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A Program to Protect Integrity of Body-Mind-Spirit: Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Program

Year 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, 68 - 80, 01.03.2015
https://doi.org/10.5455/cap.20140504031811

Abstract

Mindfulness-based applications allow health care staffs to understand themselves as well as other individuals. Awareness based applications are not only stress reduction techniques but also a way of understanding the life and human existence, and it should not be only used to cope with the diseases. Emotions, thoughts and judgments of people might give direction to their life sometimes. Accessing a life without judgment and negative feelings brings a peaceful and happy life together. Mindfulness based stress reduction exercises may help to enjoy the present time, to cope with the challenges, stress and diseases and accept the negative life experiences rather than to question their reasons. About three decades ago, Kabat-Zin conducted the first investigation of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program which is used commonly all around the world. The 8-weeks program, which contains mindful living exercises (such as eating, walking, cooking, etc.), yoga, body scan and meditation practices, requires doing daily life activity and meditation with attention, openness and acceptance. The aim of this review article is to give information about Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction program and to emphasize its importance.

References

  • Arch JJ, Ayers CR, Baker A, Almklov E, Dean SJ (2013) Randomized clinical trial of adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction versus group cognitive behavioral therapy for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Behav Res Ther, 51:185-196.
  • Astin JA (1997) Stress reduction through mindfulness meditation: Effects on psychological symptomology, sense of control, and spiritual experiences. Psychother Psychosom, 66:97-106.
  • Baer RA (2003) Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10:125-143.
  • Baysal NZ, Demirbaş B (2012) Sınıf öğretmenliği adaylarının bilinçli farkındalıkları ile yansıtıcı düşünme eğilimleri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. Eğitim ve Öğretim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1:12-20.
  • Crane RS, Kuyken W, Williams JM, Hastings RP, Cooper L, Fennell MJ (2012) Competence in teaching mindfulness-based courses: concepts, development and assessment. Mindfulness, 3:76-84.
  • Cohen-Katz J, Wiley S, CapuanoT, Baker DM, ShapiroS (2005) The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on nurse stress and burnout. Holist Nurs Pract, 19:26-35.
  • Çatak PD, Ögel K (2010) Farkındalık temelli terapiler ve terapötik süreçler. Klinik Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13:85-91.
  • Davidson RJ, Kabat-Zinn J, Schumacher J, Rosenkranz M, Muller D, Santorelli S et al. (2003) Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosom Med, 65:564-570.
  • Duncan LG, Bardacke L (2010) Mindfulness-based childbirth and parenting education: promoting family mindfulness during the perinatal period. J Child Fam Stud, 19:190-202.
  • Duncan LG, Coatsworth JD, Greenberg MT (2009) A model of mindful parenting: Implications for parent–child relationships and prevention research. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev, 12:255–270.
  • Gross CR, Kreitzer MJ, Thomas W, Reilly-Spong M, Cramer-Bornemann M, Nyman JA et al. (2010) Mindfulness-based stress reduction for solid organ transplant recipients: a randomized controlled trial. Altern Ther Health Med, 16(5):30-38.
  • Grossman P, Niemann L, Schmidt S, Walach H (2004) Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: a meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res, 57:35-43.
  • Hogue CJ, Bremner JD (2005) Stress model for research into preterm delivery among black women. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 192(5 Suppl):47-55.
  • Kabat-Zinn J, Massion AO, Kristeller J, Peterson LG, Fletcher KE, Pbert L et al. (1992) Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry, 149:936-943.
  • Kabat-Zinn J (2009) Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness, New York, Bantam Dell Publishing.
