty: Role of organizational support and psychological safety. American Educational Research Association 2016 Annual Meeting (AERA 2016). Washington, D.C.-USA.
  • Edmondson AC, Lei Z. (2014). Psychological safety: The history, renaissance, and future of an interpersonal construct. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1, 23–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413- 091305
  • Eisenberger, R., Cummings, J., Armeli, S., & Lynch, P. (1997). Perceived organizational support, Discreatory treatment, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(5), 812-820. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.5.812
  • Evans, R. (1996). The human side of school change: Reform, resistance, and the reallife problems of innovation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
  • Faragher, E. B., Cass, M., & Cooper, C. L. (2005). The relationship between job satisfaction and health: A meta-analysis. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 62(2), 105-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.2002.006734
  • Fay, D., Strauss, K., Schwake, C., & Urbach, T. (2022). Creating meaning by taking initiative: Proactive work behavior fosters work meaningfulness. Applied Psychology, 1-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12385
  • Fidan, T. (2021). The effect of psychological contract perceptions of university administrative personnel on their job satisfaction: The mediating role of public service motivatio. Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES), 54(1), 175-203. https://doi.org/10.30964/auebfd.569385
  • Fidan, T., & Oztürk, I. (2015). The relationship of the creativity of public and private school teachers to their intrinsic motivation and the school climate for innovation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 905-914. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.370
  • Frazier, M. L., Fainshmidt, S., Klinger, R. L., Pezeshkan, A., & Vracheva, V. (2017). Psychological safety: A meta‐analytic review and extension. Personnel psychology, 70(1), 113-165. https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12183
  • Frese, M., & Fay, D. (2001). Personal Initiative (PI): A concept for work in the 21st century. Research in Organizational Behavior, 23, 133-188.
  • Gallucci, C. (2008). Districtwide instructional reform: Using sociocultural theory to link professional learning to organizational support. American Journal of Education, 114(4), 541-581.
  • Gerlach, R., & Gockel, C. (2018). We belong together: belonging to the principal’s in-group protects teachers from the negative effects of task conflict on psychological safety. School Leadership & Management, 38(3), 302-322. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2017.1407307
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  • Higgins, M., Ishimaru, A., Holcombe, R., & Fowler, A. (2012). Examining organizational learning in schools: The role of psychological safety, experimentation, and leadership that reinforces learning. Journal of Educational Change, 13, 67-94. DOI 10.1007/s10833-011-9167-9
  • Holsblat, R. (2014). The Relationship between Commitment to the Organization, Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Teachers. American Journal of Educational Research, 2 (12), 1175-1181. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12-7
  • Hongying, S. (2007). Literature review of teacher job satisfaction. Chinese Education & Society, 40(5), 11-16. https://doi.org/10.2753/CED1061-1932400502
  • Joe-Akunne, C. O., Edosomwan, H. S., & Gladness, S. C. (2022). Participation in decision-making and perceived organizational support as predictors of psychological safety among secondary school staff. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 17(2), 46-55. https://doi.org/10.9734/arjass/2022/v17i230305
  • Judge, T. A., Parker, S., Colbert, A. E., Heller, D., & Ilies, R. (2001). Job satisfaction: A cross-cultural review. In N. Anderson, D. S. Ones, H. Kepir Sinangil and C. Viswesvaram (Eds.), Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology 2 (pp. 25-52). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
  • Kim, M. J. & Kim, B. J. (2020). Analysis of the Importance of job insecurity, psychological safety and job satisfaction in the CSR-performance link. Sustainability, 12, 3514. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093514
