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Batılı Devletlerin Geri İtme Politikaları Karşısında Hukuk ve Uygulamada Mülteci

Year 2022, Volume 42, Issue 1, 0 - 0, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2022.42.1.927100

Abstract

Bu makale, bazı batılı devletlerin geri itme politikaları bağlamında uluslararası hukuk kapsamında mülteci tanımını ve geri göndermeme ilkesini yeniden gözden geçirmektedir. Son olaylar, bazı batılı devletlerin siyasi amaçlar için ulusun yerli halkının hak ve çıkarlarını gözeten bir yaklaşım kullanarak mültecileri geri ittiğini göstermiştir. Birçok durumda adı geçen batılı devletler, yasadışı eylemlerini haklı çıkarmak için mülteciler hakkında yanlış anlatılara atıfta bulunmuşlardır. Bu makale, uluslararası hukukun mülteci tanımını gün ışığına çıkararak, bu devletlerin mevcut yasal tanımları manipüle etme hedefinin hukuka aykırılığını ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu yönde, ilk olarak, makale uluslararası hukukta mültecinin ne olduğunu, yukarıda belirtilen yanlış anlatılardan bağımsızlaştırarak açıklamaktadır. Devam eden analiz, ikinci olarak, mültecilerin uluslararası hukuka göre geri itilmesinin yasadışı olduğunu ve bu durumun geri göndermeme ilkesiyle çeliştiğini tespit etmektedir. Devletlerin geri itme kapsamında hukuka aykırı eylemlerinin bastırılmasına yönelik olası çözümler makale kapsamında ayrıca ele alınacaktır. Nihayetinde, makale sonuç olarak, devletlerin mültecilerin haklarını görmezden gelerek, yasal boşluklar yaratma yollarını bulabileceğine işaret eder. Ancak, makale -her yabancının sığınma hakkı olduğundan emin olunması için- devletlerin geri itme politikalarını devre dışı bırakacak çözümlerde ısrar edilmesinin önemli olduğu hususunun da altını çizmektedir.

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The Refugee in Law and Practice: In the Face of Western States’ Pushback Policies

Year 2022, Volume 42, Issue 1, 0 - 0, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2022.42.1.927100

Abstract

The present Article revisits the refugee definition and the non-refoulement principle in the context of some western states’ pushback policies under international law. Recent incidents have shown that some western states have pushed back refugees by employing a nativist approach for political ends. In addition, mentioned western states in many situations have made references to produced false narratives about refugees to justify their illicit actions. By bringing the refugee definition of international law to light, this Article aims to set forth the illegality of these states’ goal of manipulating the existing legal definitions. To this end, the Article first explains what a refugee is in international law, freeing it from the above-mentioned false narratives. Second, the analysis establishes the illegality of refugees’ pushback under international law, which contradicts the non-refoulement principle. Furthermore, potential solutions to suppress the states’ illegal actions within the scope of pushbacks will be discussed separately by this Article. Finally, to conclude, the Article points that states find ways to create legal loopholes by ignoring the recognized rights of refugees. But it also underlines that being determined to find solutions that will deactivate pushback policies is essential to ensure that every alien has the right to seek asylum.