  • Kabat-Zinn J (2003) Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice,10:144-156.
  • Kemper K, Bulla S, Krueger D, Ott MJ, McCool JA, Gardiner P (2011) Nurses’ experiences, expectations, and preferences for mind- body practices to reduce stress. BMC Complement Altern Med, 11:26.
  • Klainin-Yobas P, Cho MA, Creedy D (2012) Efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions on depressive symptoms among people with mental disorders: a meta-analysis. Int J Nurs Stud, 49:109-121.
  • Kreitzer MJ (2012) Spirituality and well-being: Focusing on what matters. West J Nurs Res, 34:707-711.
  • Kristofersson GK (2012) The effects of a mindfulness based intervention on impulsivity, symptoms of depression, anxiety, experiences and quality of life of persons suffering from substance use disorders and traumatic brain injury (Doctoral thesis). Minnesota, University of Minnesota.
  • Lupien SJ, McEwen BS, Gunnar MR, Heim C (2009) Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci, 10:434-445.
  • Mackenzie CS, Poulin PA, Seidman-Carlson R (2006) A brief mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention for nurses and nurse aides. Appl Nurs Res, 19:105-109.
  • Matchim Y, Armer JM, Stewart BR (2011) Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on health among breast cancer survivors. West J Nurs Res, 33:996-1016.
  • Miller JJ, Fletcher K, Kabat-Zinn J (1994) Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Gen Hosp Psychiatry, 17:192-200.
  • National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). http://nccam.nih.gov/ (16 Şubat 2013’te ulaşıldı).
  • Ögel K, Sarp N, Gürol DT, Ermağan E (2014) Bağımlı olan ve olmayan bireylerde farkındalık (mindfulness) ve farkındalığı etkileyen etkenlerin incelenmesi. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 15:282-288.
  • Praisman S (2008) Mindfulness-based stress reduction: A literature review and clinician’s guide. J Am Acad Nurse Pract, 20:212- 216.
  • Raingruber R (2007) The effectiveness of Tai Chi, Yoga, Meditation, and Reiki healing sessions in promoting health and enhancing problem solving abilities of registered nurses. Issues Ment Health Nurs, 28:1141-1155.
  • Rich-Edwards JW, Grizzard TA (2005) Psychosocial stress and neuroendocrine mechanisms in preterm delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 192(5 Suppl):30-35.
  • Roemer E (2002) Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive- behavioral models. Clin Psychol Sci Prac, 9:54-68.
  • Smith JE, Richardson J, Hoffman C, Pilkington K (2005) Mindfulness-based stress reduction as supportive therapy in cancer care: systematic review. J Adv Nurs, 52, 315-327.
  • Speca M, Carlson LE, Goodey E, Angen M (2000) A randomized, wait-list controlled trial: The effect of a mindfulness meditation- based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients. Psychosom Med, 62:613-622.
  • Tsang SC, Mok ES, Lam SC, Lee JK (2012) The benefit of mindfulness-based stress reduction to patients with terminal cancer. J Clin Nurs, 21:2690-2696.
  • Vlemincx E, Vigo D, Vansteenwegen D, Van den Bergh O, Van Diest I (2013) Do not worry, be mindful: Effects of induced worry and mindfulness on respiratory variability in a nonanxious population. Int J Psychophysiol, 87:147-151.
  • Whitebird RR, Kreitzer MJ, O'Connor PJ (2009) Mindfulness-based stress reduction and diabetes. Diabetes Spectr, 22:226-230.
  • Whitebird RR, Kreitzer MJ, Crain AL, Lewis BA, Hanson LR, Enstad CJ (2013) Mindfulness-based stress reduction for family caregivers: a randomized controlled trial. Gerontologist, 53:676-680.
  • Witek-Janusek L, Albuquerque K, Chroniak KR, Chroniak C, Durazo R, Mathews HL (2008) Effect of mindfulness based stress reduction on immune function, quality of life and coping in women newly diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Brain Behav Immun, 22:969-981.
  • Würtzen H, Dalton SO, Elsass P, Sumbundu AD, Steding-Jensen M, Karlsen RV, Andersen KK et al. (2012) Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression: Results of a randomised controlled trial among 336 Danish women treated for stage I–III breast cancer. Eur J Cancer, 49:1365-1373.

Beden-Zihin-Ruh Bütünlüğünü Korumaya Yönelik Bir Program: Farkındalık Temelli Stres Azaltma Programı

Year 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, 68 - 80, 01.03.2015
https://doi.org/10.5455/cap.20140504031811