  • Koustelios, A., & Tsigilis, N. (2005). The relationship between burnout and job satisfaction among physical education teachers: A multivariate approach. European Physical Education Review, 11(2), 189-203. DOI: 10.1177/1356336X05052896
  • Kuo, C.-C., Ye, Y.-C., Chen, M.-Y., & Chen, L. H. (2019). Proactive personality enhances change in employees’ job satisfaction: The moderating role of psychological safety. Australian Journal of Management, 44(3), 482–494. https://doi.org/10.1177/0312896218818225
  • Kurt, T. (2005). Analysis of Herzberg’s Two Factors Motivation Theory on teacher motivation. Gazi University Journal of Gazi Faculty of Education, 25(1), 285-299.
  • Ladebo, O. J. (2005). Effects of work-related attitudes on the intention to leave the profession: An examination of school teachers in Nigeria. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 33(3), 355-369. DOI: 10.1177/1741143205054014
  • Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A. E., & Liao, T. F. (2003). The Sage encyclopedia of social science research methods-Volume 3. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Li, N., Liang, J., & Crant, J. M. (2010). The role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: A relational perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(2), 395–404. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018079
  • Michaelis, B., Stegmaier, R., Sonntag, K. (2009). Shedding light on followers’ innovation implementation behavior: The role of transformational leadership, commitment to change, and climate for initiative. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(4) 408-429. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683941011035304
  • Millette, V., & Gagné, M. (2008). Designing volunteers’ tasks to maximize motivation, satisfaction and performance: The impact of job characteristics on volunteer engagement. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 11-22. DOI 10.1007/s11031-007-9079-4
  • Mishra, J. & Dkhar, B. R. (2016). Job satisfaction of teacher educators: A Study in relation to gender and types of management. International Journal of Research on Social and Natural Sciences-Katwa College Journal, 1-5.
  • MoNE. (2022). National education statistics: Formal education 2021-2022. Ankara: republic of Turkey, Ministry of National Education.
  • Muga, O. P., Onyango, A. G. & Jackline, N. (2017). Levels of teachers’ job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Siaya, Kisumu and Kajiado Counties, Kenya. European Journal of Education Studies, 3(8), 684–702. Levels of teachers’ job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Siaya, Kisumu and Kajiado Counties, Kenya. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v0i0.976
  • Nartgün, S. S., & Taskin, S. (2017). Relationship between teacher views on levels of organizational support-organizational identification and climate of initiative. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(11), 1940-1954. DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2017.051110
  • Nembhard IM, Edmondson AC (2006). Making it safe: The effects of leader inclusiveness and professional status on psychological safety and improvement efforts in health care teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior 27: 941–966. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.413
  • Nias, J. (2002). Primary teachers talking: A study of teaching as work. Routledge.
  • O'Neill, B. S., & Arendt, L. A. (2008). Psychological climate and work attitudes: The importance of telling the right story. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 14(4), 353-370. 10.1177/1548051808315553
  • Oreg, S. (2006). Personality, context, and resistance to organizational change. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15 (1) 73-101. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320500451247
  • Pearson, L. C., & Moomaw, W. (2005). The relationship between teacher autonomy and stress, work satisfaction, empowerment, and professionalism. Educational research quarterly, 29(1), 38-54.
  • Pinder, C.C. (1984).Work motivation theory, issues, and applications. USA: Haroer Collins Publisher.
  • Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879-891. doi: 10.3758/BRM.40.3.879
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The Influence of Perceived Organizational Support on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction: The Mediating Roles of Climate for Initiative and Climate for Psychological Safety