References

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  • Aviv R, ‘The Trauma of Facing Deportation’ (The New Yorker, 27 March 2017) <https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/04/03/the-trauma-of-facing-deportation> accessed 2 December 2020.
  • Allain J, ‘The Jus Cogens Nature of Non-Refoulement’ (2001) 13 International Journal of Refugee Law.
  • Agence France Presse, ‘Refugees Cannot Be Returned to Greece, German Court Rules’ (AFP News, 26 January 2021) <https://www.barrons.com/news/refugees-cannot-be-returned-to-greece-german-court-rules-01611669604?tesla=y> accessed 7 April 2021.
  • Amro A, ‘"We Refugees” – an essay by Hannah Arendt’ (amroali, 25 April 2017) <https://Amroali.Com/2017/04/Refugees-Essay-Hannah-Arendt/> accessed 4 January 2021.
  • Arendt H, The Rights of Man; What Are They? (American Labor Conference on International Affairs 1949) <https://books.google.com.tr/books?id=VZ62swEACAAJ>.
  • Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization (AALCO), ‘Bangkok Principles on the Status and Treatment of Refugees (Bangkok Principles)’, (UNHCR, 31 December 1966) <https://www.refworld.org/docid/3de5f2d52.html> accessed 8 April 2021.
  • Al Jazeera, ‘EU Refuses to Approve Frontex’s Budget over Human Rights Concerns’ (Al Jazeera, 23 March 2021) <https://www.aljazeera.com/economy/2021/3/23/eu-refuses-to-sign-off-on-frontex-budget-over-human-rights-issues> accessed 7 April 2021.
  • Balibar E, We, The People of Europe? Reflections on Transnational Citizenship (Princeton University Press 2004).
  • BBC News, ‘Australia Court Rules Out Refugee “swap” with Malaysia’ (BBC News, 31 August 2011) <https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-14727471> accessed 1 April 2021.
  • Bhargava S and Mukhopadhyay S, ‘The Quest for Gender Based Asylum: Exploring “Women” as a Particular Social Group’ (Intlawgrrls Voices on International Law, Policy, Practice, 13 August 2020) <https://ilg2.org/2020/08/13/the-quest-for-gender-based-asylum-exploring-women-as-a-particular-social-group/> accessed 10 March 2021.
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  • Cohen A, ‘The Aims of The International Refugee Organization as Regards Legal and Political Protection’ (Speech at IRO and Voluntary Organizations Conference, Geneva 18–21 January 1949), Wiener Library, London, Its Digital Archive, 6.1.1/82509659#1, accessed 6 April 2021.
  • Carastathis A and Tsilimpounidi M, Reproducing Refugees: Photographia of a Crisis (Rowman & Littlefield International Ltd 2020).
  • Chatty D, ‘Has the Tide Turned? Refuge and Sanctuary in the Euro-Mediterranean Space’ (Revistaidees.cat, Borders, Migrations, Asylum and Refuge, 6 October 2011) <https://revistaidees.cat/en/has-the-tide-turned-refuge-and-sanctuary-in-the-euro-mediterranean-space/> accessed 6 April 2021.
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  • Dummett M, On Migration and Refugees (Routledge 2001).
  • David Leonhardt, ‘Truth, fiction, and Lou Dobbs’ (The New York Times, 30 May 2007) https://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/30/business/30leonhardt.html> accessed 6 April 2021.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Law
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Ekin Deniz UZUN (Primary Author)
ANKARA YILDIRIM BEYAZIT UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-9757-0223
Türkiye

Publication Date June 30, 2022
Application Date April 24, 2021
Acceptance Date January 19, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 42, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { ppil927100, journal = {Public and Private International Law Bulletin}, issn = {2651-5377}, eissn = {2667-4114}, address = {}, publisher = {Istanbul University}, year = {2022}, volume = {42}, pages = {0 - 0}, doi = {10.26650/ppil.2022.42.1.927100}, title = {The Refugee in Law and Practice: In the Face of Western States’ Pushback Policies}, key = {cite}, author = {Uzun, Ekin Deniz} }
APA Uzun, E. D. (2022). The Refugee in Law and Practice: In the Face of Western States’ Pushback Policies . Public and Private International Law Bulletin , 42 (1) , 0-0 . DOI: 10.26650/ppil.2022.42.1.927100
MLA Uzun, E. D. "The Refugee in Law and Practice: In the Face of Western States’ Pushback Policies" . Public and Private International Law Bulletin 42 (2022 ): 0-0 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ppil/issue/67916/927100>
Chicago Uzun, E. D. "The Refugee in Law and Practice: In the Face of Western States’ Pushback Policies". Public and Private International Law Bulletin 42 (2022 ): 0-0
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Refugee in Law and Practice: In the Face of Western States’ Pushback Policies AU - Ekin Deniz Uzun Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.26650/ppil.2022.42.1.927100 DO - 10.26650/ppil.2022.42.1.927100 T2 - Public and Private International Law Bulletin JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 0 EP - 0 VL - 42 IS - 1 SN - 2651-5377-2667-4114 M3 - doi: 10.26650/ppil.2022.42.1.927100 UR - https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2022.42.1.927100 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Public and Private International Law Bulletin The Refugee in Law and Practice: In the Face of Western States’ Pushback Policies %A Ekin Deniz Uzun %T The Refugee in Law and Practice: In the Face of Western States’ Pushback Policies %D 2022 %J Public and Private International Law Bulletin %P 2651-5377-2667-4114 %V 42 %N 1 %R doi: 10.26650/ppil.2022.42.1.927100 %U 10.26650/ppil.2022.42.1.927100
ISNAD Uzun, Ekin Deniz . "The Refugee in Law and Practice: In the Face of Western States’ Pushback Policies". Public and Private International Law Bulletin 42 / 1 (June 2022): 0-0 . https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2022.42.1.927100
AMA Uzun E. D. The Refugee in Law and Practice: In the Face of Western States’ Pushback Policies. PPIL. 2022; 42(1): 0-0.
Vancouver Uzun E. D. The Refugee in Law and Practice: In the Face of Western States’ Pushback Policies. Public and Private International Law Bulletin. 2022; 42(1): 0-0.
IEEE E. D. Uzun , "The Refugee in Law and Practice: In the Face of Western States’ Pushback Policies", Public and Private International Law Bulletin, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 0-0, Jun. 2022, doi:10.26650/ppil.2022.42.1.927100