Abstract

Farkındalık temelli uygulamalar sağlık personelinin hem kendini, hem de diğer bireyleri anlamasına olanak tanımaktadır. Farkındalık temelli uygulamalar yalnızca stres azaltma tekniği değil, aynı zamanda varoluşu ya da yaşamı anlamanın bir yoludur ve sadece hastalıklarla baş etmede kullanılmamalıdır. Bireylerin duyguları, düşünceleri ve yargıları zaman zaman yaşamlarına yön verebilmektedir. Yargılardan ya da negatif düşüncelerden arınmış bir yaşama ulaşmak mutlu ve huzurlu bir hayatı beraberinde getirecektir. Farkındalık temelli stres azaltma egzersizleri, şimdiki andan keyif almaya, zorluklarla, stresle ve hastalıklarla baş etmeye ve olumsuz yaşam deneyimlerinin nedenini sorgulamak yerine onları olduğu gibi kabul etmeye yardımcı olabilir. Kabat-Zin ve arkadaşları yaklaşık 20 yıl önce dünya genelinde yaygın bir şekilde kullanılmaya başlanan Farkındalık Temelli Stres Azaltma Programı’nın temellerini atmıştır. Günlük yaşam aktivitelerini (yeme, içme, yürüme, yemek yapma gibi), yoga, beden tarama ve meditasyon egzersizlerini kapsayan bu 8 haftalık program, içinde bulunulan ana karşı ilgi, açıklık ve kabul davranışları ile yerine getirmeyi gerektirmektedir. Bu yazıda Farkındalık Temelli Stres Azaltma Programı hakkında bilgi vermek ve önemini vurgulamak amaçlanmıştır.