Year 2023, Volume: 10 Issue: 2, 156 - 173, 30.03.2023
https://doi.org/10.17275/per.23.34.10.2

Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between teachers' perceived organizational support (POS), climate for initiative (CS), climate for psychological safety (CPS), and job satisfaction (JS). A cross-sectional correlational design was employed. The sample consisted of a randomly selected 397 high school teachers working in the central districts of Ankara, Türkiye. A structural equation modelling technique was utilized in the analyses of direct and indirect relationships between the study variables. Findings confirmed the proposed model. More specifically, teachers’ POS influenced their JS both directly and indirectly through CS and CPS. Findings also suggest that teachers' job satisfaction is more likely to increase in schools where the organizational support is high, in turn, they feel motivated to take initiative and feel psychologically safe. The findings of the study supported the assumptions of Herzberg’s Two Factor Motivation Theory where the intrinsic and extrinsic factors collectively play important roles in teachers’ motivation and job satisfaction. Findings would guide policymakers and practicing educational leaders in formulating policies and practices in creating conducive school environments where teachers feel supported, safe, and motivated.

References

  • Al-Mahdy, Y. F. H., & Alazmi, A. A. (2021). Principal support and teacher turnover intention in Kuwait: Implications for policymakers. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 22(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2021.1879168
  • Baer, M., & Frese, M. (2003). Innovation is not enough: Climates for initiative and psychological safety, process innovations, and firm performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 24(1), 45-68. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.179
  • Bailey, C., Madden, A., Alfes, K., Shantz, A., & Soane, E. (2017). The mismanaged soul: Existential labor and the erosion of meaningful work. Human Resource Management Review, 27(3), 416-430. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2016.11.001
  • Baroudi, S., Tamim, R., & Hojeij, Z. (2022). A quantitative investigation of intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing teachers’ job satisfaction in Lebanon. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 21(2), 127-146. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2020.1734210
  • Bashir, L. (2017). Job satisfaction of teachers in relation to professional commitment. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 4(4), 52–59. DOI: 10.25215/0404.007
  • Bibi, A., Khalid, M. A., & Hussain, A. (2019). Perceived organizational support and organizational commitment among special education teachers in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Management, 33(5), 848-859. DOI 10.1108/IJEM-12-2017-0365
  • Bilal, A. R., Fatima, T., & Imran, M. K. (2019). Does shared leadership fosters taking charge behaviors? A post-heroic leadership perspective in the public sector higher educational institutes. International Journal of Public Leadership, 15(3), 137-154. DOI 10.1108/IJPL-04-2019-0016
  • Bogler, R., & Nir, A. E. (2012). The importance of teachers' perceived organizational support to job satisfaction: What's empowerment got to do with it?. Journal of Educational Administration, 50(3), 287-306. DOI 10.1108/09578231211223310
  • Bowling, N. A., Beehr, T. A., Wagner, S. H., & Libkuman, T. M. (2005). Adaptation-level theory, opponent process theory, and dispositions: An integrated approach to the stability of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1044-1053. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1044
  • Burnett, M. F., Chiaburu, D. S., Shapiro, D. L., & Li, N. (2015). Revisiting how and when perceived organizational support enhances taking charge: An inverted U-shaped perspective. Journal of Management, 41(7), 1805-1826. DOI: 10.1177/0149206313493324
  • Durnalı, M., & Ayyıldız, P. (2019). The relationship between faculty members’ job satisfaction and perceptions of organizational politics. Participatory Educational Research, 6(2), 169-188. https://doi.org/10.17275/per.19.20.6.2
  • Duyar, I., Kurt, T., & Taneiyi, S. O. (2016). Teachers' dispositions toward change in a climate of uncertainty: Role of organizational support and psychological safety. American Educational Research Association 2016 Annual Meeting (AERA 2016). Washington, D.C.-USA.
  • Edmondson AC, Lei Z. (2014). Psychological safety: The history, renaissance, and future of an interpersonal construct. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1, 23–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413- 091305
  • Eisenberger, R., Cummings, J., Armeli, S., & Lynch, P. (1997). Perceived organizational support, Discreatory treatment, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(5), 812-820. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.5.812
  • Evans, R. (1996). The human side of school change: Reform, resistance, and the reallife problems of innovation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
  • Faragher, E. B., Cass, M., & Cooper, C. L. (2005). The relationship between job satisfaction and health: A meta-analysis. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 62(2), 105-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.2002.006734
  • Fay, D., Strauss, K., Schwake, C., & Urbach, T. (2022). Creating meaning by taking initiative: Proactive work behavior fosters work meaningfulness. Applied Psychology, 1-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12385
  • Fidan, T. (2021). The effect of psychological contract perceptions of university administrative personnel on their job satisfaction: The mediating role of public service motivatio. Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES), 54(1), 175-203. https://doi.org/10.30964/auebfd.569385
  • Fidan, T., & Oztürk, I. (2015). The relationship of the creativity of public and private school teachers to their intrinsic motivation and the school climate for innovation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 905-914. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.370
  • Frazier, M. L., Fainshmidt, S., Klinger, R. L., Pezeshkan, A., & Vracheva, V. (2017). Psychological safety: A meta‐analytic review and extension. Personnel psychology, 70(1), 113-165. https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12183
  • Frese, M., & Fay, D. (2001). Personal Initiative (PI): A concept for work in the 21st century. Research in Organizational Behavior, 23, 133-188.
  • Gallucci, C. (2008). Districtwide instructional reform: Using sociocultural theory to link professional learning to organizational support. American Journal of Education, 114(4), 541-581.
  • Gerlach, R., & Gockel, C. (2018). We belong together: belonging to the principal’s in-group protects teachers from the negative effects of task conflict on psychological safety. School Leadership & Management, 38(3), 302-322. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2017.1407307
  • Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate data analysis (Seventh Edition). Harlow: Pearson.
  • Herzberg, F. (1967). Work and the nature of man. Cleveland, OH: World Book.
  • Higgins, M., Ishimaru, A., Holcombe, R., & Fowler, A. (2012). Examining organizational learning in schools: The role of psychological safety, experimentation, and leadership that reinforces learning. Journal of Educational Change, 13, 67-94. DOI 10.1007/s10833-011-9167-9
  • Holsblat, R. (2014). The Relationship between Commitment to the Organization, Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Teachers. American Journal of Educational Research, 2 (12), 1175-1181. doi: 10.12691/education-2-12-7
  • Hongying, S. (2007). Literature review of teacher job satisfaction. Chinese Education & Society, 40(5), 11-16. https://doi.org/10.2753/CED1061-1932400502
  • Joe-Akunne, C. O., Edosomwan, H. S., & Gladness, S. C. (2022). Participation in decision-making and perceived organizational support as predictors of psychological safety among secondary school staff. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 17(2), 46-55. https://doi.org/10.9734/arjass/2022/v17i230305
  • Judge, T. A., Parker, S., Colbert, A. E., Heller, D., & Ilies, R. (2001). Job satisfaction: A cross-cultural review. In N. Anderson, D. S. Ones, H. Kepir Sinangil and C. Viswesvaram (Eds.), Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology 2 (pp. 25-52). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
  • Kim, M. J. & Kim, B. J. (2020). Analysis of the Importance of job insecurity, psychological safety and job satisfaction in the CSR-performance link. Sustainability, 12, 3514. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093514
  • Koustelios, A., & Tsigilis, N. (2005). The relationship between burnout and job satisfaction among physical education teachers: A multivariate approach. European Physical Education Review, 11(2), 189-203. DOI: 10.1177/1356336X05052896
  • Kuo, C.-C., Ye, Y.-C., Chen, M.-Y., & Chen, L. H. (2019). Proactive personality enhances change in employees’ job satisfaction: The moderating role of psychological safety. Australian Journal of Management, 44(3), 482–494. https://doi.org/10.1177/0312896218818225
  • Kurt, T. (2005). Analysis of Herzberg’s Two Factors Motivation Theory on teacher motivation. Gazi University Journal of Gazi Faculty of Education, 25(1), 285-299.
  • Ladebo, O. J. (2005). Effects of work-related attitudes on the intention to leave the profession: An examination of school teachers in Nigeria. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 33(3), 355-369. DOI: 10.1177/1741143205054014
  • Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A. E., & Liao, T. F. (2003). The Sage encyclopedia of social science research methods-Volume 3. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Li, N., Liang, J., & Crant, J. M. (2010). The role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: A relational perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(2), 395–404. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018079
  • Michaelis, B., Stegmaier, R., Sonntag, K. (2009). Shedding light on followers’ innovation implementation behavior: The role of transformational leadership, commitment to change, and climate for initiative. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(4) 408-429. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683941011035304
  • Millette, V., & Gagné, M. (2008). Designing volunteers’ tasks to maximize motivation, satisfaction and performance: The impact of job characteristics on volunteer engagement. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 11-22. DOI 10.1007/s11031-007-9079-4
  • Mishra, J. & Dkhar, B. R. (2016). Job satisfaction of teacher educators: A Study in relation to gender and types of management. International Journal of Research on Social and Natural Sciences-Katwa College Journal, 1-5.
  • MoNE. (2022). National education statistics: Formal education 2021-2022. Ankara: republic of Turkey, Ministry of National Education.
  • Muga, O. P., Onyango, A. G. & Jackline, N. (2017). Levels of teachers’ job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Siaya, Kisumu and Kajiado Counties, Kenya. European Journal of Education Studies, 3(8), 684–702. Levels of teachers’ job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Siaya, Kisumu and Kajiado Counties, Kenya. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v0i0.976
  • Nartgün, S. S., & Taskin, S. (2017). Relationship between teacher views on levels of organizational support-organizational identification and climate of initiative. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(11), 1940-1954. DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2017.051110
  • Nembhard IM, Edmondson AC (2006). Making it safe: The effects of leader inclusiveness and professional status on psychological safety and improvement efforts in health care teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior 27: 941–966. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.413
  • Nias, J. (2002). Primary teachers talking: A study of teaching as work. Routledge.
  • O'Neill, B. S., & Arendt, L. A. (2008). Psychological climate and work attitudes: The importance of telling the right story. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 14(4), 353-370. 10.1177/1548051808315553
  • Oreg, S. (2006). Personality, context, and resistance to organizational change. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15 (1) 73-101. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320500451247
  • Pearson, L. C., & Moomaw, W. (2005). The relationship between teacher autonomy and stress, work satisfaction, empowerment, and professionalism. Educational research quarterly, 29(1), 38-54.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Studies on Education
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Türker KURT 0000-0001-9372-1736

Ibrahim DUYAR 0000-0002-2145-5296

Publication Date March 30, 2023
Acceptance Date March 8, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 10 Issue: 2

Cite

APA KURT, T., & DUYAR, I. (2023). The Influence of Perceived Organizational Support on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction: The Mediating Roles of Climate for Initiative and Climate for Psychological Safety. Participatory Educational Research, 10(2), 156-173. https://doi.org/10.17275/per.23.34.10.2