References

  • Arch JJ, Ayers CR, Baker A, Almklov E, Dean SJ (2013) Randomized clinical trial of adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction versus group cognitive behavioral therapy for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Behav Res Ther, 51:185-196.
  • Astin JA (1997) Stress reduction through mindfulness meditation: Effects on psychological symptomology, sense of control, and spiritual experiences. Psychother Psychosom, 66:97-106.
  • Baer RA (2003) Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10:125-143.
  • Baysal NZ, Demirbaş B (2012) Sınıf öğretmenliği adaylarının bilinçli farkındalıkları ile yansıtıcı düşünme eğilimleri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. Eğitim ve Öğretim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1:12-20.
  • Crane RS, Kuyken W, Williams JM, Hastings RP, Cooper L, Fennell MJ (2012) Competence in teaching mindfulness-based courses: concepts, development and assessment. Mindfulness, 3:76-84.
  • Cohen-Katz J, Wiley S, CapuanoT, Baker DM, ShapiroS (2005) The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on nurse stress and burnout. Holist Nurs Pract, 19:26-35.
  • Çatak PD, Ögel K (2010) Farkındalık temelli terapiler ve terapötik süreçler. Klinik Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13:85-91.
  • Davidson RJ, Kabat-Zinn J, Schumacher J, Rosenkranz M, Muller D, Santorelli S et al. (2003) Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosom Med, 65:564-570.
  • Duncan LG, Bardacke L (2010) Mindfulness-based childbirth and parenting education: promoting family mindfulness during the perinatal period. J Child Fam Stud, 19:190-202.
  • Duncan LG, Coatsworth JD, Greenberg MT (2009) A model of mindful parenting: Implications for parent–child relationships and prevention research. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev, 12:255–270.
  • Gross CR, Kreitzer MJ, Thomas W, Reilly-Spong M, Cramer-Bornemann M, Nyman JA et al. (2010) Mindfulness-based stress reduction for solid organ transplant recipients: a randomized controlled trial. Altern Ther Health Med, 16(5):30-38.
  • Grossman P, Niemann L, Schmidt S, Walach H (2004) Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: a meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res, 57:35-43.
  • Hogue CJ, Bremner JD (2005) Stress model for research into preterm delivery among black women. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 192(5 Suppl):47-55.
  • Kabat-Zinn J, Massion AO, Kristeller J, Peterson LG, Fletcher KE, Pbert L et al. (1992) Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry, 149:936-943.
  • Kabat-Zinn J (2009) Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness, New York, Bantam Dell Publishing.
  • Kabat-Zinn J (2003) Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice,10:144-156.
  • Kemper K, Bulla S, Krueger D, Ott MJ, McCool JA, Gardiner P (2011) Nurses’ experiences, expectations, and preferences for mind- body practices to reduce stress. BMC Complement Altern Med, 11:26.
  • Klainin-Yobas P, Cho MA, Creedy D (2012) Efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions on depressive symptoms among people with mental disorders: a meta-analysis. Int J Nurs Stud, 49:109-121.
  • Kreitzer MJ (2012) Spirituality and well-being: Focusing on what matters. West J Nurs Res, 34:707-711.
  • Kristofersson GK (2012) The effects of a mindfulness based intervention on impulsivity, symptoms of depression, anxiety, experiences and quality of life of persons suffering from substance use disorders and traumatic brain injury (Doctoral thesis). Minnesota, University of Minnesota.
  • Lupien SJ, McEwen BS, Gunnar MR, Heim C (2009) Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci, 10:434-445.
  • Mackenzie CS, Poulin PA, Seidman-Carlson R (2006) A brief mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention for nurses and nurse aides. Appl Nurs Res, 19:105-109.
  • Matchim Y, Armer JM, Stewart BR (2011) Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on health among breast cancer survivors. West J Nurs Res, 33:996-1016.
  • Miller JJ, Fletcher K, Kabat-Zinn J (1994) Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Gen Hosp Psychiatry, 17:192-200.
  • National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). http://nccam.nih.gov/ (16 Şubat 2013’te ulaşıldı).
  • Ögel K, Sarp N, Gürol DT, Ermağan E (2014) Bağımlı olan ve olmayan bireylerde farkındalık (mindfulness) ve farkındalığı etkileyen etkenlerin incelenmesi. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 15:282-288.
  • Praisman S (2008) Mindfulness-based stress reduction: A literature review and clinician’s guide. J Am Acad Nurse Pract, 20:212- 216.
  • Raingruber R (2007) The effectiveness of Tai Chi, Yoga, Meditation, and Reiki healing sessions in promoting health and enhancing problem solving abilities of registered nurses. Issues Ment Health Nurs, 28:1141-1155.
  • Rich-Edwards JW, Grizzard TA (2005) Psychosocial stress and neuroendocrine mechanisms in preterm delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 192(5 Suppl):30-35.
  • Roemer E (2002) Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive- behavioral models. Clin Psychol Sci Prac, 9:54-68.
  • Smith JE, Richardson J, Hoffman C, Pilkington K (2005) Mindfulness-based stress reduction as supportive therapy in cancer care: systematic review. J Adv Nurs, 52, 315-327.
  • Speca M, Carlson LE, Goodey E, Angen M (2000) A randomized, wait-list controlled trial: The effect of a mindfulness meditation- based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients. Psychosom Med, 62:613-622.
  • Tsang SC, Mok ES, Lam SC, Lee JK (2012) The benefit of mindfulness-based stress reduction to patients with terminal cancer. J Clin Nurs, 21:2690-2696.
  • Vlemincx E, Vigo D, Vansteenwegen D, Van den Bergh O, Van Diest I (2013) Do not worry, be mindful: Effects of induced worry and mindfulness on respiratory variability in a nonanxious population. Int J Psychophysiol, 87:147-151.
  • Whitebird RR, Kreitzer MJ, O'Connor PJ (2009) Mindfulness-based stress reduction and diabetes. Diabetes Spectr, 22:226-230.
  • Whitebird RR, Kreitzer MJ, Crain AL, Lewis BA, Hanson LR, Enstad CJ (2013) Mindfulness-based stress reduction for family caregivers: a randomized controlled trial. Gerontologist, 53:676-680.
  • Witek-Janusek L, Albuquerque K, Chroniak KR, Chroniak C, Durazo R, Mathews HL (2008) Effect of mindfulness based stress reduction on immune function, quality of life and coping in women newly diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Brain Behav Immun, 22:969-981.
  • Würtzen H, Dalton SO, Elsass P, Sumbundu AD, Steding-Jensen M, Karlsen RV, Andersen KK et al. (2012) Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression: Results of a randomised controlled trial among 336 Danish women treated for stage I–III breast cancer. Eur J Cancer, 49:1365-1373.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Review
Authors

Öznur Körükcü>


Kamile Kukulu This is me

Publication Date March 1, 2015
Acceptance Date
Published in Issue Year 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1

Cite

AMA Körükcü Ö. , Kukulu K. Beden-Zihin-Ruh Bütünlüğünü Korumaya Yönelik Bir Program: Farkındalık Temelli Stres Azaltma Programı. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry. 2015; 7(1): 68-80.

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